Physical Science International Journal
EISSN : 2348-0130
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 586
Latest articles in this journal
Published: 20 September 2021
Physical Science International Journal pp 37-48; https://doi.org/10.9734/psij/2021/v25i530258
Aims: The present work is the use of Scheffler technology to melt plastic waste to produce composite materials using an oven type receiver. The composite material in this study contains polyethylene as a matrix and sand as reinforcement. Study Design: The fusion temperature of polyethylene is about 200°C and is obtained by solar concentration. The experimental plastic melting unit in Saaba (latitude 12.38° N; longitude -1.43° E), Burkina Faso, uses two 8 m² Scheffler concentrators sharing a cubic receiver. Three types of mirrors with a reflectivity of at least 90% are used as reflecting facets to equip the Scheffler dishes at the site. Methodology: The thermal behavior of the receiver is analyzed experimentally. Temperatures are measured on the inner and outer walls as well as the internal air temperature with 5 K-type thermocouples. When the fusion temperature is reached on the inside, we introduce the plastic waste which has been previously washed, crushed, dried and weighed. Results: The installed model obtained an average energy of 1.80 kW at the receiver and an average internal temperature of 251.15°C for an average irradiance of 623 W/m² during the no-load test. During the load test, an average energy of 1.34 kW and an internal temperature of 206.4°C were reached for an average irradiance of 473 W/m² and an optical efficiency of 56%. This test led to the production of two pavers of the composite material matrix with 2.2 kg of plastic waste. Conclusion: These results show that the profiles of the primary reflector, tracking system, and tilt axis are accurate and the maximum concentrated solar flux converges on the absorbing surfaces of the receiver. The tempered panes of the absorbing surfaces is more transparent and less emissive. Thus our device contributes to the valorization of plastic waste by using a non-polluting energy source.
Published: 16 September 2021
Physical Science International Journal pp 30-36; https://doi.org/10.9734/psij/2021/v25i530257
In this report, the radiological survey of radioactivity measurements in soil and onion and their mobility is carried out which is very important in the environment and several scientific fields. The measurements about the concentrations of activity in soil, leaves and bulbs for onion in the location of Johor and Perak, Malaysia have been carried out using neutron activation analysis (NAA) of TRIGA MARK II research reactor facilities at Nuclear Agency, Bangi, Malaysia. The transfer factors (TFs) of 238U, 232Th and 40K from 6 different natural background soils are studied from soil to onion under natural field conditions. The TFs for onion leaves and bulb are in the range of (6.01-79.2) x 10-3, (1.21-61.4) x 10-3, (1.012-4.265) x 10-1 and 0.028-0.334, 0.017-0.293 and (0.908 -3.685) x10-1for 238U, 232Th, and 40K respectively. There exists a linearity correlation between the dose rate as well as activity concentration of the soils. The observed transfer factor of onion bulbs was usually higher than in leaves.
Published: 14 September 2021
Physical Science International Journal pp 19-29; https://doi.org/10.9734/psij/2021/v25i530256
Qualitative and quantitative analyses of chemical elements in crude petroleum using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopic technique has attracted the attention of scientific world because it is fast, cheap, non-destructive and assurance in quality compared to other methods. Metallic element characterisation of crude petroleum is important in the petrochemical industry because it determines rock reservoir properties, the technology needed for extraction and refinery process, hence an exciting field that calls for research. X-ray fluorescence method was used for metallic composition analysis of four rundown crude petroleum samples (SB-2, SB-4, TB-2 and TB-1) from three oil fields (Saltpond, TEN and Jubilee). It was conducted at the National Nuclear Research Institute of Ghana. Analysis of the four samples concluded that oil field maturity decreases orderly from Saltpond, Jubilee and TEN. Vanadium-nickel ratios for each crude petroleum sample was less than 0.5, indicating that both Saltpond and Tano sedimentary rocks are of marine organic origin. Higher concentration levels of rare earth metal elements (scandium and yttrium) in the Saltpond sedimentary basin compared to Tano sedimentary rock suggest seismic effect of McCarthy Hills on Saltpond Basin. The strong negative correlation between the vanadium-nickel ratio (predictor) and scandium concentration (dependent) among the three oil fields implies that scandium concentration can equally be used to characterise the oil fields just as the vanadium-nickel ratios.
