International Journal of Accounting and Financial Reporting

Journal Information
EISSN : 2162-3082
Current Publisher: Macrothink Institute, Inc. (10.5296)
Total articles ≅ 458
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Eslam Saadallah, Amr Abdel Aziz, Aiman Ragab, Ashraf Salah
International Journal of Accounting and Financial Reporting, Volume 11, pp 24-42; doi:10.5296/ijafr.v11i1.18286

Abstract:
MSMEs are essential for economic development for they act as employment engines, aid poverty alleviation and amplify broad-based economic growth. This research focuses on the impact of capital structure on Egyptian MSMEs profitability.This dissertation utilizes a quantitative approach in research. Secondary data is used in this study via using the annual reports of 360 MSMEs in Egypt in the period from 2016 to 2019 (120 micro enterprises, 120 small enterprises and 120 medium enterprises). Data was collected for the research variables: capital structure represents the independent variable; it is measured by debt ratio and equity ratio. Profitability of MSMEs represents the dependent variable, it is measured by return on assets, return on equity and net profit margin. Firm size and firm age represent the control variables. As far as micro samples and small samples were concerned, it was found that there was a significant negative correlation between Debt ratio and ROE, ROA and NPM. However, it was found that there was a highly significant positive correlation between Equity ratio and ROE, ROA and NPM. This result tends to support the pecking order theory of micro and small businesses capital structure in Egypt which postulates that internal sources of financing are better than external sources in the case of high interest rate due to the high costs of financing. In regards to medium firms, it was found that there was a positive significant correlation between debt ratio and ROE, ROA and NPM. On the other hand, it was found that there was a negative significant correlation between Equity ratio and ROE, ROA and NPM. This result tends to support the tradeoff theory of Medium businesses capital structure in Egypt. Concerning firm age, it was found that smaller aged firms have better rates of profitability than large aged ones. Regarding firm size, it was found that smaller sized firms have better rates of profitability than large sized ones.
Suleiman Mustafa El- Dalahmeh
International Journal of Accounting and Financial Reporting, Volume 11, pp 1-23; doi:10.5296/ijafr.v11i1.18403

Abstract:
This study aims to identifying the impact of big data analysis on the accounting Profession in Jordanian business environment. To achieve the study objectives researcher distributed a questionnaire to (147) out of certified public accounts, financial analysis and experts in big data analysis in the kingdom of Jordan. (108) questionnaires were returned. The response rate was (51.7%) of the population. In addition, the study sought to verify the hypothesis of the study. In order to analysis the data, the researcher used means, standard deviation and T-test. The result of the study revealed that the big data analysis have a significant role on the accounting roles and improve the quality of accounting characteristics in Jordan with an overall means (4.52). Based on the results of hypotheses, rejected the null basic hypothesis of the study, and the two null sub-hypotheses were rejected. In light of findings the researcher gave a number of recommendations:1- The necessity of teaching big data and business analysis in the accounting education curricula at the undergraduate level to enhance students' knowledge of the importance of that data.2- Holding workshops and training courses for researchers and academics to knowing them the importance of analyzing big data and how to process, store, manage and invest it in the accounting and financial field.
May Elewa
International Journal of Accounting and Financial Reporting, Volume 11, pp 43-65; doi:10.5296/ijafr.v11i1.18334

Abstract:
The study investigates the relationship among liquidity substituted by current ratio CR., capital structure proxied via debt to equity D/E ratio, the financial performance represented by return on equity ROE plus return on assets ROA, and stock price SP. Technology firms listed on the NASDAQ 30 index in America, which use generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), are considered. Data is from the Standard and Poor S&P 500 database. The data set contains 672 observations with n=12. Data collected is of technology firms which operate in cash, have quarterly reports from 2005-2018, have no missing data, and are not disqualified during the study period. The study applies the pooled regression, the fixed effect, and the random effect techniques and the panel data analysis. The findings indicate a relationship between capital structure, financial performance, and stock price. This paper benefits internal and external stakeholders and may enhance business operations leading to higher financial performance.
S. Anandasayanan, S. Balagobei, M. Amaresh
International Journal of Accounting and Financial Reporting, Volume 10, pp 60-69; doi:10.5296/ijafr.v10i4.15991

Abstract:
In Sri Lanka, tourism has been identified as the third largest and fastest growing source of foreign currency in 2018, after private remittances and textile and garment exports, accounting for almost $4.4 billion or 4.9 percent of gross domestic product in 2018. Tourism industry is a key element which accelerates the economic growth by earning high foreign exchange and reducing poverty by providing direct and indirect employment opportunities to locals. This study primarily investigates the impact of between tourism sector on economic growth by employing Augmented Dickey Fuller’s unit root test, correlation analysis and regression analysis. Annual data from 1989 to 2018 was used. The dependent variable was economic growth while tourists’ receipts were independent variable. Strong and positive correlation was explored between tourists’ receipts and economic growth meanwhile the results of regression analysis indicate that tourists’ receipts significantly impact on the economic growth.
Enrico Gonnella
International Journal of Accounting and Financial Reporting, Volume 10, pp 1-29; doi:10.5296/ijafr.v10i4.17925

