Korean Journal of Radiology

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ISSN / EISSN : 1229-6929 / 2005-8330
Total articles ≅ 2,253
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Il Heon Ha, , Yeahoon Kim, , ,
Korean Journal of Radiology, Volume 22, pp 1152-1162; https://doi.org/10.3348/kjr.2020.0816

This study aimed to determine whether there are regional differences in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability of cognitively normal elderly participants and to identify factors influencing BBB permeability with a clinically feasible, 10-minute dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI protocol. This IRB-approved prospective study recruited 35 cognitively normal adults (26 women; mean age, 64.5 ± 5.6 years) who underwent DCE T1-weighted imaging. Permeability maps (Ktrans) were coregistered with masks to calculate the mean regional values. The paired t test and Friedman test were used to compare Ktrans between different regions. The relationships between Ktrans and the factors of age, sex, education, cognition score, vascular risk burden, vascular factors on imaging, and medial temporal lobar atrophy were assessed using Pearson correlation and the Spearman rank test. The mean permeability rates of the right and left hippocampi, as assessed with automatic segmentation, were 0.529 ± 0.472 and 0.585 ± 0.515 (Ktrans, × 10−3 min−1), respectively. Concerning the deep gray matter, the Ktrans of the thalamus was significantly greater than those of the putamen and hippocampus (p = 0.007, p = 0.041). Regarding the white matter, the Ktrans value of the occipital white matter was significantly greater than those of the frontal, cingulate, and temporal white matter (p < 0.0001, p = 0.0007, p = 0.0002). The variations in Ktrans across brain regions were not related to age, cognitive score, vascular risk burden, vascular risk factors on imaging, or medial temporal lobar atrophy in the study group. Our study demonstrated regional differences in BBB permeability (Ktrans) in cognitively normal elderly adults using a clinically acceptable 10-minutes DCE imaging protocol. The regional differences suggest that the integrity of the BBB varies across the brains of cognitively normal elderly adults. We recommend considering regional differences in Ktrans values when evaluating BBB permeability in patients with neurodegenerative diseases.
Seo Young Park, , ,
Korean Journal of Radiology, Volume 22; https://doi.org/10.3348/kjr.2021.0223

The recent introduction of various high-dimensional modeling methods, such as radiomics and deep learning, has created a much greater diversity in modeling approaches for survival prediction (or, more generally, time-to-event prediction). The newness of the recent modeling approaches and unfamiliarity with the model outputs may confuse some researchers and practitioners about the evaluation of the performance of such models. Methodological literacy to critically appraise the performance evaluation of the models and, ideally, the ability to conduct such an evaluation would be needed for those who want to develop models or apply them in practice. This article intends to provide intuitive, conceptual, and practical explanations of the statistical methods for evaluating the performance of survival prediction models with minimal usage of mathematical descriptions. It covers from conventional to deep learning methods, and emphasis has been placed on recent modeling approaches. This review article includes straightforward explanations of C indices (Harrell's C index, etc.), time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, calibration plot, other methods for evaluating the calibration performance, and Brier score.
Korean Journal of Radiology, Volume 22; https://doi.org/10.3348/kjr.2021.0155

