Banks and Bank Systems

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 18167403 / 19917074
Current Publisher: LLC CPC Business Perspectives (10.21511)
Total articles ≅ 273
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DOAJ
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Alina Bukhtiarova, Andrii Semenog, Мila Razinkova, Nataliia Nebaba, Józef Antoni Haber
Banks and Bank Systems, Volume 15, pp 98-106; doi:10.21511/bbs.15(1).2020.10

Abstract:
The transformation processes taking place in the global economy and the expansion of global business ties increase the overall vulnerability of the international banking system. One of the problems related to money laundering is the process of evaluating the efficiency of financial monitoring measures. The article discusses the issues of assessing the effectiveness of financial monitoring in the banking system of the country. For Ukraine, this problem is especially relevant, because there is a bank-centric model of the financial market (about 90% of assets go through the banking system) in the country. According to official data, 50% of economic activity in Ukraine ends with money laundering. The article presents the improved method that quantifies the level of financial monitoring system effectiveness at commercial banks of Ukraine based on calculations of the integral index. The index indicates the dynamics of the financial system protection degree from the money laundering threat based on the expediency and efficiency of financial monitoring in the banking system. As a result, more comprehensive conclusions about the level of financial security of the country are made. According to assessments, in 2017–2018 the efficiency of financial monitoring of the banking system of Ukraine was at the middle level (about 64%). The proposed method can be applied to evaluate the effectiveness of the financial monitoring system in any country and become the basis for improving the anti-money laundering system through the banking system. AcknowledgmentThe study was conducted as part of state budget research of Sumy State University – Formation of a Public Finance Transparency System as a Prerequisite for Combating Corruption in Ukraine (0118U003585) (in the context of evaluating the effectiveness of financial monitoring of the Ukrainian banking system) and Formation of Tools for the Ukrainian Economy Unshadowing Based on Causal Modeling of Interaction Trajectories of Financial Intermediaries (0120U100473) (in the context of substantiating the need and directions for improving the financial monitoring system in Ukrainian banks).
Michael Menrad
Banks and Bank Systems, Volume 15, pp 107-117; doi:10.21511/bbs.15(1).2020.11

Abstract:
This research aims to enrich the literature on the threatening topic of Target2 imbalances in the euro area. Using a quantitative time series analysis, the paper examines and discusses the development of Target2 imbalances and the interrelationships of the European Central Bank (ECB) activities through market intervention using quantitative easing. This paper outlines the scope of central bank activities in different Eurozone countries and examines how individual debtor and creditor countries, as well as central banks, will continue to operate. In this context it examines whether the ECB is working on a problem solution, and what are the risks posed by Target2 imbalances for the euro area, as well as whether the euro is volatile and how the Target2 imbalances will be managed if the euro breaks. This research highlights the ambiguity of central bank activities, explains the burdens and risks of Germany as the largest creditor, shows solutions through the communitization or the creation of Target3 to correct past mistakes and to prevent a further and more severe global crisis. Attention is drawn to the fact that Italy could put the Eurozone in a critical situation by introducing mini-BOTs (small government bonds; “titoli di Stato di piccolo taglio”) as the second currency. Furthermore, it is pointed out that the ECB has adjusted its price stability objectives to raise inflation expectations in the Eurozone, which is unlikely to satisfy Target2 demanding countries.
Mohammed Т. Abusharbeh
Banks and Bank Systems, Volume 15, pp 85-97; doi:10.21511/bbs.15(1).2020.09

Abstract:
The purpose of this article is to evaluate the financial soundness of commercial banks listed on the Palestine Exchange using the CAMEL rating system. A content analysis, composite rating, and a one sample t-test are applied to a sample of six local banks operating in Palestine. Secondary data were obtained from the financial statements of the banks for the period of 2007–2017 in order to conduct the research and evaluate their financial performance. The empirical test has shown that Palestinian banks adhere to the Basel Committee standards in terms of capital adequacy and that they display stability in terms of profitability and liquidity. However, the paper concludes that the operational efficiency of the banks being evaluated is “fairly managed”. Finally, the findings indicate significant differences amongst Palestinian banks in terms of performance, assessed using the CAMEL rating system. This paper suggests that the listed Palestinian banks should focus on long-term investments rather than short-term ones, and monitor their risk management practices to increase their profits and move towards sustainability and growth.
Svitlana Naumenkova, Ievgen Tishchenko, Svitlana Mishchenko, Volodymyr Mishchenko, Viktor Ivanov
Banks and Bank Systems, Volume 15, pp 72-84; doi:10.21511/bbs.15(1).2020.08

