Frontiers in Pediatrics

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ISSN / EISSN : 2296-2360 / 2296-2360
Current Publisher: Frontiers Media SA (10.3389)
Total articles ≅ 2,987
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Ahnjili ZhuParris, Matthijs D. Kruizinga, Max van Gent, Eva Dessing, Vasileios Exadaktylos, Robert Jan Doll, Frederik E. Stuurman, Gertjan A. Driessen, Adam F. Cohen
Published: 13 April 2021
Frontiers in Pediatrics, Volume 9; doi:10.3389/fped.2021.651356

Introduction: The duration and frequency of crying of an infant can be indicative of its health. Manual tracking and labeling of crying is laborious, subjective, and sometimes inaccurate. The aim of this study was to develop and technically validate a smartphone-based algorithm able to automatically detect crying. Methods: For the development of the algorithm a training dataset containing 897 5-s clips of crying infants and 1,263 clips of non-crying infants and common domestic sounds was assembled from various online sources. OpenSMILE software was used to extract 1,591 audio features per audio clip. A random forest classifying algorithm was fitted to identify crying from non-crying in each audio clip. For the validation of the algorithm, an independent dataset consisting of real-life recordings of 15 infants was used. A 29-min audio clip was analyzed repeatedly and under differing circumstances to determine the intra- and inter- device repeatability and robustness of the algorithm. Results: The algorithm obtained an accuracy of 94% in the training dataset and 99% in the validation dataset. The sensitivity in the validation dataset was 83%, with a specificity of 99% and a positive- and negative predictive value of 75 and 100%, respectively. Reliability of the algorithm appeared to be robust within- and across devices, and the performance was robust to distance from the sound source and barriers between the sound source and the microphone. Conclusion: The algorithm was accurate in detecting cry duration and was robust to various changes in ambient settings.
Shih-Gang Wang, Stephen Shei-Dei Yang, Shang-Jen Chang
Published: 13 April 2021
Frontiers in Pediatrics, Volume 9; doi:10.3389/fped.2021.609057

Introduction: Obesity is associated with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs) and dysfunction in adults while its impact on children and adolescents remains unknown. This study aimed to explore the impact of obesity on LUTSs among children and adolescents through a large-scale community-based study. Methods: From July 2004 to April 2017, children and adolescents aged 5–15 years-old in Xin-Dian District, New Taipei City were invited to participate in our study. The exclusion criteria were a history of congenital genitourinary tract anomalies, neurological anomalies, or a presence of urinary tract infection. After providing informed consent the participant completed a questionnaire, which included their baseline characteristics and dysfunctional voiding symptom score (DVSS); a parent completed the questionnaire with the younger children. Urgency and daytime incontinence were defined as having positive statement for DVSS questions 7 and 1, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis was used to evaluate the predictors of urgency, daytime incontinence and enuresis. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 2,371 participants were enrolled in the study, and 1,599 were ultimately eligible for analysis. The prevalence of urgency, daytime incontinence, constipation, and enuresis were 37.6, 6.4, 26.1, and 7.7%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that younger age (p = 0.01) and obesity (p = 0.04) were independent predictors for urgency. Younger age (p < 0.01) and constipation (p = 0.04) were independent predictors for daytime incontinence but obesity was not. Younger children were more likely to have nocturnal enuresis (95% CI = 0.77–0.88) and obesity did not have a significant impact on enuresis. Conclusion: Obesity was significantly associated with urgency but it was not significantly associated with daytime incontinence and enuresis in community dwelling children and adolescents.
James Xie, Priya Prahalad, Tzielan C. Lee, Lindsay A. Stevens,
Published: 13 April 2021
Frontiers in Pediatrics, Volume 9; doi:10.3389/fped.2021.648631