To describe the anatomic locations and imaging features of posterior lung herniation in unilateral pulmonary agenesis and aplasia, focusing on radiograph-CT/MRI correlation. A total of 10 patients (seven with pulmonary agenesis and three with pulmonary aplasia, male: female = 1:9, mean age 7.3 years, age range from 1 month to 20 years) were included. Chest radiographs (n = 9), CT (n = 9), and MRI (n = 1) were reviewed to assess the type of lung underdevelopment, presence of anterior and posterior lung herniation, bronchus origin, supplying artery, and draining vein of the herniated lung. Pulmonary agenesis/aplasia more commonly affected the left lung (n = 7) than the right lung (n = 3). Anterior lung herniation was observed in nine of the 10 patients. Posterior lung herniation was observed in seven patients with left pulmonary agenesis/aplasia. Two patients showed posterior lung herniation crossing the midline but not beyond the aorta, and five patients showed the posteriorly herniated right lower lobe crossing the midline to extend into the left hemithorax farther beyond the descending thoracic aorta through the space between the esophagus and the aorta. This anatomical configuration resulted in a characteristic radiographic finding of a radiolucent area with a convex lateral border and a vertical medial border in the left lower lung zone, revealing a tongue-like projection on CT and MRI. Posterior lung herniation occurs in unilateral left lung agenesis/aplasia. Approximately 70% of the cases of posterior lung herniation reveal a unique radiolucent tongue-like projection in the left lower lung zone on imaging studies, which is caused by the extension of the posteriorly herniated right lung farther beyond the descending aorta.
Tao Wu, Yan Ren, Wei Wang, Wei Cheng, Fangli Zhou, Shuai He, Xiumin Liu, Lei Li, Lu Tang, Qiao Deng, et al.
Korean Journal of Radiology, Volume 22; https://doi.org/10.3348/kjr.2020.1291

This study used cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to compare the characteristics of left ventricular remodeling in patients with primary aldosteronism (PA) with those of patients with essential hypertension (EH) and healthy controls (HCs). This prospective study enrolled 35 patients with PA, in addition to 35 age- and sex-matched patients with EH, and 35 age- and sex-matched HCs, all of whom underwent comprehensive clinical and cardiac MRI examinations. The analysis of variance was used to detect the differences in the characteristics of left ventricular remodeling among the three groups. Univariable and multivariable linear regression analyses were used to determine the relationships between left ventricular remodeling and the physiological variables. The left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (EDVi) (mean ± standard deviation [SD]: 85.1 ± 13.0 mL/m² for PA, 75.9 ± 14.3 mL/m² for EH, and 77.3 ± 12.8 mL/m² for HC; p = 0.010), left ventricular end-systolic volume index (ESVi) (mean ± SD: 35.2 ± 9.8 mL/m² for PA, 30.7 ± 8.1 mL/m² for EH, and 29.5 ± 7.0 mL/m² for HC; p = 0.013), left ventricular mass index (mean ± SD: 65.8 ± 16.5 g/m² for PA, 56.9 ± 12.1 g/m² for EH, and 44.1 ± 8.9 g/m² for HC; p < 0.001), and native T1 (mean ± SD: 1224 ± 39 ms for PA, 1201 ± 47 ms for EH, and 1200 ± 44 ms for HC; p = 0.041) values were higher in the PA group compared to the EH and HC groups. Multivariable linear regression demonstrated that log (plasma aldosterone-to-renin ratio) was independently correlated with EDVi and ESVi. Plasma aldosterone was independently correlated with native T1. Patients with PA showed a greater degree of ventricular hypertrophy and enlargement, as well as myocardial fibrosis, compared to those with EH. Cardiac MRI T1 mapping can detect left ventricular myocardial fibrosis in patients with PA.
Jin Wang Park, , Jong Eun Lee, Hyo-Jae Lee, So Yeon Ki, Byung Chan Lee, Hyoung Ook Kim, , , , et al.
Korean Journal of Radiology, Volume 22, pp 139-154; https://doi.org/10.3348/kjr.2019.0897

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a crucial tool for evaluating mediastinal masses considering that several lesions that appear indeterminate on computed tomography and radiography can be differentiated on MRI. Using a three-compartment model to localize the mass and employing a basic knowledge of MRI, radiologists can easily diagnose mediastinal masses. Here, we review the use of MRI in evaluating mediastinal masses and present the images of various mediastinal masses categorized using the International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group's three-compartment classification system. These masses include thymic hyperplasia, thymic cyst, pericardial cyst, thymoma, mediastinal hemangioma, lymphoma, mature teratoma, bronchogenic cyst, esophageal duplication cyst, mediastinal thyroid carcinoma originating from ectopic thyroid tissue, mediastinal liposarcoma, mediastinal pancreatic pseudocyst, neurogenic tumor, meningocele, and plasmacytoma.
Korean Journal of Radiology, Volume 22, pp 1077-1086; https://doi.org/10.3348/kjr.2020.1262

