BMJ Open Quality
ISSN / EISSN : 2399-6641 / 2399-6641
Published by: BMJ (10.1136)
Total articles ≅ 733
Latest articles in this journal
BMJ Open Quality, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjoq-2021-001514
Incidents of violence and aggression are serious concerns on a secure ward for people with intellectual disabilities and are often met with increases in physical and restrictive interventions. However, these interventions are usually high risk for both patients and staff and are ineffectual in promoting long-term behaviour change. This study aimed to promote positive culture change and embed the evidence-based practice of positive behaviour support by shifting focus and efforts from the use of physical and restrictive interventions to manage crises to intervening positively and proactively to prevent crises from occurring. The key drivers for change involved increasing access to positive engagement opportunities, expanding the staff team’s repertoire of proactive interventions through training and skill development and supporting staff well-being and resilience. Change ideas occurred alongside a shift in culture that promoted the development of a learning culture, psychological safety and consideration of contextual fit. Quality improvement methods helped the project increase the rate of positive and proactive interventions from 70.65% in December 2018 to 97.18% in January 2020. Increases in staff’s knowledge, confidence and safety were also reported. Lessons and limitations of the project are discussed.
BMJ Open Quality, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjoq-2020-001222
Introduction Avoiding low value medical practices is an important focus in current healthcare utilisation. Despite advantages of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) over chest X-ray including improved workflow and timeliness of results, POCUS-guided central venous catheter (CVC) position confirmation has slow rate of adoption. This demonstrates a gap that is ripe for the development of an intervention. Methods The intervention is a deimplementation programme called DRAUP (deimplementation of routine chest radiographs after adoption of ultrasound-guided insertion and confirmation of central venous catheter protocol) that will be created to address one unnecessary imaging modality in the acute care environment. We propose a three-phase approach to changing low-value practices. In phase 1, we will be guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research framework to explore barriers and facilitators of POCUS for CVC confirmation in a single centre, large tertiary, academic hospital via focus groups. The qualitative methods will inform the development and adaptation of strategies that address identified determinants of change. In phase 2, the multifaceted strategies will be conceptualised using Morgan’s framework for understanding and reducing medical overuse. In phase 3, we will locally implement these strategies and assess them using Proctor’s outcomes (adoption, deadoption, fidelity and penetration) in an observational study to demonstrate proof of concept, gaining valuable insights on the programme. Secondary outcomes will include POCUS-guided CVC confirmation efficacy measured by time and effectiveness measured by sensitivity and specificity of POCUS confirmation after CVC insertion. With limited data available to inform interventions that use concurrent implementation and deimplementation strategies to substitute chest X-ray for POCUS using the DRAUP programme, we propose that this primary implementation and secondary effectiveness pilot study will provide novel data that will expand the knowledge of implementation approaches to replacing low value or unnecessary care in acute care environments. Ethics and dissemination Approval of the study by the Human Research Protection Office has been obtained. This work will be disseminated by publication of peer-reviewed manuscripts, presentation in abstract form at scientific meetings and data sharing with other investigators through academically established means. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier, NCT04324762, registered on 27 March 2020.