Published: 11 September 2021
Physical Science International Journal pp 11-18; https://doi.org/10.9734/psij/2021/v25i530255
A combined Electrical Resistivity (ER) and Induced Polarization (IP) techniques were carried out at Iyamitet, Cross-River State Nigeria with the aim of mapping the Barite-Galena mineralization zone within the area. Five traverses were established in orthogonal directions with length of 100 m. The traverses were established in grid format for better coverage of the study area and Dipole-Dipole electrode configuration was adopted for the data acquisition for both ER and IP. Res2Dinvx software was employed for the joint inversion of the data and the resulting 2D resistivity and chargeability images of the subsurface were interpreted qualitatively and semi-quantitatively to locate the mineralized zone. The result of the investigation revealed that the resistivity values of the suspected mineralized zones fall between 1023 ohm-m to 377599 ohm-m and the chargeability falls between 232 msec and 727 msec. The depth to the top of some of the mineralized zones is as shallow as 1.25 m and as deep as 19.8 m in other places. The results of the investigation have indicated the presence of the Barite-Galena ore within the area and this manifested as high resistivity and high chargeability zones along the traverses. The result of this investigation highlights the efficiency of combined geophysical techniques in locating mineralized zones in a basement area.
Physical Science International Journal pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/psij/2021/v25i530254
In the single photon double slits experiment, what mechanism makes the interference? Whether it is owing to the external factor or the photon has a special structure it can interfere photon itself to make the interference pattern? Because the photon is a quantum of EM radiation as Einstein proposed, so we start the study from an EM wave beam (an EM radiation). Under the demand of the symmetry and quantization, we found the wave beam is certainly circular polarized and covered by a side membrane. There is a pair of ± charges ±q and the circular tension distributes double helically along the side membrane. Quantization of charges requires ( k=2.3,...). Mechanical equilibrium among the helical distributed or, tension and the circular polarized EM field inside construct a steady structure to keep the quantized EM beam integrity, shape and size. Its energy hv concentrates in a cylindrical packet of radius R max and length , named -(energy) packet. With the aid of Einstein theory of spontaneous emission, we proved that the photon is consisted of the energy packet and accompany with a conical - (EM) wave beam; -packet floats in front of the -wave. It is such hybrid structure that makes photon self interference in the double slits experiment.
Physical Science International Journal pp 46-62; https://doi.org/10.9734/psij/2021/v25i430253
Self-organization in small systems of particles with simple dynamic laws has been simulated. The purpose of this work was to investigate self-organization in small systems of charged particles under the influence of an electric field where we could follow individual particles. There are positively and negatively charged particles. The intention is to look for pattern formation as the system evolves. Three electric fields and the particle-to-particle interactions were utilized to provide the forces. The three electric fields were a constant field, a ramp field, and an oscillatory field. The final system states for various electric fields are presented. For the two kinds of particles simulated, like particles have a repulsive force, while unlike particles have an attractive force. Initially, the particles are randomly distributed in a two dimensional square bounded region, and then allowed to dynamically interact for a number of iterations. Using the inverse square law force, modified at short distances, most cases resulted in equilibrium with the particles of opposite polarity paired up. Since this was a state of equilibrium no more movement occurred. The results of the experiments are presented in graphical format. The main conclusions are that this model can be used to study small dynamic systems, and that the presence of an external electric field does not significantly modify the final configuration but hastens the development of the equilibrium state.
Physical Science International Journal pp 41-45; https://doi.org/10.9734/psij/2021/v25i430252
In this paper, the classical Bohr’s model of the hydrogen atom has been revisited. Two values of fundamental physical properties of an electron in the hydrogen atom has been identified. These physical properties ( & ) are constant in nature. The aim for the review was to contribute to the solution of disagreement between the Bohr’s wavelength ( ) and the Balmer’s experimental observation ( ) for the emission spectrum of hydrogen atom. There are two other constants and that were identified in the Bohr’s equation of the hydrogen atom. The four fundamental physical constants are intrinsic properties of an electron and can be applied to multi-electron system. They can also be obtained from Schrodinger’s equation for hydrogen atom at steady state. These constants may be subjected to scrutiny for their determination for better understanding. Also, since Bohr’s model of hydrogen atom is based on classical mechanics, this paper has provided an alternate method of solving simple problems in atomic physics under Bohr’s model to aid good mental picture of hydrogen atom to scientists.
