Gates Open Research

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EISSN : 25724754
Current Publisher: F1000 Research, Ltd. (10.12688)
Total articles ≅ 230
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Published: 20 September 2019
Gates Open Research; doi:10.12688/gatesopenres

Niki O'brien, Ryan Li, Wanrudee Isaranuwatchai, Saudamini Vishwanath Dabak, Amanda Glassman, Anthony J. Culyer, Kalipso Chalkidou
Published: 20 September 2019
Gates Open Research, Volume 3; doi:10.12688/gatesopenres.13063.1

Abstract:The World Health Organization (WHO) resolution calling on Member States to work towards achieving universal health coverage (UHC) has increased the need for prioritizing health spending. Such need will soon accelerate as low- and middle-income countries transition from external aid. Countries will have to make difficult decisions on how best to integrate and finance previously donor-funded technologies and health services into their UHC packages in ways that are equitable, and operationally and financially sustainable. The International Decision Support Initiative (iDSI) is a global network of health, policy and economic expertise which supports countries in making better decisions about how best and how much to spend public money on healthcare. iDSI core partners include Center For Global Development, China National Health Development Research Center, Clinton Health Access Initiative, Health Intervention and Technology Assessment Program, Thailand / National Health Foundation, Imperial College London, Kenya Medical Research Institute, and the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. In May 2019, iDSI convened a roundtable entitled Why strengthening health systems to make better decisions is a Best Buy. The event brought together members of iDSI, development partners and other organizations working in the areas of evidence-informed priority-setting, resource allocation and purchasing. The roundtable participants identified key challenges and activities that could be undertaken by the broader health technology assessment (HTA) community to further country-led capacity building, as well to foster deeper collaboration between the community itself. HTA is a tool which can assist governments and development partners with evaluating alternative investment options in a defensible and accountable fashion. The definition and scope of HTA, and what it can achieve and support, can be presented more clearly and cohesively to stakeholders. Organizations engaging in HTA must develop deeper collaboration, and integrate existing collaborations, to ensure progress in developing HTA institutionalization globally is well organized and sustainable.
Girma Kassie, Bekele Tefera
Published: 19 September 2019
Gates Open Research, Volume 3; doi:10.12688/gatesopenres.12960.2

Abstract:Background: Community-based health insurance (CBHI) has been established in a number of developing countries to expand access to modern health care service. However, few studies have focused on health care utilization of CBHI members in Ethiopia. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of CBHI on modern family planning (FP) utilization as part of its routine outcome monitoring activities. Methods: The USAID Transform: Primary Health Care project, conducted a continuous monitoring follow up visit using a multistage sampling technique in its four major targeted regions. A total of 3433 households were selected and 3313 women of reproductive age (15-49 years) were interviewed. The questionnaire captured the CBHI status of each household and FP use data from randomly selected women. Microsoft Access database was used to enter the data, which was then transferred to SPSS Version 20 for further analysis. Results: 49% of women (aged 15-49 years) were found to be enrolled in CBHI scheme. Half of the women (50.2%) use any family planning method, of which 49% of them used modern family planning method in project-supported areas. Over half of women (57%) who are exposed to CBHI schemes utilized family planning method which is statistically significant Conclusions: Modern FP utilization among insured women was higher compared with uninsured women. While FP methods are provided for free, CBHI enrollment improves FP use among women of child-bearing age. Women who have access to CBHI may frequently visit health facilities seeking services for themselves and their families, during which they may be introduced to FP services. This in turn may improve their awareness and attitude towards FP. The results will increase awareness for program implementer's of the benefits of CBHI schemes in FP programming, particularly in rural settings, and provide an opportunity to increase lifelong returns in Ethiopia.
Khaing Nwe Tin, Jessica Williamson, Emily Sonneveldt
Published: 18 September 2019
Gates Open Research, Volume 3; doi:10.12688/gatesopenres.13012.1