BMJ Open Quality, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjoq-2021-001583
Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major cause of perioperative morbimortality. Despite significant efforts to advance evidence-based practice, prevention rates remain inadequate in many centres. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of different strategies aimed at improving adherence to adequate VTE prophylaxis in surgical patients at high risk of VTE. Method Before and after intervention study conducted at a tertiary hospital. Adherence to adequate VTE prophylaxis was compared according to three strategies consecutively implemented from January 2019 to December 2020. A dedicated hospitalist physician alone (strategy A) or in conjunction with a nurse (strategy B) overlooked the postoperative period to ensure adherence and correct inadequacies. Finally, a multidisciplinary team approach (strategy C) focused on promoting adequate VTE prophylaxis across multiple stages of care—from the operating room (ie, preoperative team-based checklist) to collaboration with clinical pharmacists in the postoperative period—was implemented. Results We analysed 2074 surgical patients: 783 from January to June 2019 (strategy A), 669 from July 2019 to May 2020 (strategy B), and 622 from June to December 2020 (strategy C). VTE prophylaxis adherence rates for strategies (A), (B) and (C) were (median (25th–75th percentile)) 43.29% (31.82–51.69), 50% (42.57–55.80) and 92.31% (91.38–93.51), respectively (pA=B). There was a significant reduction in non-compliance on all analysed criteria (risk stratification (A (25.5%), B (22%), C (6%)), medical documentation (A (68%), B (55.2%) C (9%)) and medical prescription (A (51.85%), B (48%), C (6.10%)) after implementation of strategy C (p<0.05). Additionally, a significant increase in compliance with adequate dosage, dosing interval and scheduling of the prophylactic regimen was observed. Conclusion Perioperative VTE prophylaxis strategies that relied exclusively on physicians and/or nurses were associated with suboptimal execution and prevention. A multidisciplinary team-based approach that covers multiple stages of patient care significantly increased adherence to adequate VTE prophylaxis in surgical patients at high risk of developing perioperative VTE.
BMJ Open Quality, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjoq-2020-001228
Background Improving timely access in primary care is a continued challenge in many countries. We used positive deviance to try and identify best practices for achieving timely access in our primary care organisation in Toronto, Canada. Methods Semistructured interviews were used to identify practice strategies used by physicians who successfully maintained a low third next available appointment (TNA) (positive deviants, n=6). We then conducted a cross-sectional survey to understand the prevalence of identified promising practices among all physicians (n=70) in the practice. We used χ2 testing to understand whether uptake of promising practices among survey respondents was different for those with a median TNA of 7 days or less vs a median TNA over 7 days. Results We identified seven promising practice strategies used by positive deviants: adjusting the appointment template based on demand; reviewing the appointment schedule in advance; max-packing of visits; using phone, email and secure messaging; customising care for complex patients; managing planned absences; and involving the interprofessional team. 65 of 70 physicians responded to the survey on promising practices. Uptake of the promising practices was variable among survey respondents. In general, we found no association between uptake of promising practices and median TNA. One exception was that those with a median TNA of 7 or less were more likely to review the schedule in advance to potentially mitigate a visit using phone/email (62% vs 31%, p=0.0159). Conclusion Promising practices used by a small group of physicians (‘positive deviants’) to maintain good access were generally not associated with timely access among a larger sample of physicians in the practice. Our findings highlight the difficulty of untangling physician practice style and its contribution to timely access in primary care.
BMJ Open Quality, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjoq-2021-001349
Aims Adoption of virtual clinics has been accelerated by the COVID-19 pandemic and they will continue to form an integral part of healthcare delivery. Our objective was to evaluate virtual clinics in orthopaedic practice and determine how to use them effectively and sustainably. Methods We surveyed 100 consecutive patients participating in orthopaedic virtual phone clinic (VPC) at an academic hospital to evaluate patient satisfaction against face-to-face (F2F) consultations and obtain suggestions for improving patient experience, and we surveyed 23 clinicians who conducted orthopaedic VPCs in 2020. Data were correlated with clinic outcomes, reason for consultation, diagnosis, patient age and clinician grade. Consultation duration, clinician-associated costs and reimbursement were analysed. Significance was tested using two-tailed Student’s t-test and Fisher’s exact test. Results Patient satisfaction (out of 5) for VPC was significantly lower than F2F (4.1 vs 4.5, p=0.0003), and a larger proportion of VPC scored <3 compared with F2F (11% vs 2%). Higher VPC scores were associated with appointments for delivering results and where patients felt clinical examination was not needed. Patients suggested introducing video capability, adhering to appointment time and offering the choice of VPC or F2F. Mean clinician satisfaction scores for VPC were 4.3/5 and suggested indications for VPC included: routine surveillance, communication of results, discussing/consenting for surgery and vulnerable patients. Integrating video, providing private rooms and offering patients time intervals for VPC were recommended. Current National Health Service VPC structures uses greater clinician resources and generates lower reimbursement than F2F consultations, resulting in 11.5% reduction in reimbursement. Conclusion VPC plays a valuable role when clinical evaluation has been performed or considered not necessary. Offering the choice of VPC or F2F, adding video capability and providing a time interval for VPC may reduce resource use and increase satisfaction. We recommend renegotiating VPC tariffs and cost-neutral modifications of clinic structure.