Abstract:
Lending to long-term investment projects in fragile countries requires additional financial instruments to control the sustainability of project cash flows and to increase the borrower’s financial discipline in debt servicing. This paper analyzes the special aspects of using financial covenants as credit risk mitigation instruments in project financing in Ukraine. It also argues that regulatory requirements to maintain financial strength indicators at the appropriate level have an indirect impact on the change in project finance loan rates. The study primarily aims at developing approaches to defining a credit rate corridor for an investment project, depending on changes in the values of financial sustainability indicators. The implementation of the proposed approach allows increasing the validity of credit risk components for investors and optimizing capital value for borrowers.As required by international practice, violation of covenant terms is the trigger for satisfying the creditors’ claims. According to the authors’ conclusions, the use of financial covenants as a tool for protecting the creditors’ interests should not be an instrument of unreasonable financial pressure on borrowers. The study reveals benefits and drawbacks of using financial covenants to mitigate credit risk and reduce the probability of a borrower default in the field of project financing in Ukraine.
Fadi Shihadeh
Banks and Bank Systems, Volume 15, pp 59-71; doi:10.21511/bbs.15(1).2020.07

Abstract:
This study seeks to investigate the relationship between financial inclusion factors and banks’ performance and risk among MENAP countries. The sample includes 271 banks located in 24 countries in the region that are interconnected, and micro- and macro-variables that affect the performance and risk levels of these banks. The results indicate that enhancing the level of financial inclusion in the region can increase banks’ performance and decrease their risk. They also point out where these banks could benefit more from financial inclusion in terms of reducing their risks. Future research may include investigating financial inclusion tools to explore the relationship between financial inclusion and banks’ performance and risk in developing countries. More research can be conducted on each MEANP country to analyze their characteristics and the influence of financial inclusion on bank performance and risk. In addition, future research should be conducted to study the relationship between regulations, rules and financial inclusion across countries and economies. Acknowledgment The author is thankful to Prof. Xiuhua Wang, Bo Liu, and Yipeng Wang for their comments and suggestions to improve this paper. The author discloses that funding for the writing of this paper comes from the TAAWON research fund.
Angela Kuznetsova, Borys Samorodov, Galyna Azarenkova, Kateryna Oryekhova, Maksym Babenko
Banks and Bank Systems, Volume 15, pp 51-58; doi:10.21511/bbs.15(1).2020.06

Abstract:
Maintaining proper financial stability of each banking institution is one of the main tasks facing the banking system of Ukraine. This enables operational control over the financial strength of banking activities.The purpose of the article is to develop recommendations on the operational control of financial stability of banking and to test them using banking institutions in Ukraine as an example.To execute operational control over the financial stability of banking, economic standards of banking regulation are grouped under the “at least” or “not exceeding” principle. To determine their change over time, Shewhart control charts are proposed.The recommendations were tested through the example of the Ukrainian banking institutions (with state, foreign and private capital). It was found out that in 2017–2019, the following three economic standards of banking regulations were not met: regulatory capital adequacy, high credit risk, and average investments; besides, there were two standards at the limit of control value: the ratio of regulatory capital to total assets and the maximum amount of credit risk per counterparty.To improve the financial status of banking institutions, it is recommended to take organizational and financial measures to change the average value of the relevant economic standards for banking regulation to a level that ensures financial stability.
Lawrence Uchenna Okoye, Alexander Ehimare Omankhanlen, Johnson I. Okoh, Felix N. Ezeji, Esther Ibileke
Banks and Bank Systems, Volume 15, pp 42-50; doi:10.21511/bbs.15(1).2020.05

