Open Journal of Composite Materials

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2164-5612 / 2164-5655
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 164
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Rajashekar Reddy Palle, Jens Schuster, Yousuf Pasha Shaik, Monis Kazmi
Open Journal of Composite Materials, Volume 12, pp 16-29; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojcm.2022.121002

Abstract:
Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymeric (GFRP) Composites are most commonly used as bumpers for vehicles, electrical equipment panels, and medical devices enclosures. These materials are also widely used for structural applications in aerospace, automotive, and in providing alternatives to traditional metallic materials. The paper fabricated epoxy and polyester resin composites by using silicon carbide in various proportions along with GFRP. The hand lay-up technique was used to fabricate the laminates. To determine the properties of fabricated composites, the tensile, impact, and flexural tests were conducted. This method of fabrication was very simple and cost-effective. Their mechanical properties like yield strength, yield strain, Young’s modulus, flexural modulus, and impact energy were investigated. The mechanical properties of the GFRP composites were also compared with the fiber volume fraction. The fiber volume fraction plays a major role in the mechanical properties of GFRP composites. Young’s modulus and tensile strength of fabricated composites were modelled and compared with measured values. The results show that composites with epoxy resin demonstrate higher strength and modulus compared to composites with polyester resin.
Hideo Sawada, Koki Arakawa, Yuta Aomi
Open Journal of Composite Materials, Volume 12, pp 41-55; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojcm.2022.121004

Abstract:
Fluoroalkyl end-capped vinyltrimethoxysilane-N,N-dimethylacrylamide cooligomer [RF-(CH2-CHSi(OMe)3)x-(CH2-CHC(=O)NMe2)y-RF; RF = CF(CF3)OC3F7: RF-(VM)x-(DMAA)y-RF] was synthesized by reaction of fluoroalkanoyl peroxide [RF-C(=O)O-O(O=)C-RF] with vinyltrimethoxysilane (VM) and N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMAA). The modified glass surface treated with the cooligomeric nanoparticles [RF-(VM-SiO3/2)x-(DMAA)y-RF] prepared under the sol-gel reaction of the cooligomer under alkaline conditions was found to exhibit an oleophobic/superhydrophilic property, although the corresponding fluorinated homooligomeric nanoparticles [RF-(VM-SiO3/2)n-RF] afforded an oleophobic/hydrophobic property on the modified surface under similar conditions. RF-(VM-SiO3/2)n-RF/RF-(VM-SiO3/2)x-(DMAA)y-RF/PSt (micro-sized polystyrene particles) composites, which were prepared by the sol-gel reactions of the corresponding homooligomer and cooligomer in the presence of PSt particle under alkaline conditions, provided an oleophobic/superhydrophilic property on the modified surface. However, it was demonstrated that the surface wettability on the modified surface treated with the RF-(VM-SiO3/2)n-RF/RF-(VM-SiO3/2)x-(DMAA)y-RF/PSt composites changes dramatically from oleophobic/superhydrophilic to superoleophilic/superhydrophilic and superoleophilic/superhydrophobic characteristics, increasing with greater feed ratios (mg/mg) of the RF-(VM)n-RF homooligomer in homooligomer/cooligomer from 0 to 100 in the preparation of the composites. Such controlled surfac
Obaidur Rahman, Feichao Zhu, Bin Yu
Open Journal of Composite Materials, Volume 12, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojcm.2022.121001

Abstract:
Poly (Lactic Acid) (PLA) is a biodegradable polymer which originates from natural resources such as corn and starch, offering excellent strength, biodegradability, nevertheless its inherent brittleness and low impact resistance properties have limited its application. On the other hand, Thermoplastic Polyurethane (TPU) has high toughness, durability and flexibility, which is one of the most potential alternatives for enhancing the flexibility and mechanical strength of Poly (Lactic Acid) (PLA) by blending it with a compatibilizer. With the aim to improve the mechanical and thermal properties of Poly (Lactic Acid) (PLA) meltblown nonwovens, The Thermoplastic Polyurethane (TPU) was melt blended with Poly (Lactic Acid) (PLA) at the different corresponding proportions for toughening the Poly (Lactic Acid) and the corresponding PLA/TPU MBs (meltblown nonwovens) were also manufactured. Joncryl ADR 4400 is mixed into the PLA matrix during processing. It was found that Joncryl had a much higher chain extension that substantially increased the molecular weight of the PLA matrix. SEM study revealed that Joncryl ADR 4400 is a good compatibilizer. Moreover, in this study, the crystallization, thermal and rheological behaviors of the corresponding PLA and TPU blends were also investigated. PLA/TPU MBs were also characterized by morphology and mechanical properties. The rheological property of the PLA/TPU meltblown nonwoven revealed that the viscosity is increasing as the amount of TPU is increasing in the blend, PLA/TPU meltblown nonwovens exhibited excellent mechanical properties; they are soft, elastic, and have certain tensile strength. New materials have potential applications in the medical and agricultural fields. Joncryl ADR 4400 compatibilized blends showed higher strength than simple PLA/TPU blends at the same PLA/TPU ratio.
Durand Hermann Ohouo, Conand Honoré Kouakou, Moro Olivier Boffoue, Edjikémé Eméruwa, Brahiman Traoré
Open Journal of Composite Materials, Volume 12, pp 30-40; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojcm.2022.121003