BMJ Open Quality, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjoq-2021-001427
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic, life-limiting disease without a cure; treatment is complex and lifelong. Respiratory failure is the most common cause of death; however, gastrointestinal disease, diabetes and liver disease are common comorbidities. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) rapidly changed healthcare services across the globe, including redeployment of healthcare professionals. This adult CF service was challenged to continue a patient facing service within severe staffing and structural limitations. Not only were many members of the CF multidisciplinary team (MDT) redeployed at the start of the first wave, but also both the CF and ambulatory care wards were closed. Fortunately, the CF clinical nurse specialists (CF-CNSs) remained in their role. Rapid change and adaptation of the CF service was required to ensure that patients did not feel abandoned and access to treatment remained available. The role of the CF-CNS was therefore pivotal in this change. The aim of this project was to use quality improvement methodology to plan an emergency service allowing a reintroduction of ambulatory care services. Success was measured by the number of patients clinically reviewed with or without intervention, and the reasons for patients contacting the CF-CNS via email and phone were recorded. In weeks 1 and 2 of the emergency service, the CF-CNSs triaged patients by phone, then reviewed face-to-face when necessary. This first step allowed the CF-CNSs to start two patients on home intravenous antibiotics. This service continued to be developed over the following 12 weeks, leading to a total of 36 patient attendances. In March 2020, n=1187 patients made contact (mostly COVID-19, unwell and medication related), in April n=904 and May n=870 (blood test results, unwell and medication related). The motivation of the CF-CNSs was pivotal to the success of this initiative with the CF MDT available to provide some support and advice. It concluded at week 12, which then saw the opening of the formal ambulatory care ward and returning redeployed ward staff.
BMJ Open Quality, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjoq-2020-000962
The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of customised safety interventions in improving the safety cultures of both clinical and non-clinical hospital staff. This was assessed using the Safety Attitude Questionnaire-Chinese at baseline, 2 years and 4 years after the implementation of safety interventions with a high response rate ranging from 80.5% to 87.2% and excellent internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha=0.93). The baseline survey revealed a relatively low positive attitude response in the Safety Climate (SC) domain. Both SC and Working Conditions (WC) domains were shown to have increased positive attitude responses in the second survey, while only the Management Perception domain had gained 3.8% in the last survey. In addition, safety dimensions related to collaboration with doctors and service delays due to communication breakdown were significantly improved after customised intervention was applied. Safety dimensions related to safety training, reporting and safety awareness had a high positive response in the initial survey; however, the effect was difficult to sustain subsequently. Multilevel analysis further illustrated that non-clinical staff were shown to have a more positive attitude than clinical staff, while female staff had a higher positive attitude percentage in job satisfaction than male staff. The results showed some improvements in various safety domains and dimensions, but also revealed inconsistent changes in subsequent surveys. The change in positive safety culture over the years and its sustainability need to be further explored. It is suggested that hospital management should continuously monitor and evaluate their strategies while delivering multifaceted interventions to be more specifically focused and to motivate staff to be enthusiastic in sustaining patient safety culture.
BMJ Open Quality, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjoq-2020-001282
Administration of the birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine is an important step in reducing perinatally acquired hepatitis B infection, yet the USA is below the Healthy People 2020 goal for rate of administration. In response to updated Advisory Committee on Immunisation Practices recommendations to administer the dose within 24 hours of birth, we used quality improvement methodology to implement changes that would increase the vaccination rates of healthy newborns in our nurseries. The goal was to improve the proportion of infants who receive the hepatitis B vaccine within 24 hours of birth to >90% within a 2-year period, with a secondary goal of increasing vaccination rates prior to discharge from the nursery to >95%. Multiple Plan–Do–Study–Act (PDSA) cycles were performed. Initial cycles focused on increasing nurse and provider awareness of the updated timing recommendations. Later cycles targeted nursing workflow to facilitate timely administration of the vaccine. We implemented changes at our university medical centre and community hospital newborn nurseries. At the university medical centre nursery, both primary and secondary goals were met; the rate of hepatitis B vaccine administration within 24 hours increased from 81.7% to 96.2%, with vaccine administration prior to discharge increasing from 93.4% to 97.9%. In the community hospital nursery, the baseline rate of hepatitis B vaccine administration within 24 hours was 78.1%, and this increased to 85.8% with the interventions, falling short of the target of >90%. Vaccine administration prior to discharge increased from 87.2% to 92.0%, also not meeting the secondary target of 95%. Interventions that facilitated workflow had additional benefit beyond education alone to improve timing and rates of hepatitis B vaccine administration in both a university medical centre and community hospital nursery.
