Accounting and Finance Research

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1927-5986 / 1927-5994
Published by: Sciedu Press (10.5430)
Total articles ≅ 553
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Latest articles in this journal

David E. Vance
Published: 10 January 2022
Accounting and Finance Research, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.5430/afr.v11n1p1

Abstract:
The Supreme Court and the Public Company Accounting Oversite Board (PCAOB) has said that an amount is material if there is a substantial likelihood it will influence a reasonable investor’s judgment. The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) has said that an amount is material if there is a substantial likelihood it will influence a reasonable user’s judgment. The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) has refused to define materiality. The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has said that qualitative factors can make even small amounts material. Reasonable implies a consensus of opinion. This article is a meta-analysis of 31,155 materiality decisions made by 335 cohorts in 48 studies with the objective of defining what is reasonable. A cohort is a group of like individuals faced with a common materiality decision. Materiality in this study is measured as a percentage of net income. The mean threshold of materiality is 7.84% and the median is 6.81%. Both thresholds are substantially higher than the often-discussed threshold of 5.0%. A quarter of the participants in these studies set the threshold of materiality at 11.90% and the threshold for a statistically significant difference from the consensus is 17.51%. Ultimately, materiality will be decided through civil and criminal litigation. Finders of fact, usually jurors, will be asked to determine what a reasonable investor would conclude. Few jurors have the training and experience of investors, so without context, they can only guess what a reasonable investor would conclude. This study provides that context.
Michael Forzeh Fossung, Samuel Tanjeh Mukah, Kueda Wamba Berthelo, Motika Eubert Nsai
Published: 10 January 2022
Accounting and Finance Research, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.5430/afr.v11n1p13

Abstract:
This study examines the effect of agency theory on the demand for external audit quality in Cameroon. Specifically, it looks at the impact of shareholder/manager agency cost, shareholders/creditors agency cost, and majority/minority shareholders agency cost on external audit quality demand in Cameroon. The focus is on a sample of 171 companies drawn from the regions of Littoral, Centre and North-West using questionnaires. We assess the explanatory power of agency theory on the demand for a better quality of audit in the Cameroonian context by modelling external audit quality as a function of agency costs. The logistic regression analysis allows us to study the nature of any possible interaction. The analysis shows that while an increase in shareholder/creditor agency cost and an increase in shareholder/manager agency cost negatively affect the demand for audit quality, the majority/minority agency cost and the size of the audited client positively and significantly affect the demand for audit quality.
Khuloud Mohammed Alawadhi, Nour Mansour Alshamali, Mansour Mohamed Alshamali
Published: 24 September 2021
Accounting and Finance Research, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5430/afr.v10n4p50

Abstract:
This article examines how the level of financial development has changed in the ten years between 2008 and 2017 in connection to the most significant events in the global economy and finance and how financial development has influenced economic growth in developing countries. The study measures financial development following the World Bank (2020) approach and using indicators of financial access, financial depth, financial efficiency and financial stability, corresponding to financial institutions and financial markets. Based on a two-way fixed effects model, we find that financial development has positively and significantly contributed to economic growth in these countries during the ten years between 2008 and 2017, through increased access of individual consumers and firms to financial products and services. Other variables such as the depth, efficiency and stability of financial institutions and markets do not correlate significantly with the economic growth of developing countries between 2008 and 2017. This paper concludes that the access to financial institutions for individuals living in developing nations is favourably and significantly connected to economic growth in these countries.
Chikashi Tsuji
Published: 24 September 2021
Accounting and Finance Research, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5430/afr.v10n4p13

Abstract:
This paper investigates return transmission, volatility spillovers, and dynamic correlations between the Tokyo Stock Exchange (TSE) Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT) index, the Nikkei 225 index, and the yen/dollar exchange rate. As a result, we find many new findings and these all show our significant contributions as follows. First, there is return transmission from the Nikkei 225 to the TSE REIT index. Second, there is bidirectional return transmission between the Nikkei 225 and the yen/dollar exchange rate. Third, there are bidirectional volatility spillovers between the Nikkei 225 and the TSE REIT index. Fourth, there are volatility spillovers from the Nikkei 225 to the yen/dollar exchange rate. Fifth, dynamic conditional correlations (DCCs) between TSE REIT returns and Nikkei 225 returns are not low. Moreover, DCCs between Nikkei 225 returns and yen/dollar exchange rate changes are not high. Furthermore, DCCs between TSE REIT returns and yen/dollar exchange rate changes are quite low. These our new findings shall be useful for not only deepening our understanding of financial markets but also our related future research.
Sarah Chen
Published: 24 September 2021
Accounting and Finance Research, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5430/afr.v10n4p68

Abstract:
Reviewer Acknowledgements for Accounting and Finance Research, Vol. 10, No. 4, 2021
Chikako Nakayama
Published: 24 September 2021
Accounting and Finance Research, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5430/afr.v10n4p1