Telemedicine has rapidly expanded in many aspects of pediatric care as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, little is known about what factors may make pediatric subspeciality care more apt to long-term adoption of telemedicine. To better delineate the potential patient, provider, and subspecialty factors which may influence subspecialty adoption of telemedicine, we reviewed our institutional experience. The top 36 pediatric subspecialties at Stanford Children's Health were classified into high telemedicine adopters, low telemedicine adopters, and telemedicine reverters. Distance from the patient's home, primary language, insurance type, institutional factors such as wait times, and subspecialty-specific clinical differences correlated with differing patterns of telemedicine adoption. With greater awareness of these factors, institutions and providers can better guide patients in determining which care may be best suited for telemedicine and develop sustainable long-term telemedicine programming.
Jingying Zhao, Yongchang Yang, Yubin Wu
Published: 12 April 2021
Frontiers in Pediatrics, Volume 9; doi:10.3389/fped.2021.631473

Objective: Cathepsin S (CTSS) is an important lysosomal cysteine protease. This study aimed at investigating the clinical significance of CTSS and underlying mechanism in immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN). Methods: This study recruited 25 children with IgAN and age-matched controls and their serum CTSS levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Following induction of IgAN in rats, their kidney CTSS expression, IgA accumulation and serum CTSS were characterized by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and ELISA. The impact of IgA1 aggregates on the proliferation of human mesangial cells (HMCs) was determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 and Western blot analysis of Ki67. Results: Compared to the non-IgAN controls, significantly up-regulated CTSS expression was detected in the renal tissues, particularly in the glomerular mesangium and tubular epithelial cells of IgAN patients, accompanied by higher levels of serum CTSS (P < 0.05), which were correlated with the levels of 24-h-urine proteins and microalbumin and urine erythrocytes and grades of IgAN Lee's classification in children with IgAN (P < 0.01 for all). Following induction of IgAN, we detected inducible IgA accumulation and increased levels of CTSS expression in the glomerular mesangium and glomerular damages in rats, which were mitigated by LY3000328, a CTSS-specific inhibitor. Treatment with LY3000328 significantly mitigated the Ki67 expression in the kidney of IgAN rats (P < 0.01) and significantly minimized the IgA1 aggregate-stimulated proliferation of HMCs and their Ki67 expression in vitro (P < 0.01). Conclusions: CTSS promoted the proliferation of glomerular mesangial cells, contributing to the pathogenesis of IgAN and may be a new therapeutic target for intervention of aberrant mesangial cell proliferation during the process of IgAN.
, Luigi Xodo, Giovanni Baccarini, Lorenza Driul, Ambrogio P. Londero
Published: 12 April 2021
Frontiers in Pediatrics, Volume 9; doi:10.3389/fped.2021.651410

Background: Recently, the literature suggested that placental transfusion facilitated by delayed cord clamping (DCC), besides having benefits on hematological parameters, might improve the infants' brain development. Objective: The present review primarily evaluates the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) total score mean difference (MD) at long-term follow-up (≥4 months) comparing DCC (>90 or >180 s) to early cord clamping (ECC). Secondary aims consisted of evaluating the ASQ domains' MD and the results obtained from other methods adopted to evaluate the infants' neurodevelopment. Methods: MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane, and databases were searched (up to 2nd November 2020) for systematic review and meta-analysis. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of term singleton gestations received DCC or ECC. Multiple pregnancies, pre-term delivery, non-randomized studies, and articles in languages other than English were excluded. The included studies were assessed for bias and quality. ASQ data were pooled stratified by time to follow up. Results: This meta-analysis of 4 articles from 3 RCTs includes 765 infants with four-month follow-up and 672 with 12 months follow-up. Primary aim (ASQ total score) pooled analysis was possible only for 12 months follow-up, and no differences were found between DCC and ECC (MD 1.1; CI 95: −5.1; 7.3). DCC approach significantly improves infants' communication domains (MD 0.6; CI 95: 0.1; 1.1) and personal-social assessed (MD 1.0; CI 95: 0.3; 1.6) through ASQ at 12 months follow-up. Surprisingly, the four-month ASQ personal social domain (MD −1.6; CI 95: −2.8; −0.4) seems to be significantly lower in the DCC group than in the ECC group. Conclusions: DCC, a simple, non-interventional, and cost-effective approach, might improve the long-term infants' neurological outcome. Single-blinding and limited studies number were the main limitations. Further research should be performed to confirm these observations, ideally with RCTs adopting standard methods to assess infants' neurodevelopment. Trial registration: NCT01245296, NCT01581489, NCT02222805, NCT01620008, IRCT201702066807N19, and NCT02727517
, Shina Menon
Published: 12 April 2021
Frontiers in Pediatrics, Volume 9; doi:10.3389/fped.2021.628096

