Banks and Bank Systems
ISSN / EISSN : 18167403 / 19917074
Current Publisher: LLC CPC Business Perspectives (10.21511)
Total articles ≅ 241
Latest articles in this journal
Banks and Bank Systems, Volume 14, pp 76-85; doi:10.21511/bbs.14(3).2019.07
Abstract:This paper investigates factors that may impact foreign direct investment in Nigeria. It seeks to establish the role of taxation (corporate tax) for foreign direct investment in Nigeria. Annual time series data derived from the Central Bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development covering a period of 31 years (1985–2015) were used for this study. The variables considered in the study include FDI, corporate tax, exchange rate, inflation rate, real gross domestic product (RGDP). They were analyzed using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS), Johansen Co-Integration model and Unit Root Test. Findings from this research observed that a negative relationship exists between corporate taxation and FDI. Also, the study observed that corporate tax have a significant impact on FDI and there exists a long-run relationship between the two variables.
Banks and Bank Systems, Volume 14, pp 86-98; doi:10.21511/bbs.14(3).2019.08
Abstract:The article proposes an approach to analyzing reliability factors of commercial banks during the 2014–2017 systemic crisis in the Ukrainian banking system, using the Kohonen self-organizing neural networks and maps. As a result of an experimental study, data were obtained on financial factors affecting the stability of a commercial bank in a crisis period. It has been concluded that during the banking crisis in Ukraine in 2014–2017, the resource base of a bank was the main factor of this bank stability. The most preferred sources of resources were funds from other banks (bankruptcy rate of 5.7%) and legal entities (bankruptcy rate of 8%), and the least stable were funds from individuals (bankruptcy rate of 28.5%). The relationship between financial stability and the amount of capital and the structure of bank loans is less pronounced. However, one can say that banks that focused on lending to individuals experienced a worse crisis than banks whose main borrowers were legal entities. The tools considered in the article (the Kohonen self-organizing neural networks and maps) allow for efficiently segmenting data samples according to various criteria, including bank solvency. The “hazardous” zones with a high bankruptcy rate (up to 49.2%) and the “safe” zone with a low rate of bankruptcy (6.3%) were highlighted on the map constructed. These results are of practical value and can be used in analyzing and selecting counterparties in the banking system during a downturn.
Banks and Bank Systems, Volume 14, pp 64-75; doi:10.21511/bbs.14(3).2019.06
Abstract:The importance of studying the bank crediting (lending) to non-financial corporations in Ukraine is due to the recent increase in borrowing costs and a low credit supply from banks. This article defines certain parameters, which could help to allocate the limited credit recourses to meet current macroeconomic challenges. The main purpose of the article is to discuss and substantiate the choice of these parameters. The study is focused on the systematic approach and statistical methods to achieve the research goals.Quantitative parameters of bank lending to non-financial corporations were analyzed through the prism of macroeconomic indicators. In particular, the analysis was conducted on the following parameters of bank lending to non-financial corporations: share of bank loans to non-financial corporations in GDP, volume of loans by type of economic activity, sectoral shares of non-financial corporations in creating gross economic value added, interest rates on loans to non-financial corporations, etc.It is defined that the share of bank lending to non-financial corporations in GDP is currently low and gradually decreasing. The analysis of the volume of lending by types of economic activities, by the size of borrowers and the respective sectoral shares of non-financial corporations in creation of gross value added showed disproportionate distribution of credit resources by economic returns. The calculation and analysis of the localization and concentration coefficients allowed to identify current problems in crediting of Ukrainian businesses. The interest rates on loans to non-financial corporations remain high, which often makes bank credits inaccessible for them, especially considering the low level of profitability of Ukrainian enterprises.
