Bioscience Journal

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ISSN / EISSN : 1516-3725 / 1981-3163
Total articles ≅ 1,477
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Vanessa Jaqueline Veloso da Mata, Luis Rennan Sampaio de Oliveira, , , Rafael Mezzomo, Natália Gomes Lacerda, Kharina Romana Da Silva Santana, Daiany Iris Gomes
Bioscience Journal, Volume 38; https://doi.org/10.14393/bj-v38n0a2022-61302

Abstract:
The effects of higher supplementation levels for young Nellore heifers fed tropical forages including their influence on puberty, need to be understood. This study investigated the influence of high and moderate supplementation levels on puberty onset and the productive performance of Nellore heifers. Thirty-six Nellore heifers (225 + 3.52 kg) were used in a completely randomized design, with three treatments: (I) no concentrate (control); (II) concentrate supplement at 4 g/kg body weight (BW); (III) concentrate supplement at 8 g/kg BW. Increased supplement level led to a linear increase in average daily gain (P < 0.05). The high supplementation level (8 g/kg BW) had the highest proportion of corpus luteum presence (82% of heifers), compared to the 4 g/kg BW treatment group (67%) and the control group (33%; P < 0.05). Our findings indicate that providing a high level of energy supplementation to Nellore heifers for approximately 100 d improves performance and increases the proportion of heifers that reach puberty
Ricardo Fagundes Marques, Guilherme Sasso Ferreira Souza, Maria Renata Rocha Pereira, ,
Bioscience Journal, Volume 38; https://doi.org/10.14393/bj-v38n0a2022-60820

Abstract:
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different sowing depths and light intensities on the emergence and development of the monocot weed species, Urochloa decumbens and Cenchrus echinatus, under field conditions. Each species constituted an experiment, and the experimental design was completely randomized with four replicates. The treatments were arranged in a 6 x 4 factorial scheme, with six sowing depths (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0, and 12.0 cm) associated with four solar radiation intensities (100%, 70%, 50%, and 30%) obtained through the use of shading screens. Seedling emergence capacity was evaluated daily to obtain the emergence percentage and speed index. Plant height, floral induction time, and plant dry matter at flowering were measured. Even when subjected to different solar radiation intensities, U. decumbens and C. echinatus seedlings emerged at all the sowing depths. Sowing between 2.0- and 4.0-cm depths favored the emergence of seedlings of U. decumbens and C. echinatus. However, sowing at 12-cm depth reduced the emergence of both species regardless of the solar radiation intensity. Urichloa decumbens plants grown under conditions of greater shading showed the lowest values of height and dry matter accumulation during flowering. High levels of shading facilitated only the etiolation of C. echinatus plants. Increased shading flowering time in both species compared to full sunlight.
, , Alessandra De Lourdes Ballaris, Matheus Alexandre Da Silva Taliari,
Bioscience Journal, Volume 38; https://doi.org/10.14393/bj-v38n0a2022-60463

Abstract:
Studies comparing the two classes of stimuli (concentric and eccentric) have shown differences in the improvement of cardiovascular, metabolic, and muscle strength gain. This is an experimental, quantitative, and prospective study that aimed to verify the effect of eccentric exercise on glycolytic consumption and kinetics. The blood glucose kinetics of 17 male subjects was evaluated during a treadmill exercise with a 10% declined floor and velocity that required a 60% metabolic activity of VO2max, for 30 minutes. Seventy-two hours later, the same subjects exercised on the treadmill with a 10% inclined floor and 60% VO2max, for 30 minutes. To quantify glucose, blood samples were collected before the exercise, every three minutes along the 30 minutes of physical activity, and five and 10 minutes after finishing the exercise. For the downward slope, there was a homogeneous group behavior for blood glucose dynamics during the exercise, which was characterized by a monotonic decrease of glucose levels until reaching a minimum value at experimental times between 20 and 30 min, followed by a progressive recovery toward initial values. For the acclivity condition, blood glucose dynamics did not follow such a homogeneous behavior. A set of different types of dynamics could be identified. Experimental data showed that the type of dynamics could be predicted, to some extent, by the basal blood glucose level of subjects. The type of floor slope (upward or downward) directly affected glycolytic consumption and kinetics for the individuals analyzed.
Thamyres Sabrina Gonçalves, Maria Das Dores Magalhães Veloso
Bioscience Journal, Volume 38; https://doi.org/10.14393/bj-v38n0a2022-55923