Abstract:
The implementation of the 2004–2005 bank capital reform in Nigeria, introduced to deepen the financial capacity of the banking system, has led to a major restructuring of the banking sector. The reform required banks to increase their equity capital by about 1150 per cent (from two billion to twenty-five billion naira) within 18 months. Due to compliance challenges, the reform formed just twenty-five out of eighty-nine banks that previously existed. More than seventy-five per cent of the banks emerged through mergers and acquisitions. However, despite the massive increase in assets and deposit growth, episodes of bank distress have remained a recurring irritant in the country’s financial system. This study compares bank performance in the pre- and post-reform periods to determine the usefulness or efficacy of the capital reform in boosting bank performance based on panel analysis of data from five banks. The study covered the period 1996–2016. The generalized method of moments was used to evaluate the parameters of the model. The result of the random effects model shows a weak positive effect of total assets and deposit growth on bank performance in the pre-reform period. However, the post-reform assessment reveals that while profitability is significantly low in large-sized banks, it is higher in smaller banks. Given the above evidence, the study asserts that profit performance of banks is substantially linked to restructuring of the sector.
Liběna Černohorská, Darina Kubicová
Banks and Bank Systems, Volume 15, pp 30-41; doi:10.21511/bbs.15(1).2020.04

Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of negative interest rates on economic activity in a selected group of countries, in particular Sweden, Denmark, and Switzerland, for the period 2009–2018. The central banks of these countries were among the first to implement negative interest rates to revive the economic growth. Therefore, this study analyzed long- and short-term relationships between interest rates announced by central banks and gross domestic product and blue chip stock indices. Time series analysis was conducted using Engle-Granger cointegration analysis and Granger causality testing to identify long- and short-term relationship. The first step, using the Akaike criteria, was to determine the optimal delay of the entire time interval for the analyzed periods. Time series that seem to be stationary were excluded based on the results of the Dickey-Fuller test. Further testing continued with the Engle-Granger test if the conditions were met. It was designed to identify co-integration relationships that would show correlation between the selected variables. These tests showed that at a significance level of 0.05, there is no co-integration between any time series in the countries analyzed. On the basis of these analyses, it was determined that there were no long-term relationships between interest rates and GDP or stock indices for these countries during the monitored time period. Using Granger causality, the study only confirmed short-term relationship between interest rates and GDP for all examined countries, though not between interest rates and the stock indices. Acknowledgment The paper has been created with the financial support of The Czech Science Foundation GACR 18-05244S – Innovative Approaches to Credit Risk Management.
Myra V. De Leon
Banks and Bank Systems, Volume 15, pp 21-29; doi:10.21511/bbs.15(1).2020.03

Abstract:
This study investigates the effect of credit risk and macroeconomic factors on profitability of 20 ASEAN banks, particularly from Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and Philippines, covering the period of 2012 to 2017. The unbalanced panel data were tested for heteroscedasticity and normality. A fixed effects model and a random effects model were utilized followed by simple ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. The obtained results show that credit risk and GDP growth negatively affect Return on Equity (ROE) at 5% level of significance. The inflation rate increases ROE by 0.323%. In terms of influence, inflation has the highest impact on ROE followed by GDP growth and credit risk. Credit risk and GDP growth negatively affect Return on Assets (ROA) at 5% level of significance. ROA was also influenced by an increase in inflation rate. Therefore, this study will help banks and bank managers, depositors, investors, policy makers and governments to identify factors affecting bank profitability.
Mahesh Kumar, Sanjay Gupta
Banks and Bank Systems, Volume 15, pp 11-20; doi:10.21511/bbs.15(1).2020.02

Abstract:
When choosing online financial transactions, security is a paramount concern of users. Three categories of banks in India, namely public, private and foreign banks, have a completely different focus on technology and capabilities. The study aims at investigating e-banking users’ perception with regard to online risk for public, private and foreign banks. Online risk perception for the abovementioned banks was assessed on three major risk parameters, i.e. security aspect, privacy aspect, and trust; using a multiple-criteria decision-making tool, called the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). The outcomes indicate that security risk is paramount among various aspects of perceived risk, followed by privacy and trust concern. Moreover, public sector banks are perceived to be the safest in this aspect. Public sector banks are also considered to be benign in terms of privacy and trust. Given the general user’s perception of risk generated by all the three risk parameters taken together, public sector banks are perceived to be the most secure, followed by private and foreign banks. The findings of this study have various implications for both research and practice. Private and foreign banks in India may adopt appropriate marketing strategies to achieve a favorable perception. Various studies have been conducted earlier on these factors and their interrelationship, but limited research has been carried out to demonstrate the importance of each of these factors in relation to the other as perceived by the user. Moreover, the study quantifies factors in order of their importance.