BMJ Open Quality, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjoq-2021-001507
Objective To determine the value and perspectives of intensive care unit (ICU) healthcare professionals (HCPs) and families about the Glass Door (GD) decal team communication tool. Design Quality improvement methodology was used to design, test and implement the GD. Uptake was measured through audit. Impact was assessed through mixed methodology (survey of ICU HCPs (n=96) and semi-structured interviews of HCPs (n=10) and families (n=7)). Setting Eighteen bed, closed, mixed medical–surgical–cardiac ICU in a tertiary care, university-affiliated, paediatric hospital. Population Interdisciplinary ICU HCPs and families of children admitted to the ICU. Intervention A transparent template (the GD) applied to the outside of ICU patients’ doors with sections for HCPs names, physiological goals and planned tests and treatments for the day. Medical staff completed the GD in rounds (AM and PM) and any HCP caring for the patient updated it throughout the day. Measurements and main results After 3 months, 96% of 613 doors were employed of which 99% respected confidentiality. ICU HCPs reported improved understanding of the patient’s plan (84% today vs 59% pre-GD, p<0.001) and sense that families were up-to-date (79% today vs 46% pre-GD, p<0.001). Based on semi-structured interviews, the GD promoted a shared understanding of the plan contributing to care continuity. The GD reassured families the team is working together and fostered family engagement in the care. Routine family experience surveys showed no change in families’ sense of privacy during admission; families denied the GD’s anticipated compromise of confidentiality. Conclusions The GD decal communication tool, visible on the patient’s door, improved ICU HCPs’ perceived knowledge of their patient’s plan. The GD improved the shared mental model, facilitated teaching and information transfer and fostered family engagement. Challenges included knowing the rules for use and consistent application. Concerns initially raised by HCPs about confidentiality were denied by families.
BMJ Open Quality, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjoq-2021-001436
Poor communication contributes to morbidity and mortality, not only in general medical care but also at the end oflife. This leads to issues relating to symptom control and quality of care. As part of an international project focused on bereaved relatives’ perceptions about quality of end-of-life care, we undertook a quality improvement (QI) project in a general hospital in Córdoba city, Argentina. By using two iterative QI cycles, we launched an educational process and introduced a clinical mnemonic tool, I-PASS, during ward handovers. The introduction of the handover tool was intended to improve out-of-hours care. Our clinical outcome measure was ensuring comfort in at least 60% of dying patients, as perceived by family carers, during night shifts in an oncology ward during the project period (March–May 2019). As process-based measures, we selected the proportion of staff completing the I-PASS course (target 60%) and using I-PASS in at least 60% of handovers. Participatory action research was the chosen method. During the study period, 13/16 dying patients were included. We received 23 reports from family carers about the level of patient comfort during the previous night. Sixty-five per cent of healthcare professionals completed the I-PASS training. The percentage of completed handovers increased from 60% in the first Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycle to 68% in the second one. The proportion of positive reports about patient comfort increased from 63% (end of the first PDSA cycle) to 87% (last iterative analysis after 3 months). Moreover, positive responses to ‘Did doctors and nurses do enough for the patient to be comfortable during the night?’ increased from 75% to 100% between the first and the second QI cycle. In conclusion, we achieved the successful introduction and staff training for use of the I-PASS tool. This led to improved perceptions by family carers, about comfort for dying patients.