Physical Science International Journal pp 32-40; https://doi.org/10.9734/psij/2021/v25i430251
Stanene is a 2D hexagonal layer of tin with exceptional electronic and optical properties. However, the semiconductor applications of stanene are limited due to its zero band-gap. However, doping stanene could lead to a band gap opening, which could be a promising material for electronic and optical applications. In this work, optimized structure, electronic band structure, real and imaginary parts of the frequency-dependent dielectric function, electron loss function, and refractive index of stanene substitutionally doped with alkaline earth metal (beryllium) were analyzed using density functional theory (DFT) calculations as implemented in the quantum espresso and yambo suites. A pure stanene has a zero band gap energy, but with the inclusion of spin-orbit coupling in the electronic calculation of pure stanene, the band-gap is observed to open up by 0.1eV. Doping stanene with beryllium opens the band-gap and shifts the Dirac cone from the Fermi level, the band gap opens by 0.25eV, 0.55eV, and 0.8eV when the concentration of Beryllium is 12.5%, 25%, and 37.5% respectively. The Dirac cone vanished when the concentration of the dopant was increased to 50%. The Fermi level is shifted towards the valence band edge indicating a p-type material. The material absorption shows that SnBe absorption ranges in the visible to the ultraviolet region, The refractive index in stanene doped beryllium (SnBe) was found to be higher than that of pristine stanene, the highest refractive index was 9.2 at SnBe25%. In a nutshell, the results indicate that stanene can be a good material for electronic and optical applications if doped with beryllium.
Physical Science International Journal pp 15-31; https://doi.org/10.9734/psij/2021/v25i430250
The cosmological model of the expanding balloon in 4D-space (CM) delivers in interaction with a homogeneous vector field exactly Newton’s law of gravitation with its 1/r-shape of the gravitational funnel. So far, the depth of space, W, in the 4-th spatial dimension can only be calculated using the theoretical approach of Feynman’s radius of excess rex=a/3 with Schwarzschild-radius a. With this, the connection to the general theory of relativity (GR) is established, but the situation is unsatisfactory. In the present study, the possibilities of an experimental approach to the calculation of spatial depth, W, are explored. The only experimental approach so far is the bending of light on a central mass. We hypothesize in addition to the main effect φ = -4a/y, i.e., the angle of diffraction of a light beam on a heavy central mass in the distance y and with Schwarzschild-radius a, an additional effect close to the center of the form φC ~ -1/y4. This additional effect has on the edge of the central mass about 1/3 of the strength of the main effect. However, its influence disappears very quickly with increasing distance. For this reason the sun cannot be used as the central mass. The bright corona and the strong magnetosphere do not allow measurements close to the sun. However, ESA’s GAIA mission puts the planet Jupiter at the center of interest. This spacecraft measures with extremely high precision the positions of billions of stars. Results of first data analyses have already been published. As a side effect - the application of the CM to small particles provides an indication that the radius of the electron could be in the order of 10-23 m.
Physical Science International Journal pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.9734/psij/2021/v25i430249
Aims/ Objectives: This paper examines the dynamics of multiple slip together with thermal radiation effects on the transport of a magnetohydrodynamic Casson nanofluid passing a nonlinear porous stretchable sheet in the existence of viscous dissipation and chemical reaction.Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methodology: The outlining equations modeling the transport phenomenon are simplified into nonlinear ordinary differential equations via the approach of similarity transformations and subsequently analyzed numerically by shooting techniques alongside Runge-Kutta Fehlberg scheme.Results: The outcomes of decisive parameters affecting the flow, heat, and nanoparticle concentration are graphically deliberated. From the investigation, it is revealed that Brownian motion, viscous dissipation, and thermophoresis parameters augment the thermal boundary layer and propel an upward growth in the temperature profile. Furthermore, the slip factor decelerates the flow and heat dissipation while the fluid movement drags in the existence of the magnetic field. Conclusion: The results obtained in this study compared favourably well with existing related studies in literature under limiting scenarios.