With the advent of the electronic medical record, automated alerts have allowed for improved recognition of patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). Pediatric patients have the opportunity to benefit from such alerts, as those with a diagnosis of AKI are at risk of developing long-term consequences including reduced renal function and hypertension. Despite extensive studies on the implementation of electronic alerts, their overall impact on clinical outcomes have been unclear. Understanding the results of these studies have helped define best practices in developing electronic alerts with the aim of improving their impact on patient care. As electronic alerts for AKI are applied to pediatric patients, identifying their strengths and limitations will allow for continued improvement in its use and efficacy.
Mira N. Moufarrej, Ronald J. Wong, Gary M. Shaw, , Stephen R. Quake
Published: 12 April 2021
Frontiers in Pediatrics, Volume 9; doi:10.3389/fped.2021.680201

A Corrigendum on Investigating Pregnancy and Its Complications Using Circulating Cell-Free RNA in Women's Blood During Gestation by Moufarrej, M. N., Wong, R. J., Shaw, G. M., Stevenson, D. K., and Quake, S. R. (2020). Front. Pediatr. 8:605219.doi: 10.3389/fped.2020.605219 In the original article, the Conflict of Interest statement was inadvertently incomplete. The statement should include: “SQ is a founder and shareholder of Mirvie, and Stanford University and the Chan Zuckerberg Biohub have filed patents based on the work of SQ and MM on the use of cfRNA in maternal and fetal health. The remaining authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.” The authors apologize for this error and state that this does not change the scientific conclusions of the article in any way. The original article has been updated. Keywords: transcriptome, cell-free RNA, preeclampsia, prediction, preterm birth, IUGR Citation: Moufarrej MN, Wong RJ, Shaw GM, Stevenson DK and Quake SR (2021) Corrigendum: Investigating Pregnancy and Its Complications Using Circulating Cell-Free RNA in Women's Blood During Gestation. Front. Pediatr. 9:680201. doi: 10.3389/fped.2021.680201 Received: 13 March 2021; Accepted: 15 March 2021; Published: 12 April 2021. Copyright © 2021 Moufarrej, Wong, Shaw, Stevenson and Quake. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. *Correspondence: David K. Stevenson, [email protected]; Stephen R. Quake, [email protected]
, Andrew S. Day
Published: 12 April 2021
Frontiers in Pediatrics, Volume 9; doi:10.3389/fped.2021.615216

Background and Aims: The management of IBD entails the use of various treatments (nutrition, medications, and surgery) in order to induce and maintain remission. The assessment of IBD disease activity is based on a combination of symptoms, clinical findings, imaging, and endoscopic procedures. As in any disease, reliable assessment of disease activity or severity is required in order to plan relevant follow-up, decide on appropriate investigations, determine the best treatment option and subsequently assess response to treatment. It is important for proper documentation, follow-up, assessment of response to treatment and communication, especially in patients with IBD, to talk the same language by using validated and widely used scores for disease activity, endoscopic and radiologic activity, and patient reported outcomes both for clinical practice and research. This review aims to highlight key tools available for the assessment of disease activity or severity in individuals (especially children) with IBD. Methods: A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Pubmed, and the Cochrane Library with the last search date of August 2020. Tools evaluating disease severity across various aspects (clinical, endoscopic, and radiological) were identified and discussed. Those tools validated and specific for children with IBD were included were available. Results: Over time a number of scoring systems have been developed to quantify clinical, endoscopic and imaging assessments in individuals with IBD. While some are exclusively for children or adults, others appear to have relevance to all age groups. In addition, some tools developed in adult populations are utilized in children, but have not expressly been validated in this age group. Conclusions: Although some available scoring tools are appropriate for children with IBD, others require consideration. The development and use of pediatric-specific tools is relevant and appropriate to optimal care of children and adolescents with IBD.
Na Zhang, Zhe Mao, Yingqiu Cui, Yingyi Xu,
Published: 12 April 2021
Frontiers in Pediatrics, Volume 9; doi:10.3389/fped.2021.587147