Abstract:
Natural rubber latex is the white liquid in the form of the colloidal dispersion of rubber globules suspended in the aqueous liquid. Produced in large quantities in Ivory Coast, the local transformation of natural latex has so far remained insignificant, although some attempts have been made to use it in the manufacture of flexible facade briquettes for rounded walls. Thus, this study aims to incorporate clay as a filler in natural latex for use as an adhesive for tile installation. To do this, different proportions of clay paste were added to the natural latex and the resulting mixtures were used to make the sample and tile adhesive. From the analysis of the results obtained, it appears that the samples with a clay paste density of 0.8 and 1 absorb less water and shows good pull-out strength. The mixtures of 30% and 35% latex and 0.8 and 1 clay paste density respectively have pullout stresses greater than 1 N/mm2. According to NF EN 1348, these adhesives can therefore be used as tile adhesive.
Bryn Crawford, Hamid Khayyam, Abbas S. Milani
Open Journal of Composite Materials, Volume 11, pp 31-45; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojcm.2021.112004

Abstract:
The manufacturing of composite structures is a highly complex task with inevitable risks, particularly associated with aleatoric and epistemic uncertainty of both the materials and processes, as well as the need for in-situ decision-making to mitigate defects during manufacturing. In the context of aerospace composites production in particular, there is a heightened impetus to address and reduce this risk. Current qualification and substantiation frameworks within the aerospace industry define tractable methods for risk reduction. In parallel, Industry 4.0 is an emerging set of technologies and tools that can enable better decision-making towards risk reduction, supported by data-driven models. It offers new paradigms for manufacturers, by virtue of enabling in-situ decisions for optimizing the process as a dynamic system. However, the static nature of current (pre-Industry 4.0) best-practice frameworks may be viewed as at odds with this emerging novel approach. In addition, many of the predictive tools leveraged in an Industry 4.0 system are black-box in nature, which presents other concerns of tractability, interpretability and ultimately risk. This article presents a perspective on the current state-of-the-art in the aerospace composites industry focusing on risk reduction in the autoclave processing, as an example system, while reviewing current trends and needs towards a Composites 4.0 future.
Takashi Iyasu, Motoki Kuratani, Itaru Ikeda, Noriyuki Tanaka, Yutaka Yamada, Osamu Sakurada
Open Journal of Composite Materials, Volume 11, pp 12-22; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojcm.2021.111002

Abstract:
It has been reported that pitting corrosion in copper tubes occurs due to the effect of a carbon film produced by the influence of undergoing an oil and heat treatment. As a quantitative method for determining the residual carbon amount, it has been reported that the inner surface of a copper tube can be dissolved with a mixed acid to collect and analyze the adhering carbon; however, this method is dangerous and difficult. Therefore, two methods were examined as a simple quantitative method for obtaining the residual carbon amount using copper tubes with known residual carbon amounts. One method utilizes X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the other method utilizes the potential difference between the carbon film-adhered surface and carbon film-removed surface. In regard to XPS measurement, a linear correlation was found between the spectral intensity of C and the residual carbon amount; therefore, XPS measurements were considered to be effective as a simple measurement method for the carbon film on the inner surface of a copper tube. In the evaluation method by measuring the corrosion potential, a correlation was observed between the potential difference ΔE and the residual carbon amount of the inner surface of the tube and the outer surface of the polished tube. It is considered possible to estimate the residual carbon amount from the prepared calibration curve. Through these studies, it is suggested that the carbon film was non-uniformly present on the surface of the copper tube. Therefore, the galvanic current was measured, and the effect of a non-uniform carbon film on corrosion behavior was investigated. As a result, in the measurement of galvanic current, the current flowed from the copper tube with a large amount of residual carbon (cathode) to the copper tube with a small amount of residual carbon (anode). In addition, the higher the area ratio of the carbon film was, the larger the galvanic current tended to be.
Mwambe Polline, James M. Mutua, Thomas Ochuku Mbuya, Kyekyere Ernest
Open Journal of Composite Materials, Volume 11, pp 47-61; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojcm.2021.113005