Banks and Bank Systems, Volume 14, pp 48-63; doi:10.21511/bbs.14(3).2019.05
Abstract:In today’s rapidly changing global financial market, potential counterparties are in dire need of reliable and timely information on the partner bank performance in order to find the most successful one in terms of conducting credit and deposit transactions. Public ratings of banks serve to solve this problem and are considered as one of the effective tools for choosing such a bank. In Ukraine, the rating of banking institutions is not widely used by business entities because of the imperfect methodology of analysis of banks, a rating process that is closed to the public, the assignment of an unreliable rating to selected banks, the use of obtained ratings by banks for marketing purposes, etc. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to improve the existing rating systems for Ukrainian environment. International and domestic regulatory documents on rating, data of the National Bank of Ukraine and commercial banks, materials of rating agencies, as well as scientific publications of well-known Ukrainian and foreign scientists made the theoretical basis of the study. It is proposed to take a number of priority measures to legislatively regulate the activities of bodies for rating scores of banking institutions, to create a branched infrastructure of the rating market and to establish effective interaction of its participants, to end demonopolization and weaken entry barriers and to introduce new agencies in the rating market, to identify new rating methodologies. The conclusions are aimed at the development of a civilized and transparent rating business in Ukraine, which will ultimately contribute to the timely detection and neutralization of crisis phenomena in the banking sector, restoring confidence between banks and their clients, creating the preconditions for making sound business decisions.
Banks and Bank Systems, Volume 14, pp 34-47; doi:10.21511/bbs.14(3).2019.04
Abstract:Highly concentrated banking system risks and the cumulative effect due to their accumulation act as a driver for improving the macro-prudential policy implemented by central banks. For this reason, an effectively and comprehensively assessed systemic risk in the banking system is declared an express condition for the early detection of its production sources and blocking of potential spreading channels, reducing the possible implementation. In light of this, the article develops an approach to the aggregated systemic risk assessment and interpretation of its results. The proposed approach is based on the considered influence exerted by financial risks of systemically important banks on the destabilized banking system and interconnections between banks in the context of the possible crisis impulse spreading. The following steps should be accomplished to form an aggregated systemic risk indicator in the banking system. Firstly, the differentiation of systemically important banks by the degree of their systemic importance; secondly, an integral assessment of the bank operation riskiness within certain bank groups; thirdly, the cumulative composition of the corresponding integral indicators, taking into account their weighting coefficients based on two criteria, namely values of the systemic importance indicator differentiating the bank groups, and the correlation of their risks. Interpreting the quantitative measurement results with regard to the systemic risk in the banking system is followed by the recommendations below: the systemic risk grading into high, medium and low levels and the respective definition of the threshold aggregated systemic risk indicator value which informs about the possible systemic crisis when approached; justification of the selected supervision regime types (strengthened, moderate or weakened) for systemically important banks, depending on the riskiness level specific for their operation and the systemic importance degree. The developed approach to measuring the systemic risk by means of constructing an aggregated indicator and interpreting the obtained results was being tested considering the financial risk indicators of the systemically important banks in Ukraine during 2009–2018.
Banks and Bank Systems, Volume 14, pp 20-33; doi:10.21511/bbs.14(3).2019.03
Abstract:This research examines the way in which traditional banks are competing against the emerging fintech startups. This study identifies driving factors and uniqueness that illustrate the peculiar characteristics of incumbents, analyzes their internal readiness and capabilities, and examines their strategic response against fintech startups. In doing so, this paper examines Small Town Bank (STB)1, a regional bank in Indonesia, regarding its ability to innovate. Data are obtained from primary sources through internal and external questionnaires, as well as secondary data. The results of the study indicate that, in general, the bank already has a reasonably good innovation readiness, but there are several aspects that need to be noted, namely: optimization of current services, consolidation, and internal restructuration. Concurrently, while fintech has a very broad and massive technical and managerial impact, it does not mean that incumbent banks and traditional financial services cannot compete.
