International Journal of Renewable Energy Development

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 22524940 / 22524940
Current Publisher: Diponegoro University (10.14710)
Total articles ≅ 222
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Latest articles in this journal

Siti Jamilatun, B. Budhijanto, R. Rochmadi, Avido Yuliestyan, H. Hadiyanto, Arief Budiman
International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, Volume 8, pp 133-140; doi:10.14710/ijred.8.2.133-140

Abstract:Today’s needs of energy are yet globally dominated by fossil energy sources, causing the depletion of non-renewable energy. Alternatively, a potential substitute is the energy of biomass. Spirulina platensis (SP) is a microalgae biomass which, if extracted, will produce solid waste called Spirulina platensis residue (SPR). This research explores the pyrolysis product, produced within the range of 300 – 600 ºC, from the pyrolysis of SP and SPR using fixed bed reactors. The influence of temperature on pyrolysis product’s yield and characteristics are investigated by using mass balance method and gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique, respectively. The results from mass balance method present an optimum pyrolysis temperature of 550 ºC to obtain the desired liquid product of bio-oil, presenting the percentage of 34.59 wt.% for SP and 33.44 wt.% for SPR case. Additionally, with the increasing temperature, the char yield decreases for about 30 wt.% and the yield of gas seems to sharp increase from 550 to 600 ºC. These tendencies are both applied for SP and SPR source pyrolysis product. Interestingly, the benefit use as fossil fuel substitute might be derived, thanks to high HHV at the bio-oil product (32.04 MJ/kg for SP and 25.70 MJ/kg for SPR) and also at the char product with of 18.85-26.12 MJ/kg for both cases. The additional benefit come from the high content of C in its char product (50.31 wt.% for SPR and 45.26 wt.% for SP) that might be able to be used as an adsorbent, soil softener or other uses in the pharmaceutical field. ©2019. CBIORE-IJRED. All rights reserved
Bapayya Naidu Kommula, Venkata Reddy Kota
International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, Volume 8, pp 161-168; doi:10.14710/ijred.8.2.161-168

Abstract:This paper proposes a new converter topology for torque ripple reduction in Brushless DC (BLDC) motor. Due to the torque ripple problem, the use of this motor is limited to few applications. In this paper, a Single Input Double Output (SIDO) converter is proposed to suppress the torque ripple in BLDC motor. The proposed SIDO converter provides two output voltages. One for supplying the motor throughout conduction time and second output voltage is given to the non-commutating phase of motor during commutation instants. This proposed SIDO converter is fed from Photo Voltaic (PV) system. This paper also presents a new Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) based on trisection of Power-Voltage characteristics (TPVC) to attain the maximum power from the PV system. This scheme takes only 7 iterations to reach MPP. The intended configuration is developed and simulated in Matlab/Simulink environment. The results justify the superiority of proposed scheme that minimizes torque ripple in BLDC motor to only 6 to 12% from 50 to 80 % in conventional scheme and also extracts maximum power from PV system. ©2019. CBIORE-IJRED. All rights reserved
Nigran Homdoung, Nattawud Dussadee, Kittikorn Sasujit, Tanongkiat Kiatsiriroat, Nakorn Tippayawong
International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, Volume 8, pp 179-184; doi:10.14710/ijred.8.2.179-184

Abstract:Municipal solid waste (MSW) and charcoal can be used as a substitute fuel in a gas engine. In this work, performance of a downdraft gasifier and gas engine system operated on MSW briquette fuel was investigated. Experimental test was carried out on a 62 kW, four-cylinder, naturally aspirated engine coupled to a 20 kW dynamometer. The downdraft gasifier was used to generate producer gas from MSW briquettes and charcoal. The engine load was varied between 1.5-9.0 kW. Biomass consumption, producer gas production, cold gas efficiency, thermal efficiency of the gas engine, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) emissions and exhaust temperature were evaluated. The MSW briquette fuelled operation was compared against that with charcoal. It was found that, the use of MSW briquette led to lowering performance of the downdraft gasifier and gas engine system, in comparison with the use of charcoal. Maximum cold gas and thermal efficiencies obtained were 64.6% and 16% at 4.5 kW and 9 kW loading, respectively. The CO and HC emissions of the gas engine operated on MSW briquettes were higher than that on charcoal, while the exhaust temperatures were similar. ©2019. CBIORE-IJRED. All rights reserved
Ba Abdellahi, Mohamed El Mamy Mohamed Mahmoud, Ne Ould Dah, Amadou Diakité, Aroudam El Hassen, Chighali Ehssein
International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, Volume 8, pp 193-201; doi:10.14710/ijred.8.2.193-201