To investigate the diagnostic performance of quantitative ultrasound (US) parameters for the assessment of hepatic steatosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) using magnetic resonance imaging proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF) as the reference standard. In this single-center prospective study, 120 patients with clinically suspected NAFLD were enrolled between March 2019 and January 2020. The participants underwent US examination for radiofrequency (RF) data acquisition and chemical shift-encoded liver MRI for PDFF measurement. Using the RF data analysis, the attenuation coefficient (AC) based on tissue attenuation imaging (TAI) (AC-TAI) and scatter-distribution coefficient (SC) based on tissue scatter-distribution imaging (TSI) (SC-TSI) were measured. The correlations between the quantitative US parameters (AC and SC) and MRI-PDFF were evaluated using Pearson correlation coefficients. The diagnostic performance of AC-TAI and SC-TSI for detecting hepatic fat contents of ≥ 5% (MRI-PDFF ≥ 5%) and ≥ 10% (MRI-PDFF ≥ 10%) were assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The significant clinical or imaging factors associated with AC and SC were analyzed using linear regression analysis. The participants were classified based on MRI-PDFF: < 5% (n = 38), 5–10% (n = 23), and ≥ 10% (n = 59). AC-TAI and SC-TSI were significantly correlated with MRI-PDFF (r = 0.659 and 0.727, p < 0.001 for both). For detecting hepatic fat contents of ≥ 5% and ≥ 10%, the areas under the ROC curves of AC-TAI were 0.861 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.786–0.918) and 0.835 (95% CI: 0.757–0.897), and those of SC-TSI were 0.964 (95% CI: 0.913–0.989) and 0.935 (95% CI: 0.875–0.972), respectively. Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that MRI-PDFF was an independent determinant of AC-TAI and SC-TSI. AC-TAI and SC-TSI derived from quantitative US RF data analysis yielded a good correlation with MRI-PDFF and provided good performance for detecting hepatic steatosis and assessing its severity in NAFLD.
Guoliang Chen, , Jiachun Li, Liangyu Shi, Wei Zhang, Xianxiang Wang, Zuofeng Xu, , Xuenong Zou, Shaoyu Liu
Korean Journal of Radiology, Volume 22, pp 1163-1171; https://doi.org/10.3348/kjr.2020.0755

To analyze the correlations between intraoperative ultrasound and MRI metrics of the spinal cord in degenerative cervical myelopathy and identify novel potential predictive ultrasonic indicators of neurological recovery for degenerative cervical myelopathy. Twenty-two patients who underwent French-door laminoplasty for multilevel degenerative cervical myelopathy were followed up for 12 months. The Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scores were assessed preoperatively and 12 months postoperatively. Maximum spinal cord compression and compression rates were measured and calculated using both intraoperative ultrasound imaging and preoperative T2-weight (T2W) MRI. Signal change rates of the spinal cord on preoperative T2W MRI and gray value ratios of dorsal and ventral spinal cord hyperechogenicity on intraoperative ultrasound imaging were measured and calculated. Correlations between intraoperative ultrasound metrics, MRI metrics, and the recovery rate JOA scores were analyzed using Spearman correlation analysis. The postoperative JOA scores improved significantly, with a mean recovery rate of 65.0 ± 20.3% (p < 0.001). No significant correlations were found between the operative ultrasound metrics and MRI metrics. The gray value ratios of the spinal cord hyperechogenicity was negatively correlated with the recovery rate of JOA scores (ρ = −0.638, p = 0.001), while the ventral and dorsal gray value ratios of spinal cord hyperechogenicity were negatively correlated with the recovery rate of JOA-motor scores (ρ = −0.582, p = 0.004) and JOA-sensory scores (ρ = −0.452, p = 0.035), respectively. The dorsal gray value ratio was significantly higher than the ventral gray value ratio (p < 0.001), while the recovery rate of JOA-motor scores was better than that of JOA-sensory scores at 12 months post-surgery (p = 0.028). For degenerative cervical myelopathy, the correlations between intraoperative ultrasound and preoperative T2W MRI metrics were not significant. Gray value ratios of the spinal cord hyperechogenicity and dorsal and ventral spinal cord hyperechogenicity were significantly correlated with neurological recovery at 12 months postoperatively.
, Savvas Nicolaou
Korean Journal of Radiology, Volume 22, pp 86-96; https://doi.org/10.3348/kjr.2020.0144