Abstract:
The study performed a checklist of publications on species with available seed information and identified their issues and volumes. These publications occurred during the existence of the online versions of Revista Brasileira de Sementes (Brazilian Journal of Seeds) and the Journal of Seed Science. This data survey intends to represent a foundation for other studies and contribute to the knowledge of native plant species in Brazil. The search focused on the seeds of plants native to Brazil, indicating high negligence regarding the knowledge of Brazilian biodiversity because of the total number of articles published in 33 issues of Revista Brasileira de Sementes between 2002-2012 and the Journal of Seed Science, a substitute of the former journal, from 2012 to the first semester of 2020, with 28 issues published, but only 208 studies addressing seeds of plant species native to Brazil.
Andrea Raquel Fernandes Carlos Costa, Monalisa Soares Costa, Mário Monteiro Rolim, Gerônimo Ferreira da Silva, Djalma Euzébio Simões Neto, Manassés Mesquita da Silva
Bioscience Journal, Volume 38; https://doi.org/10.14393/bj-v38n0a2022-59658

Abstract:
Irrigation and soil fertilization management are essential agricultural practices that improve the growth and development of sugarcane plants and, consequently, increase their production capacity, which is important for sugar and alcohol productions. In this context, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of water depths and nitrogen rates on the growth and dry biomass accumulation of sugarcane plants. The treatments consisted in four water depths (1,498; 1,614; 1,739; and 1,854 mm), five nitrogen rates (0; 20; 40; 80; and 120 kg ha-1) and five evaluation times. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with a split-split-plot arrangement and four replications, including the factors water depths, nitrogen rates, and days after planting. The dry biomasses of the plant pointer, leaves and culms, culm diameter, plant height, and number of plants were analyzed. The application of nitrogen increased the sugarcane biomass, mainly the pointer (with leaves) and dry culm biomass, and the number of plants. The highest dry culm biomass accumulation and dry leaf biomass were found at the end of the crop cycle for the treatment with the application of nitrogen rates of 80 and 120 kg ha-1. The increases in water depths applied increased the number of plants per linear meter, but the culm and dry leaf biomass did not happen.
Kunza Latif, Shagufta Naz, Imran Altaf, , Rasheeda Bashir, , Shaozhen Xing
Bioscience Journal, Volume 38; https://doi.org/10.14393/bj-v38n0a2022-61149

Abstract:
We optimized the expression and purification of outer membrane proteins SpaO and LamB from Salmonella typhi. We investigated various factors in the expression and purification processes, including the use of isopropyl β-d-1 thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG), imidazole, and urea. First, PCR amplification was carried out on SpaO and LamB genes. The genes were then cloned in pTZ57R/T, and then expressed in pET28a vector and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Gene insertion was confirmed by enzymatic digestion with NdeI and XhoI. Inclusion bodies expressing recombinant SpaO and LamB were induced with 200 and 400 µL 0.5 mM IPTG, respectively. The formed protein inclusion bodies were then isolated from the pellet and solubilized in IB buffer containing 8 M urea for SpaO and 6 M urea for LamB. Proteins were refolded by dialysis in 3M urea. Purified proteins with nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography and eluted with buffer containing 250 mM imidazole for SpaO and 150 mM imidazole for LamB. The protein expression profiles were analyzed by SDS-PAGE, which identified the 33 and 49 kDa bands corresponding to rSpaO and rLamB. Western blotting Purification was carried out by nickel affinity resin with 250 mM and 150 mM imidazole for rSpaO and rLamB and refolded through stepwise dialysis with anti-His tag antibodies confirmed their expression. These optimized methods can be used to generate recombinant proteins for the development of future vaccines.
, Ana Ecídia De Araújo Brito, Vitor Nascimento Resende, Gerson Diego Pamplona Albuquerque, Cristine Bastos Do Amarantes, , Priscilla Andrade Silva, Cândido Ferreira De Oliveira Neto
Bioscience Journal, Volume 38; https://doi.org/10.14393/bj-v38n0a2022-61137

Abstract:
The development of anthropogenic activities such as industry, mining, agriculture, urban waste discard has been, the main actions that result in increased contamination by heavy metals in soil, water and air. One of the most harmful metals made available by these activities is cadmium, and even at low concentrations it is very toxic mainly in plant structures. The objective of this work was to verify the biochemical behavior of nitrogen and carbon metabolism in young plants of paricá when submitted to increasing cadmium application. For this, a completely randomized experiment was carried out with five treatments (control, CdCl2 178 μM, CdCl2 356 μM, CdCl2 534 μM, CdCl2 712 μM), with seven replicates, totaling 35 experimental units. The sensitivity of this vegetable to the increasing concentrations of cadmium was evident. The root system it presents’’ saw where the most toxic element accumulated, solutes such as carbohydrates, sucrose were affected in their concentrations, mainly in the leaves. The root system saw in its concentrations of glycine betaine a possibility of osmoprotection, but this did not reflect an increase in the concentration of nitrate in both leaf and roots. In the other hand, this fact not observed by the concentration of ammonium that increased in the root system. The results showed that the cadmium was transported to aerial part, however, concentrated mainly in the root system characterizing as a phytoextractor species.
Wuye Ria Andayanie, Martin Lukito, Netty Ermawati
Bioscience Journal, Volume 38; https://doi.org/10.14393/bj-v38n0a2022-59636

