Accounting and Finance Research

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1927-5986 / 1927-5994
Published by: Sciedu Press (10.5430)
Total articles ≅ 553
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Aracéli Cristina De S. Ferreira, Vinicius Mothe Maia, Dilo S. de Carvalho Vianna, Juliana Molina Queiroz
Published: 20 June 2021
Accounting and Finance Research, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5430/afr.v10n3p72

Abstract:
This paper develops a unique indicator to identify the financial situation of firms in the electric sector in Brazil. The National Electric Energy Agency (ANEEL) regulates this sector through five dimensions: indebtedness, efficiency, investment, profitability, and pay-out ratio. Each of these dimensions contains one or two indicators. Based on these indicators, we develop a unique indicator that shows companies' financial situation. To create a unique indicator, we follow the idea of Altman’s solvency indicator. But, we use a logit regression. Our dependent variable is Global Performance of Continuity which indicates the financial situation of the firm. Our independent variables are based on the five dimensions of the ANEEL indicators for financial situation. We collect data from 2011 to 2018. This research follows three main steps: (1) Collection of the data from the ANEEL database; (2) Creation of variables based on ANEEL’s five dimensions of performance; and (3) Econometric proceedings with variables according to ANEEL’s data and indicators of each dimension. First, we estimate one regression with all variables created based on ANEEL’s five dimensions. Then, we make improvements to find a more suitable model with different combinations of variables. We chose the best model by analysing the Akaike information criterion (AIC). Our results show that the unique indicator we create to evaluate firm performance is based on Debt, Efficiency, Investment (CapexA) and the Pay-out Ratio.
Gnanakumar Visvanathan
Published: 20 June 2021
Accounting and Finance Research, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5430/afr.v10n3p27

Abstract:
This study examines whether audit committee accounting expertise and other audit committee characteristics promote or deter the likelihood of receiving going-concern reports from the auditors and whether such characteristics shield auditors from dismissals after the issuance of a going-concern report. The study finds no significant association between the likelihood of a going-concern report and audit committee accounting expertise or other audit committee characteristics. No significant association is also found for auditor dismissals following going-concern reports and audit committee accounting expertise. These results contrast with prior literature that examined data preceding the passage of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (hereafter SOX) or the period immediately thereafter. Additional analysis shows that audit committee accounting expertise is found to improve the information in going-concern audit opinions by reducing Type I errors, however. Overall, these findings shed light on the evolving role of audit committees in overseeing the auditors and have implications for regulators interested in improving audit quality and investors interested in improving the effectiveness of audit committees.
Marco Patacca, Sergio Focardi
Published: 20 June 2021
Accounting and Finance Research, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5430/afr.v10n3p65

Abstract:
In this paper we analyze the existence of cointegrating relationships between Bitcoin, S&P 500, and the quantity of money M2. We perform our analysis with and without applying time warping pre-processing. In all cases we find strong evidence that, in the period 2016-2021 the three time series show two cointegrating relationships and therefore share a common stochastic trend. In addition, a low correlation between Bitcoin and S&P 500 is detected. These finding justify the increased interest of investors in Bitcoin as an alternative asset class. The economic interpretation is that the stock valuation is primarily determined by financial phenomena, in particular the availability of large quantity of money. Money supporting investment is due both to the actions of Quantitative Easing and to the exchange of creditor/debtor role that took place between households and firms. The price of both Bitcoin and stocks is increasingly influenced by the amount of money in circulation and follows the same stochastic trend.
Wafa Chabeb, Adel Boubaker
Published: 20 June 2021
Accounting and Finance Research, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5430/afr.v10n3p93

Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to estimate the functions impulsions-response of liquidity on the Tunisian Stock Exchange (TSE). We will use the methodology proposed by Abrigo and Love (2016). Our study is done on an order-driven market. The data is composed of high frequency data of orders listed on the TSE for the period April 2014 to June 2014. Inspired of the study of Jarnecic and Snape (2014), we apply a panel VAR model to stocks traded in continuous in order to examine the dynamic interactions between spread, volatility, size and frequency of transactions. Then we study the liquidity of the TSE through the impulse response function of the Panel VAR model. Our findings show dynamic relationships between spread, volatility, size and frequency of trading. Some differences exist in the dynamics of liquidity when we take into account the trading intensity of the stock. Furthermore, we note that shocks are absorbed after three gaps of 45minutes.
Samuel Tanjeh Mukah
Published: 20 June 2021
Accounting and Finance Research, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5430/afr.v10n3p83

Abstract:
The study examined the practice of stewardship accounting by Government Ministries in Cameroon. It investigated how inclusive budget planning, timely budget execution, stringent budget control, and resolute scrutiny of government financial statements, affect the government stewardship accounting practice. To archive this, primary data collected from members of parliament were analysed, and regressed using the Ordinary Least Squares technique. The empirical results therefrom were of positive and statistical significance. They revealed that stringent budget control, and resolute scrutiny of government financial reports, significantly improve the practice of stewardship accounting in the Government Ministries. It was recommended that the government of Cameroon should frankly facilitate the participation of parliamentarians, civil society organisations, advocacy groups, and the citizens, in the budget preparation and execution processes. Such sincere participation invokes debates on problematic trade-offs and opportunity costs which are crucial in improving the wellbeing of Cameroonians. It was further recommended that parliamentarians should effectively play their role as representatives of the Cameroonian people, not withstanding their political inclinations. Consequently, they will not falter in their responsibility to resolutely scrutinise and authorise the budgets, and hold the Government and its Ministries fully accountable. The last recommendation was that Article 66 of the Cameroon Constitution (lying dormant since 2006) be put into practice. Article 66 provides for the declaration of assets by senior government officials, and others elected or appointed, at the beginning and at the end of their office tenures.
Damiano Montani, Daniele Gervasio, Andrea Pulcini, Camilla Marchesi
Published: 20 June 2021
Accounting and Finance Research, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5430/afr.v10n3p44