Banks and Bank Systems, Volume 14, pp 9-19; doi:10.21511/bbs.14(3).2019.02
Abstract:The national as well as global economy is significantly affected as a result of financial bankruptcy. Therefore, identifying the rates of bankruptcy would be helpful to inspect the reasons for its failure. The present study aims to investigate different ways for the successful treatment of financial bankruptcy based on Islamic teachings, appropriate methods and techniques in handling bankruptcy.The study gathered views of CFOs operating in Al-Hassan Industrial Estate and the views of Islamic banks’ staff working in investment sections through a questionnaire. Analytical statistical procedures were applied to test the hypotheses. The results emphasized the importance of administration, Zakat funds, creditors, and suppliers in addressing financial bankruptcy. The management of Zakat in addressing the financial bankruptcy occupied the highest importance, i.e. 88%. However, lowest relative importance (46%) was achieved by commitment of funds debtors to collect Zakat and distribution in the treatment of financial bankruptcy. The time and opportunity granted by the creditors to individuals and enterprises during bankruptcy hold much importance. The study has recommended establishment of a system derived from Sharia to overcome the financial difficulties.
Banks and Bank Systems, Volume 14, pp 1-8; doi:10.21511/bbs.14(3).2019.01
Abstract:The study investigates the influence of International Financial Reporting Standards adoption, using accounting performance measure, to determine the CEO pay in listed banks in Nigeria. The audited annual financial statements of listed banks in Nigeria covering the period of 2009–2015 are analyzed. Fixed effect model, viz panel data analysis is adopted to establish the findings. The findings indicate that adoption of IFRS in Nigeria results in an inverse relationship with accounting performance in determining the CEO compensation after controlling for firm and corporate governance mechanism. However, the adoption of IFRS shows significant positive influence on the CEO pay. This result has policy implication, which encourages the regulatory agencies like Central Bank of Nigeria to monitor the compliance of all banks in Nigeria to the IFRS adoption.
Banks and Bank Systems, Volume 14, pp 190-202; doi:10.21511/bbs.14(2).2019.17
Abstract:The financial equilibrium (“financial health”) of the enterprises is a prerequisite for their sustainable development, which ensures macroeconomic stability of the economy and the welfare of the state. It should be supported by the banking system, which performs the function of the effective reallocation of capital. Recently, the Ukrainian banking system itself is in a challenging situation and is undergoing a period of transformation. The purpose of the study is to assess how sufficiently the banking system of Ukraine supports the financial equilibrium of enterprises and to find the possibilities to strengthen its role in the progress of the real sector of economy. The authors single out three stages of financial equilibrium growth; each of them can be supported by the relevant banking services. The empirical analysis proves that the Ukrainian banks successfully ensure only the first stage, namely, liquidity balancing. To quantitatively assess the role of the banking system in supporting the enterprises’ financial equilibrium, a multivariate regression applying mathematical gnostic analysis in the program shell R Console is used. The research makes it possible to find out that only the economy monetization, the share of time deposits of economic entities and growth rate of mortgage loans have a positive effect. The authors conclude that the problems of both enterprises and the banking system are in the sphere of development and implementation of government economic policy and are aggravated by the restrictive monetary policy.
Banks and Bank Systems, Volume 14, pp 203-213; doi:10.21511/bbs.14(2).2019.18
Abstract:Various mechanisms for implementation, and at the same time contradictory approaches to the essence, evaluation, reflection, and regulation, led to the need to consider and improve approaches to the recognition of cryptocurrency. Based on the critical analysis of the legal provisions in Ukraine and the approaches of scientific experts, practitioners and international experience, the economic essence of cryptocurrency is substantiated. The legal, economic and accounting aspects of cryptocurrency recognition in developed and transformational economies are revealed. In order to meet the information needs of users, the peculiarities of the application of methods for estimating cryptocurrency commodities and the influence of the chosen method on the reflection of such an asset in the financial statements have been identified. The necessity to clarify and harmonize existing national accounting standards for recognizing and reporting on cryptocurrency transactions has been identified. The proposed approach to the identification and recognition of cryptocurrency goods will improve the relations between the owners of cryptocurrency and the state, legalize cryptocurrency transactions and form an effective system for managing such transactions in Ukraine.