Abstract:
The main subject of this paper is the theory of accounting valuations as observed from a historical perspective. In particular, this research concerns the most significant theoretical concepts developed through the Italian doctrine between the 1920s and the 1960s. This period was a historical phase of great cultural ferment, characterised by the progressive deepening of the subject of accounting valuations by Italian scholars.Most of the attention has been focused on those scholars who, by developing theses among the most innovative and original, made significant contributions to the advancement of Italian accounting: Gino Zappa, Vittorio Alfieri, Francesco De Gobbis, Pietro Onida, Lorenzo De Minico, Alberto Ceccherelli, and Egidio Giannessi. These scholars, aware that the valuative problem could not be addressed with simple valuation rules, were interested in finding general principles that could be useful models of behaviour for the accounting practise. These principles made it possible to understand that valuation, being a process that transcends the simple mechanistic application of predefined rules, requires the formulation of a judgment based on the observation of the firm’s specific characteristics and of those of the external environment in which it operates.The analysis allowed the main trends in the examined evolutionary process to be identified, including the progressive relativisation as well as the increasing subjectivity of values, the penchant towards a holistic approach to the problem of accounting valuations, and last, but at the same time first from a doctrinal point of view, the tendency toward a scientification of the discipline of financial accounting measurements.
Shafiqul Alam, Amirus Salat, Sm Nazrul Islam, Abu Syed Jabed
International Journal of Accounting and Financial Reporting, Volume 10, pp 78-110; doi:10.5296/ijafr.v10i4.17976

Abstract:
PurposeThe core objective of the study is to critically examine the trends of the climate change & global warming discourses and their dominant characteristics in developing country perspective like Bangladesh.Design/MethodologyThis paper extends the current literature by considering reporting practices of corporation in developing country perspective. Using a sample of 30 listed companies from two major emission intensive industries, we conducted a content analysis for a span of 5 years from 2015 to 2019. A data set consisting of 19 issues of climate change and global warming information was developed through literature review.FindingsAlthough the study observes generally adapting increased disclosures over time, sample companies’ disclosures are lagging. This analysis provides the comprehension of below average climate change and global warming disclosure practices by the companies. Showed positive attitude to disclosing on climate change and global warming in terms of both number of issues disclosed and number of sample companies disclosed, only a few companies disclose rigorously in their annual reports. Compared to Bangladeshi companies, multinational companies are more inclined to comply environmental regulations and disclose more climate change and global warming issues. In particular, we improve the prior literature by focusing on voluntary climate change disclosures and by developing a content analysis to assess the extent of climate change disclosures by polluting industries in Bangladesh.
James G. Bulsiewicz
International Journal of Accounting and Financial Reporting, Volume 10, pp 30-37; doi:10.5296/ijafr.v10i4.17933

Abstract:
I investigate whether it is possible to profitably trade on predicted earnings surprises, forecasted using the Foster (1977) model. Unlike the extant literature, which documents a strong positive relation between actual earnings surprises and returns, I find that trading on predicted earnings surprises, generated by the Foster (1977) model, has earned a small negative, but statistically indistinguishable from zero, return. This result highlights the difficulty in forecasting earnings surprises.
George Tackie
International Journal of Accounting and Financial Reporting, Volume 10, pp 38-59; doi:10.5296/ijafr.v10i4.17945

Abstract:
This paper analyses environmental accountability practices (EAP) in the mining sector from the perspectives of multi-stakeholders. The study adopts a purely qualitative approach to research in terms of research method, data collection and data analysis. Interview data was gathered from a sample of twenty-one predominantly large-scale mining firms in Ghana. Based on responses from the interview respondents, themes from the literature and empirical material, stakeholders’ perspectives were analysed regarding (1) motivations for EAP; (2) effectiveness of EAP; (3) performance assessment based on EAP; and (4) stakeholder engagements regarding EAP. This paper analyses EAP in Ghana’s mining industry from the viewpoint of multi-stakeholders – regulatory bodies, mining companies, environmental managers, community partners, environmental consultants, and mining association. The findings reveal the commonality of acceptable and responsible EAP that can lead to a ‘win-win’ situation for all stakeholders in the mining industry. Mining firms should increase their focus on practicing value-added EAP in all facets of mining operations. They should also strengthen their engagement with indigenes, and not only local elites, and align their EAP efforts with the immediate needs of the local communities. The novelty of this paper is the determination of the drivers (the ‘why’), outputs (the ‘how’), and outcomes (the benefits) of EAP which is missing in the EAP literature.
Piriya Muraleetharan, T. Velnamby, B. Nimalathasan
International Journal of Accounting and Financial Reporting, Volume 10, pp 70-77; doi:10.5296/ijafr.v10i4.18127

Abstract:
The corporate social responsibility is essential depute in all organization. So all organizations think about how to achieved that their organization goals in this way one of the aspects as CSR. In this studies the effect of CSR on Profitability. This study tested by relation and impact supported on correlation and regression analysis. The data used were draw from 20 Bank finance and insurance companies in Sri Lanka. Panel data analysed by Bank finance and insurance companies CSR reports were analysed for the period of 2012 - 2016. The effect show that Corporate social responsibility reporting of the bank finance and insurance companies accrued during that time period. The results of the study also explained that there is a significant impact on profitability of the companies. This study was conducted in a underdeveloped country with various environment, economic and social aspects as compared to developed countries.
Neeraj Kumari, Devi Singh
International Journal of Accounting and Financial Reporting, Volume 10, pp 24-34; doi:10.5296/ijafr.v10i3.17500

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