Abstract:
The process of accounting harmonisation via International Accounting Standards/International Financial Reporting Standards (IAS/IFRS) adoption is very widespread, and it is still involving a huge number of countries all over the world.Previous academic literature investigated the impact of this process from different perspectives, such as the quality of financial reports, the transparency of financial disclosures, the liquidity of the financial markets and the cost of equity.The aim of this article is to contribute to the research stream exploring the effects of IAS/IFRS adoption, investigating if accounting harmonisation through the IAS/IFRS has had an impact on the internationalisation process. To achieve our objective, two multiple linear regression analyses are presented. The first one focuses on the impact of the adoption of IAS/IFRS on foreign direct investments (FDIs) using data collected from a sample of 34 Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) member countries. The second statistical analysis investigates the influence of IAS/IFRS adoption on cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&A), considering operations carried out by European-listed companies towards target companies located in the 34 OECD member countries. The FDIs and cross-border M&A are considered proxies of the internationalisation process.Preliminary results show that the adoption of IAS/IFRS has positively affected FDI flows and increased the value of cross-border M&A.This study has tried to provide theoretical contributions to the literature stream about the effects of the harmonisation process with IAS/IFRS adoption, showing the beneficial impact they may have on the internationalisation process. Moreover, our findings can be useful for policymakers and managers, suggesting that becoming IAS/IFRS adopters can facilitate the internationalisation process of the companies.
Sarah Chen
Published: 20 June 2021
Accounting and Finance Research, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5430/afr.v10n3p104

Abstract:
Reviewer Acknowledgements for Accounting and Finance Research, Vol. 10, No. 3, 2021
Carol L. Cain, Gary M. Fleischman, Antonio J. Macias, Juan Manuel Sanchez
Published: 20 June 2021
Accounting and Finance Research, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5430/afr.v10n3p1

Abstract:
This study examines the acquisition dynamics associated with the target management’s choice to initiate the sale of the firm using the auction method. Specifically, we examine opportunistic merger and acquisition (M&A) dynamics related to the target-initiated method-of-sale decision (auctions vs. one-on-one negotiations), as a noteworthy example of Akerlof’s (1970) theory of the market for lemons. While we find a strong positive relationship between proxies of adverse selection risk and the likelihood of target initiation, robustness tests suggest target initiation itself is a unique indicator of information asymmetry in an acquisition environment. We also find that most target-initiated transactions follow an auction as the method of sale, which increases target information asymmetry advantages. While wealth accrued to both bidders and targets increases in non-target-initiated auctions, this benefit disappears when the target initiates the acquisition, causing both bidders and targets to suffer wealth losses. According to Akerlof’s theory, these wealth losses represent the cost of perceived dishonesty due to enhanced adverse section risk, which provides noteworthy implications for both business and society.
Sarah Chen
Published: 7 April 2021
Accounting and Finance Research, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5430/afr.v10n2p87

Abstract:
Reviewer Acknowledgements for Accounting and Finance Research, Vol. 10, No. 2, 2021
Sahbi Missaoui, Nizar Raissi
Published: 7 April 2021
Accounting and Finance Research, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5430/afr.v10n2p1

Abstract:
The fundamental problematic treated in our study was an attempt to explain an anomaly in the issuance of new stocks in IPOs process. The objective of this research is to analyze the effect of certain variables on the level of undervaluation by presenting certain econometric models issued from Agent-based modelling approach. Certain variables can be predictive of the phenomenon of undervaluation such as: the Stock equity distributed to institutional investors, liquidity in the secondary market measured by the price range and the type of investor who can be insiders or outsiders, in addition to these variables we have introduced some control variables which in turn help explain the level of underpricing and which are the age of the company, its size and dimension, the volume of trade and the volatility. Empirically and based on a sample of 16 companies, we were able to respond to our problematic. In fact, according to the hypotheses tests, the prices of the newly introduced stocks on the stock exchange are mostly undervalued which were aligned with our study. Thereby, the methodology adopted based to Dynamic linear models (DLM) that allows offering a very generic framework to analyse time series data. The results of this research were, in part, consistent with work done in developed countries (especially in USA and Europe). Indeed, the undervaluation is in a positive relationship with certain explanatory variables such as the Institutional ownership (INST), Insiders ownership (INSID), Price range (FOUR), etc. On the other hand, we were able to identify significant negative relationships between the initial undervaluation and the basic variable Outsiders ownership (OUTSID), the size of companies listed on the Tunis Stock exchange (BVMT) and the volume of issued stocks.
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