Accounting and Finance Research

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1927-5986 / 1927-5994
Current Publisher: Sciedu Press (10.5430)
Total articles ≅ 530
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Latest articles in this journal

Prince Acheampong, George William Earl
Published: 22 November 2020
Accounting and Finance Research, Volume 9; doi:10.5430/afr.v9n4p85

Doubts remain among stakeholders in academia and the housing industry about the potential success of build-to-rent to generate positive outcomes for institutional investors and affordable dwellings for low- and moderate-income households. However, a systematic study on the viability of build-to-rent to deliver affordable housing in Australia is largely rare and non-existent in the literature. We fill this gap in the literature by investigating the financial viability of build-to-rent and its potential to generate affordable rental housing outcomes in Brisbane, Australia. Using rental prices from CoreLogic (Formerly RP data) and construction-related costing data from WT Partners Australia for 2019, we apply the whole-life costing approach to investment analysis and confirm that build-to-rent can be feasible in Australia under equity financing. Also, we find that under the current regulatory regimes and market structure, build-to-rent will fail to deliver affordable housing outcomes. Moreover, providing free land alone cannot help to make build-to-rent affordable. Thus, significant public subsidy and tax concessions, particularly on Goods and Services Tax (GST) on construction-related costs, may be required if build-to-rent developments are to generate affordable housing outcomes in Australia.
Xin Luo, Fan Zhang
Published: 22 November 2020
Accounting and Finance Research, Volume 9; doi:10.5430/afr.v9n4p70

This study investigates the relation between internal information environment and labor investment efficiency. We argue that better internal information quality allows managers to obtain more timely and accurate information from subordinates and therefore make better decisions in labor investments. Our results suggest that the labor investments of firms with high quality internal information have less deviation from the optimal level. This association holds for both companies in industries with high and low union coverage.
Afnan Alturiqi, Khamoussi Halioui
Published: 20 November 2020
Accounting and Finance Research, Volume 9; doi:10.5430/afr.v9n4p44

The purpose of this study is to empirically investigate the relationship between intellectual capital (IC) measured by the value-added intellectual coefficient (VAIC) and firms’ performance (FP) in the Saudi context. Data are drawn from a sample of 25 Saudi firms listed on the Saudi Stock Exchange (Tadawul) for the period 2015-2018. Using the VAIC model, the multiple linear regression models were constructed to examine the relationship between intellectual capital (IC) and firms’ performance (measured in terms of financial and market performance). The findings indicate that there is a positive association between overall intellectual capital efficiency as well as each of its three components (human capital efficiency, structural capital efficiency, capital employed efficiency) and the firms’ financial performance. Additionally, there is a positive association between human capital efficiency(HCE), structural capital efficiency (SCE), and the firms’ market performance. Overall, the findings suggest that human capital efficiency (HCE) has a significant and positive impact on firms’ financial and market performance in Saudi Arabia. The VAIC method may be a useful tool for managers and investors in their decision process. This is the first study about the impact of intellectual capital on firms’ performance in four industry groups in Saudi Arabia using the VAIC model.
Sabrina Severini
Published: 15 November 2020
Accounting and Finance Research, Volume 9; doi:10.5430/afr.v9n4p32

The aim of this paper is to offer a comprehensive review of Initial Public Offering literature on the pricing and interactions that occur in the IPO primary market. Among the multitude of variables that might affect the way shares are priced and sold in new offerings, the role of previous relationships between issuing firms, investment banks, and institutional investors, i.e. key participants in the listing process, is the object of analysis in the present paper. Existing mixed evidence suggests that repeated interactions among the major players could influence the IPO results in two ways: either by reducing asymmetric information problems or by determining opportunistic behaviours which can be seen in well-known secondary market price anomalies. The originality of the paper lies in the fact that it is the first to provide a review of literature on IPO primary market dynamics, thereby highlighting the way in which relationships between key parties of an IPO shape the entire pricing process. Moreover, this study points out the importance of shifting attention to this market in order to better understand IPO pricing dynamics.
Osman Nal, Andrew Cai
Published: 12 November 2020
Accounting and Finance Research, Volume 9; doi:10.5430/afr.v9n4p17

In this study we provide a practical framework and methodology for analyzing the effects of banking shocks (economic or financial in nature) on bank fundamentals, that avoids the use of complicated econometrics methods. For this, we focus our attention to the effects of the 2007-2008 global financial crisis on the four largest US banks and examine the variation of trends in the select financial ratios for those institutions using quarterly regulatory data running from 2002-Q4 to 2020-Q2. We start by plotting time series charts of those financial ratios for each bank and compare the before-crisis, transition and after-crisis periods. For this, we simply fit trend lines with three parameters of shift, slope, and volatility to the banking data. The shift parameter describes the level change of the variable when before- and after-crisis periods are compared. The slope parameter pronounces the difference in steepness of the trend lines, while the volatility parameter is associated with all three periods and describe the variation in the data during each period. Our results indicate that capital ratios, an important regulatory financial ratio, are higher across the board in the after-crisis period compared to before-crisis period, suggesting a positive shift. We don’t see significant changes in slope parameter for the capital ratio series leading us to suggest the use of dummy variable regression model where slope is treated as a fixed constant. We further show that pre-crisis and transition periods are characterized by higher volatilities that ultimately subside in the after-crisis period. Lastly, we conclude by suggesting that financial practitioners use the shift, slope and volatility parameters in understanding trends in financial time series data since it is easy to implement and interpret the results compared to more sophisticated econometric models.
Francisco A Delgado, Cathy S Goldberg, Carol M. Graham
Published: 28 October 2020
Accounting and Finance Research, Volume 9; doi:10.5430/afr.v9n4p10