Abstract:
This article examines the Libra project, which was announced by Facebook in 2019 as an important turning point in the development of digital currency since Bitcoin. Libra is a kind of stablecoin, and it has been identified as a global stablecoin owing to its wide-ranging impact on the dimension of global finance. Because the Libra project aims to offer a globally accessible low-cost payment system for all users, we analyse it in the research area of global finance with a qualitative approach to the history of economic theories of money and finance. In this area, Karl Polanyi’s thoughts on money and finance and the interpretation by Saiag, which he called a neo-Polanyian approach, deserve attention. Taking this approach, we understand that unofficial functions of haute finance played a significant role in sustaining the international and interdependent financial system in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In this context, although it also saved colonized and dependent regions from falling into financial crises, it was not socially helpful for them. If Libra wants to be the haute finance of our age in the real sense of serving to bring about financial inclusion, such a point should be considered. However, for the moment, existing international monetary institutions are only keen to take regulatory measures against the risk of dirty transactions. There is a substantial lacuna of publicness in the discussion, and this needs to be filled in in the near future.
Zhenning Hong, Ruyan Tian, Qing Yang, Weiliang Yao, Tingting Ye, Liangliang Zhang
Published: 24 September 2021
Accounting and Finance Research, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5430/afr.v10n4p34

Abstract:
In this paper, we document a novel machine learning-based numerical framework to solve static and dynamic portfolio optimization problems, with, potentially, an extremely large number of assets. The framework proposed applies to general constrained optimization problems and overcomes many major difficulties arising in current literature. We not only empirically test our methods in U.S. and China A-share equity markets, but also run a horse-race comparison of some optimization schemes documented in (Homescu, 2014). We record significant excess returns, relative to the selected benchmarks, in both U.S. and China equity markets using popular schemes solved by our framework, where the conditional expected returns are obtained via machine learning regression, inspired by (Gu, Kelly & Xiu, 2020) and (Leippold, Wang & Zhou, 2021), of future returns on pricing factors carefully chosen.
Gnanakumar Visvanathan
Published: 20 June 2021
Accounting and Finance Research, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5430/afr.v10n3p27

Abstract:
This study examines whether audit committee accounting expertise and other audit committee characteristics promote or deter the likelihood of receiving going-concern reports from the auditors and whether such characteristics shield auditors from dismissals after the issuance of a going-concern report. The study finds no significant association between the likelihood of a going-concern report and audit committee accounting expertise or other audit committee characteristics. No significant association is also found for auditor dismissals following going-concern reports and audit committee accounting expertise. These results contrast with prior literature that examined data preceding the passage of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (hereafter SOX) or the period immediately thereafter. Additional analysis shows that audit committee accounting expertise is found to improve the information in going-concern audit opinions by reducing Type I errors, however. Overall, these findings shed light on the evolving role of audit committees in overseeing the auditors and have implications for regulators interested in improving audit quality and investors interested in improving the effectiveness of audit committees.
Aracéli Cristina De S. Ferreira, Vinicius Mothe Maia, Dilo S. de Carvalho Vianna, Juliana Molina Queiroz
Published: 20 June 2021
Accounting and Finance Research, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5430/afr.v10n3p72

Abstract:
This paper develops a unique indicator to identify the financial situation of firms in the electric sector in Brazil. The National Electric Energy Agency (ANEEL) regulates this sector through five dimensions: indebtedness, efficiency, investment, profitability, and pay-out ratio. Each of these dimensions contains one or two indicators. Based on these indicators, we develop a unique indicator that shows companies' financial situation. To create a unique indicator, we follow the idea of Altman’s solvency indicator. But, we use a logit regression. Our dependent variable is Global Performance of Continuity which indicates the financial situation of the firm. Our independent variables are based on the five dimensions of the ANEEL indicators for financial situation. We collect data from 2011 to 2018. This research follows three main steps: (1) Collection of the data from the ANEEL database; (2) Creation of variables based on ANEEL’s five dimensions of performance; and (3) Econometric proceedings with variables according to ANEEL’s data and indicators of each dimension. First, we estimate one regression with all variables created based on ANEEL’s five dimensions. Then, we make improvements to find a more suitable model with different combinations of variables. We chose the best model by analysing the Akaike information criterion (AIC). Our results show that the unique indicator we create to evaluate firm performance is based on Debt, Efficiency, Investment (CapexA) and the Pay-out Ratio.
Marco Patacca, Sergio Focardi
Published: 20 June 2021
Accounting and Finance Research, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5430/afr.v10n3p65

Abstract:
In this paper we analyze the existence of cointegrating relationships between Bitcoin, S&P 500, and the quantity of money M2. We perform our analysis with and without applying time warping pre-processing. In all cases we find strong evidence that, in the period 2016-2021 the three time series show two cointegrating relationships and therefore share a common stochastic trend. In addition, a low correlation between Bitcoin and S&P 500 is detected. These finding justify the increased interest of investors in Bitcoin as an alternative asset class. The economic interpretation is that the stock valuation is primarily determined by financial phenomena, in particular the availability of large quantity of money. Money supporting investment is due both to the actions of Quantitative Easing and to the exchange of creditor/debtor role that took place between households and firms. The price of both Bitcoin and stocks is increasingly influenced by the amount of money in circulation and follows the same stochastic trend.
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