Abstract:Background: Although Myanmar has made good progress in family planning by increased contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) from 41% in 2007 to 52.2% in 2016, it remains lower than the target of 60% by 2020. There are also huge disparities sub-nationally, ranging from 25% to 60%. While there is a strong need to monitor the progress of family planning program regularly at the national and sub-national level, Myanmar has limited surveys, data quality and methodological issues in its Health Management Information System (HMIS), and a scattered rollout of the Logistic Management Information System (LMIS). Methods: To identify viable options for annual monitoring, four data sources: modelled contraceptive prevalence rate for modern methods (mCPR) estimates from Track20’s Family Planning Estimation Tool (FPET); method-specific prevalence from the 2015-16 Myanmar Demographic and Health Survey (DHS); mCPR estimates and method prevalence from HMIS and estimates of modern method use (EMU) based on commodity consumption data from LMIS, were compared for the years 2015-2017. Estimates of mCPR from HMIS were tested for accuracy based on whether they fell within the 95% confidence interval of mCPR estimates from the FPET for the corresponding years. EMU from LMIS was also tested for those years and states/regions where available. Results: For annual tracking of mCPR, direct estimates of HMIS were considered carefully, as they were much higher than those of the DHS survey and were not matched by FPET results, except in Chin and Kayin. To monitor the method mix, HMIS data can be used as these are similar pattern with DHS in both national and State/Regional level except Chin and Kayin. LMIS could be used in annual tracking when there are high reporting rates and valid information of consumption. Conclusions: Track20’s FPET is the method of choice to get valid information for annual monitoring of family planning program.
Manish Gehani, Manoj Pal, Anupama Arya, Shobhana Singh, Kaushik S., Kathryn A. O’Connell, Levent Cagatay, Sumon Sengupta, Sunita Singal
Published: 17 September 2019
Gates Open Research, Volume 3; doi:10.12688/gatesopenres.12997.2

Abstract:Background: For accelerating its progress towards FP2020 goals, the Government of India has focused on improving the quality of intrauterine device (IUD) services. EngenderHealth has supported the Governments of Rajasthan and Gujarat since 2014 through its Expanding Access to IUD Services in India (EAISI) project by building the capacity of service providers, monitoring their compliance with standard practices, and strengthening health systems. This study sought to assess whether EAISI trained providers provide a better quality of IUD services as compared to non-EAISI trained providers, as indicated by a reduction in confirmed IUD complications? Methods: This study was an analytical cross-sectional study of secondary data collected from the follow-up registers of 176 intervention facilities (138 in Rajasthan and 38 in Gujarat) during Phase I of EAISI project. The analysis included clients who returned between April 2018 and March 2019 to the same facility for a follow-up visit. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine factors associated with IUD complications. Results: A total of 56,733 IUD insertions were conducted, and 10,747 (18.9%) client follow-ups were documented. Of these, 49.4% (N=5,305) clients received IUDs from EAISI-trained providers, while 50.6% (N=5,442) received IUDs from non-EAISI trained providers. A total of 4.0% (N=432) of clients experienced complications (Expulsion: 1.3%, Missing Strings: 1.7%, Infection: 1.1%). Clients who received IUDs from non-EAISI-trained providers were 55.5% more likely [95% CI (26.2%, 91.5%), p Conclusion: The findings demonstrate that intensive, hands-on training of providers to improve clinical skills for IUD insertions can have a positive impact on the reduction of post-insertion complications.
Ross M. Boyce, Paul Delamater, Rabbison Muhindo, Michael Matte, Moses Ntaro, Robert Verity, Edgar Mulogo
Published: 17 September 2019
Gates Open Research, Volume 3; doi:10.12688/gatesopenres.13066.1

Abstract:Immunization rates in most sub-Saharan African countries fall far below stated targets. Measuring access in resource-limited settings, however, is challenging, especially with the data available at the district level, which is the primary administrative division for most immunization programs. Despite calls to improve routine data collection and use, there remains a lack of structured methods and practical tools to target underserved populations. Herein, we describe a prospective study that aims to develop, pilot, and validate a set of user-friendly tools to identify geographic areas with limited access to immunization services and by extension, low immunization coverage. The approach will leverage routinely-collected data from public health facilities combined with novel methods of household mapping to perform spatial analyses using open-access platforms. In addition, we will triangulate the analyses across datasets representing common reasons for care seeking – namely, visits for vaccination, antenatal care, and malaria – to improve the accuracy of our estimates. The ultimate goal of this project is to equip front-line providers and district level program managers with novel tools that facilitate timely and accurate analysis of routinely-collected data to guide immunization efforts.
James F. Phillips, Elizabeth F. Jackson, Ayaga A. Bawah, Patrick O. Asuming, John Koku Awoonor-Williams
Published: 13 September 2019
Gates Open Research, Volume 3; doi:10.12688/gatesopenres.12993.1