Abstract:
Recycled polypropylene filaments for fused filament fabrication were investigated with and without 14 wt% short fibre carbon reinforcements. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the filaments and 3D printed specimens were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and standard tensile testing. It was observed that recycled polypropylene filaments with 14 wt% short carbon fibre reinforcement contained pores that were dispersed throughout the microstructure of the filament. A two-stage filament extrusion process was observed to improve the spatial distribution of carbon fibre reinforcement but did not reduce the pores. Recycled polypropylene filaments without reinforcement extruded at high screw speeds above 20 rpm contained a centreline cavity but no spatially distributed pores. However, this cavity is eliminated when extrusion is carried out at screw speeds below 20 rpm. For 3D printed specimens, interlayer cavities were observed larger for specimens printed from 14 wt% carbon fibre reinforced recycled polypropylene than those printed from unreinforced filaments. The values of tensile strength for the filaments were 21.82 MPa and 24.22 MPa, which reduced to 19.72 MPa and 22.70 MPa, respectively, for 3D printed samples using the filaments. Likewise, the young’s modulus of the filaments was 1208.6 MPa and 1412.7 MPa, which reduced to 961.5 MPa and 1352.3 MPa, respectively, for the 3D printed samples. The percentage elongation at failure for the recycled polypropylene filament was 9.83% but reduced to 3.84% for the samples printed with 14 wt% carbon fiber reinforced polypropylene filaments whose elongation to failure was 6.58%. The SEM observations on the fractured tensile test samples showed interlayer gaps between the printed and the adjacent raster layers. These gaps accounted for the reduction in the mechanical properties of the printed parts.
Mohammad Muzammel Hossen, Mohammad Obaidur Rahman
Open Journal of Composite Materials, Volume 11, pp 63-81; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojcm.2021.114006

Abstract:
High-moisture regains nature of cellulosic fibers considered one of the critical drawbacks for jute-based applications. To minimize this by developing better interfacial adhesion, a hydrophobic nonwoven wet-laid glass fiber sheet used the woven jute fabric in this experiment. For this purpose, woven jute fabric was categorized into untreated, silane, alkali, and alkali-silane combined treatment then compounded with the solution of polycaprolactone (PCL). Fabrication of composites performed the following sandwich method based on different hot-pressing time with temperature for detecting a prominent fabrication parameter. Surface treated jute fibers characterized using FTIR spectroscopy. Hence, the mechanical and thermal properties of composites were investigated to find the consequence of chemical treatments into woven jute fabric. Alkali-silane combined chemical treatments resulting in improved 48.38% of tensile strength over untreated optimized composites. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) used for displaying interfacial adhesion between fiber and polymer matrix. Besides, further investigation demonstrated due to the combined chemical treatment of alkali-silane optimized composites significantly enhanced the thermogravimetric (TGA) stability in contrast to other composites.
Toshihiro Okabe, Kouji Fukuda, Akito Takasaki, Kazuhiko Kakishita, Yuko Nishimoto, Yoshikazu Shinohara, Do Quang Minh, Phan Dinh Tuan, Ryoichi Yamamoto
Open Journal of Composite Materials, Volume 11, pp 23-30; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojcm.2021.112003

Abstract:
The international issue to be addressed towards realizing a low-carbon society is to reduce the amount of carbon-based underground reserves such as coal, petroleum, and coke, and strongly encouraged to use carbon neutral biomass-derived resources. Woodceramics is a hybrid porous carbon material composed of wood-based biomass and phenolic resin, characterized by high far-infrared emissivity and large specific surface area. Woodceramics has been studied as heating elements and humidity and gas sensors, etc. If this is applied to the inner walls of aging and grain drying furnaces for vegetables and fruits, both ripening and drying are greatly promoted and fossil fuels used in boilers can be significantly reduced. In fact, it can produce black garlic with far infrared rays using a woodceramics brick efficiently. Furthermore, as a substitute for phenolic resin, if plant-based liquefied materials from cashew nut shell oil can be prepared and can be used for manufacturing woodceramics, then all carbon neutral circulating woodceramics made from wood-based biomass is possible to manufacture. On the other hand, woodplastics is a composite material that can be made of wooden materials and plastics, and able to expect the effective use of wood-based biomass and waste plastics.
Ryotaro Murayama, Kiyotaka Obunai, Kazuya Okubo, Li Bao
Open Journal of Composite Materials, Volume 11, pp 82-93; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojcm.2021.114007

Abstract:
CFRPs have high strength despite low density, but little impact resistance. In addition, the debonding of the interface between reinforcement fiber and matrix causes one of the fractures of FRPs. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the interfacial bonding characteristics between the reinforcement fiber and matrix of FRPs, not only under static loading but also under dynamic loading. Moreover, an effective method to improve the impact resistance of FRPs from the viewpoint of interfacial bonding characteristics was proposed. First, two types of UD-FRPs in which the reinforcement fiber was glass fiber or carbon fiber, were prepared to investigate the energy absorption under a bending load. A bending load was applied to the specimen statically and dynamically to measure the energy absorption until failure. The interfacial bonding characteristics between the reinforcement fiber and matrix were measured using a fragmentation method with a single fiber-embedded specimen. A dynamic tensile load was applied to the specimen using a tensile-type split Hopkinson pressure bar apparatus. Test results showed that the energy absorption of UD-CFRP decreased with an increase in strain rate, whereas that of UD-GFRP increased with an increase in strain rate. When the epoxy resin was modified by adding sub-micron glass fiber, both the interfacial shear strength between the carbon fiber and matrix, and the energy absorption of UD-CFRP improved.
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