Abstract:Nowadays, water pumping systems powered by solar-cell generators are one of the most important applications. It’s a promising alternative to conventional electricity and diesel based pumping systems, especially for applications like community water supplies and irrigation. This study presents a monitored standalone photovoltaic solar direct pumping system using the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm to optimize the solar photovoltaic conversion efficiency. It was done at ISET-Rosso in Mauritania. The experimental setup based on Lorentz PS1200C-SJ8-5 pumping system consists of four photovoltaic (PV) panels, inverter PS1200, BLDC motor, centrifugal pump and a storage tank. The system has been monitored, in order to determine the relationship between: the DC power produced by the PV generator and the solar radiation; the water flow and the DC power and by then the relationship between the water flow and the solar radiation. The effect of ambient temperature and solar radiation on the PV panels was also done under Matlab/Simulink environment and compared to the experimental results. ©2019. CBIORE-IJRED. All rights reserved
Ghalya Pikra, Nur Rohmah
International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, Volume 8, pp 141-148; doi:10.14710/ijred.8.2.141-148

Abstract:Regenerative organic Rankine cycle (RORC) can be used to improve organic Rankine cycle (ORC) performance. This paper presents a comparison of a single (SSRORC) and double stage regenerative organic Rankine cycle (DSRORC) using a medium grade heat source. Performance for each system is estimated using the law of thermodynamics I and II through energy and exergy balance. Solar thermal is used as the heat source using therminol 55 as a working fluid, and R141b is used as the organic working fluid. The initial data for the analysis are heat source with 200°C of temperature, and 100 L/min of volume flow rate. Analysis begins by calculating energy input to determine organic working fluid mass flow rate, and continued by calculating energy loss, turbine power and pump power consumption to determine net power output and thermal efficiency. Exergy analysis begins by calculating exergy input to determine exergy efficiency. Exergy loss, exergy destruction at the turbine, pump and feed heater is calculated to complete the calculation. Energy estimation result shows that DSRORC determines better net power output and thermal efficiency for 7.9% than SSRORC, as well as exergy estimation, DSRORC determines higher exergy efficiency for 7.69%. ©2019. CBIORE-IJRED. All rights reserved
Md. Mustafizur Rahman, Chowdhury Sadid Alam, Tm Abir Ahsan
International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, Volume 8, pp 113-118; doi:10.14710/ijred.8.2.113-118

Abstract:Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an extremely useful tool to assess the environmental impacts of a solar photovoltaic system throughout its entire life. This tool can help in making sustainable decisions. A solar PV system does not have any operational emissions as it is free from fossil fuel use during its operation. However, considerable amount of energy is used to manufacture and transport the components (e.g. PV panels, batteries, charge regulator, inverter, supporting structure, etc.) of the PV system. This study aims to perform a comprehensive and independent life cycle assessment of a 3.6 kWp solar photovoltaic system in Bangladesh. The primary energy consumption, resulting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CH4, N2O, and CO2), and energy payback time (EPBT) were evaluated over the entire life cycle of the photovoltaic system. The batteries and the PV modules are the most GHG intensive components of the system. About 31.90% of the total energy is consumed to manufacture the poly-crystalline PV modules. The total life cycle energy use and resulting GHG emissions were found to be 76.27 MWhth and 0.17 kg-CO2eq/kWh, respectively. This study suggests that 5.34 years will be required to generate the equivalent amount of energy which is consumed over the entire life of the PV system considered. A sensitivity analysis was also carried out to see the impact of various input parameters on the life cycle result. The other popular electricity generation systems such as gas generator, diesel generator, wind, and Bangladeshi grid were compared with the PV system. The result shows that electricity generation by solar PV system is much more environmentally friendly than the fossil fuel-based electricity generation. ©2019. CBIORE-IJRED. All rights reserved
Afrooz Rahimi Ariae, Mehdi Jahangiri, Mehdi Haghgo Fakhr, Akbar Alidadi Shamsabadi
International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, Volume 8, pp 149-160; doi:10.14710/ijred.8.2.149-160