CT is a diagnostic tool with many clinical applications. The CT voxel intensity is related to the magnitude of X-ray attenuation, which is not unique to a given material. Substances with different chemical compositions can be represented by similar voxel intensities, making the classification of different tissue types challenging. Compared to the conventional single-energy CT, spectral CT is an emerging technology offering superior material differentiation, which is achieved using the energy dependence of X-ray attenuation in any material. A specific form of spectral CT is dual-energy imaging, in which an additional X-ray attenuation measurement is obtained at a second X-ray energy. Dual-energy CT has been implemented in clinical settings with great success. This paper reviews the theoretical basis and practical implementation of spectral/dual-energy CT.
Huadong Chen, , Bing Liao, Qinghua Cao, Hong Jiang, Wenying Zhou, Guotao Wang,
Korean Journal of Radiology, Volume 22, pp 959-969; https://doi.org/10.3348/kjr.2020.0885

This study aimed to evaluate the role of preoperative two-dimensional (2D) shear wave elastography (SWE) in assessing the stages of liver fibrosis in patients with suspected biliary atresia (BA) and compared its diagnostic performance with those of serum fibrosis biomarkers. This study was approved by the ethical committee, and written informed parental consent was obtained. Two hundred and sixteen patients were prospectively enrolled between January 2012 and October 2018. The 2D SWE measurements of 69 patients have been previously reported. 2D SWE measurements, serum fibrosis biomarkers, including fibrotic markers and biochemical test results, and liver histology parameters were obtained. 2D SWE values, serum biomarkers including, aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRi), and other serum fibrotic markers were correlated with the stages of liver fibrosis by METAVIR. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and area under the ROC (AUROC) curve analyses were used. The correlation coefficient of 2D SWE value in correlation with the stages of liver fibrosis was 0.789 (p < 0.001). The cut-off values of 2D SWE were calculated as 9.1 kPa for F1, 11.6 kPa for F2, 13.0 kPa for F3, and 15.7 kPa for F4. The AUROCs of 2D SWE in the determination of the stages of liver fibrosis ranged from 0.869 to 0.941. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of 2D SWE in the diagnosis of ≥ F3 was 93.4% and 96.0%, respectively. The diagnostic performance of 2D SWE was superior to that of APRi and other serum fibrotic markers in predicting severe fibrosis and cirrhosis (all p < 0.005) and other serum biomarkers. Multivariate analysis showed that the 2D SWE value was the only statistically significant parameter for predicting liver fibrosis. 2D SWE is a more effective non-invasive tool for predicting the stage of liver fibrosis in patients with suspected BA, compared with serum fibrosis biomarkers.
Renuka Nair Kunju Krisnan,
Korean Journal of Radiology, Volume 22, pp 1005-1020; https://doi.org/10.3348/kjr.2020.0779

Breast augmentation is becoming more common, be it for cosmetic reasons or post-mastectomy. Multiple articles in the literature describe the imaging findings of various types of cosmetic breast augmentation. Some articles describe imaging findings for different types of post-mastectomy reconstructions. This essay aims to serve as a comprehensive reference for the multimodality imaging of various types of breast augmentations in native breast and post-mastectomy reconstructions. Familiarity with these findings will facilitate the detection of complications and new or recurrent breast malignancies in patients. With the extensive illustrations provided in this essay on normal and abnormal imaging findings of augmented breasts, readers will receive exposure that will facilitate effective practice.
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