Background: After mandibular distraction osteogenesis (MDO), most infants with Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) require mechanical ventilation to assist their breathing. However, the optimal duration of intubation during early mandibular distraction osteogenesis activation is poorly understood. This retrospective study was carried out to identify perioperative risk factors of prolonged mechanical ventilation in infants undergoing MDO. Methods: A total of 95 infants with PRS underwent MDO at Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center between 2016 and 2018, and the clinical records of 74 infants who met the selection criteria were analyzed. Of the 74 infants, 26 (35.1%) underwent prolonged mechanical ventilation, 48 (64.9%) did not. t-test, Wilcoxon Sum Rank test or chi-squared test were performed to compare variables that might associate with prolonged mechanical ventilation between the two groups, and then, significant variables identified were included in the multivariate logistic regression model to identify independent variables. Results: Univariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age, preoperative gonial angle, and postoperative pulmonary infection were associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation (all P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed that the preoperative gonial angle and postoperative pulmonary infection were independent risk factors of prolonged mechanical ventilation (both P < 0.05). Conclusions: Infants with PRS and smaller preoperative gonial angle or postoperative pulmonary infection may be more likely to undergo prolonged mechanical ventilation after MDO. For others, extubation may be attempted within 6 days after MDO.
Guzmán-Ortiz Ana Laura, Nevárez-Ramírez Abraham Josué, López-Martínez Briceida, Parra-Ortega Israel, Angeles-Floriano Tania, Martínez-Rodríguez Nancy, Jamaica-Balderas Lourdes, De La Rosa-Zamboni Daniela, Ortega-Riosvelasco Fernando, Jaramillo-Esparza Carlos Mauricio, et al.
Published: 12 April 2021
Frontiers in Pediatrics, Volume 9; doi:10.3389/fped.2021.642781

Background: The reference standard for the molecular diagnostic testing for COVID-19 is the use of nasopharyngeal or combined nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal (NP/OP) swabs. Saliva has been proposed as a minimally invasive specimen whose collection reduces the risks for health care personnel. Objective: To assess the suitability of saliva for COVID-19 diagnosis as a replacement of the reference standard NP/OP swab in the setting of a tertiary care pediatric unit. Study design: A paired study based in the prospective cohort design in patients suspected of having COVID-19. Methods: RT-PCR was used to detect SARS-CoV-2 in paired samples of saliva and NP/OP swab collected from May through August 2020 from 156 pediatric participants, of whom 128 has at least one comorbidity and 91 showed clinical symptoms related to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Additionally, we studied a group of 326 members of the hospital staff, of whom 271 had symptoms related to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results: In the group of pediatric participants the sensitivity of the diagnostic test in saliva was 82.3% (95% CI 56.6–96.2) and the specificity 95.6% (95% CI 90.8–98.4). The prevalence of COVID-19 was 10.9% (17/156). In 6 of the 23 participants who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in at least one specimen type, the virus was detected in saliva but not in NP/OP swab, while in 3 participants the NP/OP swab was positive and saliva negative. In the group of adults, the sensitivity of the test in saliva was 77.8% (95% CI 67.2–86.3) and prevalence 24.8% (81/326). Discordant results between the two types of specimens showed a significant association with low viral load in the pharynx of adults but not of pediatric participants. Interpretation: In the context of a pediatric tertiary care hospital, the sensibility of the test in saliva is not high enough to replace the use of NP/OP swab for COVID-19 diagnosis. Neither NP/OP swab nor saliva could detect all the participants infected with SARS-CoV-2.
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