Abstract:Background: When a successful Navrongo Health Research Centre service experiment demonstrated means for reducing high fertility and childhood mortality in a traditional societal setting of northern Ghana, the Ministry of Health launched a program of national scaling up known as the Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) initiative. For two decades, CHPS has been Ghana’s flagship program for achieving universal health coverage (UHC). When monitoring during its first decade determined that the pace of CHPS scale-up was unacceptably slow, the Ghana Health Service launched the Ghana Essential Health Interventions Program (GEHIP) in four Upper East Region districts to test means of accelerating to CHPS implementation and improving its quality of care. Methods: To evaluate GEHIP, a two-round randomized sample survey was fielded with clusters sampled at baseline that were reused in the endline to facilitate difference-in-difference estimation of changes in fertility associated with GEHIP exposure. Monitoring operations assessed the location, timing, and content of CHPS primary health care. Discrete time hazard regression analysis on merged baseline and endline birth history data permit estimation of GEHIP fertility and CHPS access effects, adjusting for hospital and clinical service access and household social and economic confounders. Results: GEHIP exposure was associated with an immediate acceleration of CHPS implementation and coverage. Women residing in households with CHPS services had only slightly lower fertility than women who lacked convenient access to CHPS. GEHIP impact on contraceptive use was statistically significant but marginal; GEHIP exposure was associated with increasing unmet need. Conclusion: Results challenge the assumption that achieving UHC will reduce excess fertility. Social mobilization, community-outreach, connection of family planning discussions with male social networks are elements of the Navrongo success story that have atrophied with CHPS scale-up. Achieving UHC does not address the need for renewed attention to these family planning focused strategies.
NTD Modelling Consortium Lymphatic Filariasis Group
Published: 13 September 2019
Gates Open Research, Volume 3; doi:10.12688/gatesopenres.13065.1

Abstract:The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis was launched in 2000 to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF) as a public health problem by 1) interrupting transmission through mass drug administration (MDA) and 2) offering basic care to those suffering from lymphoedema or hydrocele due to the infection. Although impressive progress has been made, the initial target year of 2020 will not be met everywhere. The World Health Organization recently proposed 2030 as the new target year for elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF) as a public health problem. In this letter, LF modelers of the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) Modelling Consortium reflect on the proposed targets for 2030 from a quantitative perspective. While elimination as a public health problem seems technically and operationally feasible, it is uncertain whether this will eventually also lead to complete elimination of transmission. The risk of resurgence needs to be mitigated by strong surveillance after stopping interventions and sometimes perhaps additional interventions.
Drew Bernard, Chris McCullough, Sarah Francis, Avery Holton, Nadia Diamond-Smith
Published: 12 September 2019
Gates Open Research, Volume 3; doi:10.12688/gatesopenres.13047.1

Abstract:As the media landscape changes and billions of people around the world turn to Facebook, Instagram, WhatsApp, and other social media platforms for information and social interactions, the need to develop effective methods of leveraging social media for social behavior change communication (SBCC) becomes increasingly important. Yet, in order for the public health sector to embrace social media for SBCC, we must have methods for measuring the impact of social media-based SBCC. In this letter, we share a new approach for measurement and evaluation of social media-based SBCC campaigns. The approach was developed as part of an iron-folic acid health intervention targeting young women in two states in northern India; Uttar Pradesh and Maydar Pradesh.
Brian Wong, Sara Grundy, Lhab Tshering, Kinley Tshering, Farrah J. Mateen
Published: 11 September 2019
Gates Open Research, Volume 3; doi:10.12688/gatesopenres.13037.2

Abstract:Background: Developmental screening tools are designed to fit the cultural context in which they are utilized, yet often find a wider international audience. This study evaluates the efficacy of one such tool, the Parental Evaluation of Developmental Status: Developmental Milestones (PEDS:DM), developed in the United States and tested in the lower income Asian country of Bhutan. We aimed to test the PEDS:DM instrument to measure neurodevelopmental delay in children in Bhutan. Methods: In total, 96 community-dwelling Bhutanese children (3-7 years old) without diagnosed neurocognitive conditions were recruited from ambulatory clinics in urban Bhutan in 2016 as part of a larger study on retinal imaging and cognitive and growth parameters. Scoring was based on neurocognitive domains (gross and fine motor, receptive and expressive speech, self-help, social-emotional). Rates of failure (meant to indicate delay) within domains were calculated. Results: Modifications of some standard questions were deemed necessary by the study staff to suit the cultural context, such as replacing kickball with football in a question regarding games played with rules to maintain local relevance. In a modified PEDS:DM test with these improvised modifications, the mean percentage of age-appropriate domains failed was 58.8% and the mean percent delay was 12.3% (range 0-41.4%, available in n=83). The highest prevalence of failures was 59.4% for receptive language and 76.3% for expressive language, much higher than the lowest rate of failure seen in self-help (5.4%). Conclusions: The PEDS:DM requires further modifications and validation studies before it can be reliably implemented to assess developmental delay in children in Bhutan. In this pilot study, the rate of delay as reported by the PEDS:DM would be scored as markedly elevated, especially when compared to available epidemiologic studies in the region.