In this paper we show that not taking into account the fact that fund managers “deviate” from their stated categories biases upward their alphas. When evaluating fund managers most studies compare managers against the S&P 500 regardless of the sectors managers actually invest in. This procedure does not take into account that an important proportion of US stock managers invest in medium and small companies. This neglect biases performance results. In the international stock arena, not only do studies use the incorrect benchmark but they also neglect to take into account the fact that managers deviate from their stated sector. In this paper we not only employ the correct category the managers invest in but we also take into account the fact that managers systematically drift away from their stated category. This drift occurs for approximately half the funds examined and causes the estimated alpha of managers to be on average 45 basis points higher than it should be if we were to undertake the multiple regression that fund drift demands. In addition to using the right benchmarks, adjusting for “drift” in this paper we chose to use as “benchmarks” the ETF’s in each category so as to compare managers not against theoretical constructs, but against an actual investable vehicle in the corresponding category.
Hisham I. Ahmaro, Abdul Khaliq M. Alrawi
Published: 19 October 2020
Accounting and Finance Research, Volume 9; doi:10.5430/afr.v9n4p1

This paper aims to demonstrate the roles and importance of the operating income of the management of Jordanian industrial companies, and the extent to which they depend on it to make the necessary financial decisions in order to meet their long-term needs. The data was collected from the financial reports of companies representing the study community for the period 2012-2016, after being classified by different industrial sectors. The research employed the operating incomes as an independent variable and long-term internal financial decisions as a dependent variable. The results of the data analysis showed a disparity between the different industrial sectors. The Engineering and Construction industries achieved the highest average of the ratio of long-term internal financing by 0.986, due to the importance of this activity on the Jordanian economy and the size of the high investment in it from the researchers' point of view. The lowest average was shown in the Paper and Cardboard sector by 0.550, due to the lack of investments in it compared to other industrial sectors that are more important to the Jordanian economy. The overall annual average of long-term domestic financing for all sectors was 0.892. The results also showed a statistically significant role for operating income in long-term internal financial decisions by the management of Jordan's public industrial joint stock companies.
Tuan Hamidon, Sampath Kehelwalatenna
Published: 25 August 2020
Accounting and Finance Research, Volume 9; doi:10.5430/afr.v9n3p101

Individual investors trading at the Colombo Stock Exchange (CSE), Sri Lanka, behave irrationally despite objective finance models available for them to refer in making rational decisions. Therefore this paper examines the irrationality by testing whether behavioural finance factors (BF), stock broker’s recommendations (SBR) as a contextual factor, and individual investor’s existing knowledge of the stock market (EK) as a demographic factor affect individual investor’s investment performance (IP). Heuristic behaviour, prospect behaviour and market factors were conceptualised as independent variables of the study whereas SBR and EK act as moderators on the relationship between BF and IP. Data of 221 individual investors of CSE during first half of 2019 were analyzed using structural models to draw empirical evidence to test hypotheses of the study. Results of the study reveal that market information and past stock trends as market factors have a significant bearing on investment decision making, which ultimately affect IP, while the aggregate effect of BF upholds a significant impact on IP. The results expose some novel findings such as: investors receive inferior financial returns when imitating other investors’ trading behaviour whilst trading on SBR; receive lower returns once trading on market factors whilst resuming SBR; and receive mediocre returns when EK is affirmative whilst following other investors’ decisions; and suffer losses when trading on market factors whilst exploiting EK. The findings imply that the stock brokers should not merely consider the output of objective finance models, but market wide herding, market manipulations, market factors and EK in investment recommendations.
Renato Salvatore Camodeca, Christian Prinoth, Umberto Sagliaschi
Published: 24 August 2020
Accounting and Finance Research, Volume 9; doi:10.5430/afr.v9n3p85

The valuation of a company reflects the expected return or equivalently, the cost of capital that investors demand in exchange for the risk assumed. Despite the ex-ante nature of the problem, the majority of empirical analysis has focused on factors explaining expected returns from an ex-post perspective. In this paper, we take a different approach and try to identify which factors are ex-ante included in discount rates, with particular attention to the so-called size premium. Starting from observed market capitalisations and company fundamentals, we obtain the implied cost of capital from the reverse engineering of a carefully designed fundamental valuation model. Panel data regressions are used to investigate the existence of a relation between the implied cost of capital and the firm’s size, including other control variables representative of the most cited asset pricing “anomalies”. Our sample comprises European non-financial stocks listed on primary markets, with half-yearly observations starting from the aftermath of the 2008 global financial crisis. Contrary to common wisdom, we find that the firm’s size has no tangible impact to explain the implied cost of capital.
Fawzi Ata Al-Sawalqa
Published: 24 August 2020
Accounting and Finance Research, Volume 9; doi:10.5430/afr.v9n3p69

This current exploratory study comes at a critical time to determine the risk disclosure pattern of Jordanian companies during Covid-19 pandemic in response to the request of JSC for Jordanian listed companies to prepare and send disclosure reports include the effect of Covid-19 pandemic on their activities in terms of material events, operational activities and the decisions of board of directors during the period of disclosure suspension extending from March 18, 2020 to May 5, 2020. Based on all the non-financial companies that listed in the first market, the results of the study indicated that the entire study sample (100%) did send the disclosure reports to JSC. In terms of the quality of disclosed risks, extraction process resulted in finding 20 risk items distributed over 5 categories. The results show that the average disclosure level is 65.6%, with the operational category ranked first and followed by investor relation category, financial category, strategic category and finally the market category. Results show that those sectors that were suspended completely during Covid-19 pandemic provided risk disclosures in all categories and vice versa. In addition to the several implications, the study offers many avenues for future study based on the risk disclosure model of the current study.
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