Abstract:Biomass is a type of renewable energy that, in despite of its potentials and advantages including simple production technology, decreasing environmental issues, and energy generation capacity at the consumption site, has not been sufficiently utilized in Iran. Since, due to statistics, Isfahan enjoys remarkable prospects in terms of wind, solar and biomass energies, a combined system of indigenous energy sources for powering a cattle farm has been investigated and evaluated in this study. To evaluate the possibility of the optimal system for comparative reasons, the HOMER software was used. The designed hybrid system was a wind-solar-biomass generator that used a battery saver as backup. Although it seems that wind and solar energies have the highest potential for energy generation in Isfahan, the results showed that biomass, by itself, can provide the required power for a cattle farm. In fact, biomass energy was more economically efficient than wind and solar energies. Owing to the low electricity cost, generated from fossil fuels, in Iran, relative to a large number of countries, the findings revealed that using biomass for generating the electricity of a cattle farm will compensate the expenses by the mid-15th year and will generate profit for 9.5 years later. The results also showed that the solar cell-based hybrid system is cheaper than the wind turbine-based one. Regarding the price of per kWh of electricity produced, the results showed that the biomass generator system with the price 0.12 $/kWh is the cheapest, and the solar cell-based and wind turbine-based hybrid systems are 3.33% and 10.83% more expensive, respectively. The results can be used for electricity generation with minimum pollution and expenses in the same regions. ©2019. CBIORE-IJRED. All rights reserved
Mohammdreza Nazemzadegan, Roghayeh Ghasempour
International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, Volume 8, pp 169-178; doi:10.14710/ijred.8.2.169-178

Abstract:Hydrogen as a CO2-free fuel has been considered as a serious alternative for problematic fossil fuels in recent decades Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is a developing solar-based technology for hydrogen production. In this study, some possible options for upgrading this technology from R&D stage to prototype stage through a material selection approach is investigated. For these purpose, TOPSIS algorithm through a multi criteria decision making (MCDM) approach was utilized for evaluating different (PEC)-based hydrogen production materials. TiO2, WO3 and BiVO4 as three semiconductors known for their PEC application, were selected as alternatives in this decision-making study. After defining a set of criteria, which were assessed based on similar studies and experts' visions, a group of ten PEC-experts including university professors and PhD students were asked to fill the questionnaires. The eight criteria considered in this study are include "Study Cost", "Synthesis Simplicity", "Facility & Availability", "Deposition capability on TCO", "Modifiability", "Commercialization in H2 production", "Physical and Chemical Durability" and "Eco-friendly Fabrication". The final TOPSIS results indicates that TiO2 is selected as the best semiconductor for further investments in order to upgrade the PEC-based hydrogen production technology from R&D level to prototype stage. ©2019. CBIORE-IJRED. All rights reserved
Abdul Qayoom Jakhrani, Temoor Abbas Larik, Abdul Rehman Jatoi, Kishan Chand Mukwana
International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, Volume 8, pp 185-192; doi:10.14710/ijred.8.2.185-192

Abstract:A line focusing concentrated solar distillation unit was developed and its techno-economic analysis was carried out using batch flow, continuous flow without and with tracking mechanisms. Physical quality parameters of feed and distilled water samples, water temperature at different points, performance analysis and estimated production of developed unit were examined. The examined quality parameters of distilled water were well below permissible limits. The water temperature inside the concentrated tube was in the range of 107.0˚C to 109.0˚C. The quantity of distilled water was observed to be inversely proportional to the amount of total dissolved solids in the water samples. The measured average daily and estimated lifetime yield from the developed unit during batch flow was 4.0 and 13,621.0 liters, for continuous flow without tracking 5.1 and 19,689.0 liters, and with tracking mechanism 5.7 and 21,758.0 liters, respectively. The continuous flow with tracking mechanism was found as best method for the production of distilled water. The total life cycle cost of the project was estimated to be PKR 62,144.00. The estimated unit cost of the distilled water per liter would be PKR 6.06 for continuous flow with tracking and PKR 9.69 for batch flow technique. ©2019. CBIORE-IJRED. All rights reserved
Xuan Phuong Nguyen, Hai Nam Vu
International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, Volume 8, pp 119-132; doi:10.14710/ijred.8.2.119-132

Abstract:Biodiesel, an environmentally-friendly bio-fuel, has been regarded as one of the most promising alternatives to fossil fuels whose use is rampant in the transportation sector. However, it is important that the corrosive effects of this fuel on engines are studied. This work reviews the corrosiveness that biodiesel exerts on various engine components, especially those made out of metals. First, an analysis of the corrosion mechanisms of metals exposed to biodiesel is provided. The conventional and advanced analysis methods will be applied to measure the level of corrosiveness in static immersion test, and to assess the formation of secondary products, if any, in biodiesel and any metal strips in contact with biodiesel-based fuel. The use of inhibitions to guard against corrosion will be mentioned. Lastly, several significant causes of metal corrosion, namely, the presence of dissolved oxygen and oxidation products, TAN change, a rise in dissolved water, the presence of metals, and the changes in biodiesel properties will also be presented. ©2019. CBIORE-IJRED. All rights reserved