Abstract:
Cowpea mild mottle virus (CpMMV) is one of the problems that can decrease soybean production. The research was conducted on the combined effects of corn in the barrier crop with plant extracts against CpMMV infecting soybean in the field. The field data was conducted using a Completely Randomized Design. The mean of disease incidence and disease severity is measured from total plants in each replicate plot on each treatment. Planting one or two of corn lines were grown at the edge four weeks before planting soybeans. Cashew nut shell (CNS), pagoda leaf, and rhizome of ginger extracts were applied using the sprayer and applied at 24 h before virus acquisition and transmission by whiteflies. The result showed that the virus incubation period ranged from 9−38 days after transmission longer than the untreated control. Planting two corn lines at the edge with CNS extract as bioactivator on soybean was the most extended incubation period of the virus and the lowest absorbance value DAS-ELISA of 0.20. There was a 73.11 % increase in the relative inhibition level of the virus. Planting corn at the edge with CNS extract proved to be more effective than soybean monoculture with CNS extract. However, soybean monoculture with CNS extract provides a better relative inhibition level of the virus (64.32 %) than planting two rows of corn on the edge combined with ginger of rhizome extract and planting two rows of corn on the edge with pagoda leaf extract as bioactivator on a soybean plant.
Cathrine Thephilah, Swaminathan Aruna, Rajagopalan Vijayaragahavan
Bioscience Journal, Volume 38; https://doi.org/10.14393/bj-v38n0a2022-54176

Abstract:
We aimed to investigate the effects of job stress on the biochemical variables of schoolteachers before and after stress reduction strategies. In 2019, 200 schoolteachers (98 males, 102 females) in the private and fully aided higher secondary schools of urban and rural areas in Vellore, India were enrolled in the study based on the principle of consecutive sampling. Questionnaires were used to investigate demographic characteristics and occupational stress-related factors. Fasting blood glucose was detected by venous plasma and a biochemical analyser with the cut-off thresholds method. Salivary cortisol was determined by the specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit method. Total cholesterol in serum was determined by the CHOD-PAP method. Serumalbumin was detected by the bromocresol green dye-binding method on a Roche Modular DP analyser (Roche Diagnostics). Blood pressure was measured by aneroid sphygmomanometers. Levels of fasting blood glucose, salivary cortisol, albumin and cholesterol were lower in the high-tension group than those in the low-tension group. Those of the high-coping strategy group were higher than those of the low-coping strategy group. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure significantly reduced among the intervention groups after administering the relaxation response programme for three and six weeks, respectively, to urban and rural school teachers. Occupational stress can lead to increased salivary cortisol, cholesterol, albumin, blood glucose and blood pressure levels. The relaxation response programme resulted in quantifiable improvements in physiological markers of stress in rural and urban schoolteachers.
Bioscience Journal, Volume 38; https://doi.org/10.14393/bj-v38n0a2022-61479

Abstract:
Interaction among nitrogen fertilization using bovine manure, poultry manure, Jatropha curcas seed cake and urea, and the diseases Ramularia leaf spot (RLS) and Boll rot (BR), caused by Ramulariopsis pseudoglycines and Diplodiagossypina, respectively, in cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum L.), was studied under field conditions. Intensity (incidence and severity in percentage) of RLS and incidence (%) of BR were evaluated over time, starting in reproductive stage B1 (first visible flower bud). A randomized complete block design with a 4x4 factorial arrangement was used (fertilizers x doses), totaling 16 treatments with four replications. Disease progress was analyzed with the nonlinear Logistic and Gompertz models, obtaining the epidemiological parameters amount of initial disease (Y0) and progress rate (r). Plants fertilized with 50 kg N ha-1, presented an incidence twice greater than those obtained with other fertilizers. The Logistic model better fits RLS, but no model could represent BR. Only the epidemiological parameters of RLS were affected differently in this experiment compared to BR disease. The possible role of organic and inorganic nitrogen fertilization in the RLS and BR management is discussed.
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