Applied Sciences

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EISSN : 2076-3417
Published by: MDPI (10.3390)
Total articles ≅ 28,391
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Published: 27 September 2021
by MDPI
Applied Sciences, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11198981

Abstract:
Optical methods of super-resolution microscopy, such as confocal microscopy, structured illumination, nonlinear microscopy, and image scanning microscopy are reviewed. These methods avoid strong invasive interaction with a sample, allowing the observation of delicate biological samples. The meaning of resolution and the basic principles and different approaches to superresolution are discussed.
Published: 27 September 2021
by MDPI
Applied Sciences, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11198982

Abstract:
With the increased incidence of traumatic injuries and the advanced understanding of the periodontal and alveolar healing process, teeth splinting has become a common practice for stabilizing traumatized teeth. Consequently, several splinting materials and techniques have been introduced in the past few years. Despite the detrimental role of bacterial biofilm on healing, the level of biofilm development on these material surfaces has not been well investigated. Bacterial biofilms are severely detrimental for periodontal healing of avulsed and luxated teeth. Thus, biofilm growth becomes a critical factor in selecting the material of choice for dental splints. In this study, we aim to assess the level of oral biofilm growth on four different splinting systems: Ribbond©, orthodontic NiTi wire, monofilament fishing line, and Titanium Trauma Splint. A total of 72 extracted anterior teeth were divided into four groups. We splinted six rows of three teeth each per group. The teeth selected were caries-free and periodontitis-free at the time of extraction. To assess biofilm growth, a supragingival dental plaque sample was cultured and directly inoculated into all groups. After 7 days, bacterial growth was quantified by live/dead fluorescent microscopy assay and colony forming unit counts (CFU). Using one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni’s post hoc tests, we demonstrated that all splint systems allowed for bacterial growth. However, the Titanium Trauma Splint (TTS) allowed for the least amount of biofilm growth compared to other splint systems.
Published: 26 September 2021
by MDPI
Applied Sciences, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11198950

Abstract:
The presented paper examines the students’ adoption of the use of a cost-effective biofeedback system for anxiety awareness in parallel to examination activities. Human anxiety is classified by evaluating bio-signals related to skin conductance, skin temperature and heart rate. The participants of the research were 44 students who were taking examinations in the form of synchronous online tests in the classroom for one of their courses. At first, the usability of the biofeedback system was examined using the system usability scale (SUS). The statistical analysis indicated that the examined system usability is quite satisfactory. Then, the study attempted to investigate the relationships between the students’ technology readiness personality dimensions, perceptions of usability, and the usefulness of the presented system by exploiting the technology readiness and acceptance model (TRAM). The results showed that the students’ optimism and attitude towards using the system are significant factors that affect the model’s relationships. The examined relationships are presented via a path model.
Published: 26 September 2021
by MDPI
Applied Sciences, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11198953

Abstract:
The large length indoor standard installation (LLISI) serves as a standard traceability system for large-scale measuring devices, and hence evaluating the accuracy of its measurements during motion is of great importance. A laser tracker, as a single-point scanning method with strong anti-interference ability and high accuracy for 3D measurement, can meet the measurement requirements of LLISI. In this study, a laser tracker was used to evaluate the accuracy of LLISI during motion based on the single-point scanning method. Fifteen measurement combinations including five measurement intervals and three measurement speeds were selected in the experiment and the results were compared with the measurement data of a laser interferometer. By analyzing the local movement speed of the ISS platform, the uncertainty in local measurement speed of the platform was evaluated. The results showed that the laser tracker has high measurement accuracy and good repeatability for the measurement of LLISI, which can provide strong support for data resource protection of LLISI.
Published: 26 September 2021
by MDPI
Applied Sciences, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11198957

Abstract:
In this study, transport and retention behaviors of the two types of nZnO prepared with separate manufacturing methods were compared/analyzed according to the presence/absence of Suwannee River humic acid (SRHA) adsorbed into the sand surface and the SRHA suspended in bulk solution, and to changes in the solution ionic strength (0.1–10 mM) in sand-repacked water-saturated columns. In the absence of suspended SRHA, nZnO-1 breakthrough was observed only in SRHA-coated soil, and the breakthrough amount decreased with the increase in the ionic strength (23.8% to 17.2% at 0.1 mM to 10 mM, respectively). In contrast, nZnO-2 breakthrough was not observed over the entire ionic strength range, regardless of the SRHA sand coating. With the presence of suspended SRHA, neither nZnO-1 nor nZnO-2 showed a significant difference in the breakthrough amount regardless of sand coating or ionic strength. However, the breakthrough amount of nZnO-1 was higher than that of nZnO-2 (51.5% versus 37.7% at 10 mM with 1 mg/L SRHA). From confirming the difference in transport between the two types of nZnO, the amount of SRHA adsorbed into nZnO-1 was less than the amount adsorbed into nZnO-2 (0.29 mg/g versus 0.64 mg/g at 10 mM with 1 mg/L SRHA). This result was considered to be due to the larger nZnO-1 breakthrough amount than the nZnO-2 breakthrough amount, which was caused by the larger amount of suspended SRHA that could occupy the deposition sites in the nZnO-1 suspension. Because the rate of SRHA deposition on the sand surface was higher than on nZnO, nZnO transport improved in the presence of suspended SRHA, and changed according to the amount of suspended SRHA.
Published: 26 September 2021
by MDPI
Applied Sciences, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11198959

Abstract:
The objective of this study was to develop an innovative method of potato cultivation, with limited use of chemicals, for use in food processing. The results of the research are based on field experiments carried out between 2015 and 2017 at the Experimental Station in Parczew, Poland. The first-order factors were cultivation practices: A—standard cultivation practices with fungicides to control potato blight; and cultivation practices B, C, and D using the application of effective microorganisms (EM). The potato varieties were the second-order factor. The scope of the research included assessing the flesh color of the raw tubers and the content of dry mass, sugars and vitamin C. The color measurement of raw tubers was carried out using the CIEL *a *b* system. Cultivation methods using applications of effective microorganisms contributed significantly to the change in color brightness of the raw tuber flesh compared to the standard methods. The flesh color of the research potato cultivar tubers, their trichromatic coordinates and the reactions of potato varieties were determined according to the cultivation practices used. It was found that the brightness of the color of raw tuber flesh depends on the content of dry matter and the content of reducing sugars in the tubers.
Published: 26 September 2021
by MDPI
Applied Sciences, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11198954

Abstract:
The interest in developing efficient nano and pico-satellites has grown in the last 20 years. Secondary propulsion systems capable of serving specific maneuvers are an essential part of these small satellites. In particular, Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Vaporizing Liquid Microthrusters (VLM), using water as a propellant, represent today a smart choice in terms of simplicity and cost. In this paper, we first propose a review of the international literature focused on MEMS VLM development, reviewing the different geometries and heating solutions proposed in the literature. Then, we focus on a critical aspect of these micro thrusters: the presence of unstable phenomena. In particular, the boiling instabilities and reverse channel flow substantially impact the MEMS VLMs’ performance and limit their applicability. Finally, we review the research focused on the passive and active control of the boiling instabilities, based on VLM geometry optimization and active heating strategies, respectively. Today, these ones represent the two principal research axes followed by the scientific community to mitigate the drawbacks linked to the use of MEMS VLMs.
Published: 26 September 2021
by MDPI
Applied Sciences, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11198966

Abstract:
As most existing office buildings in China lack fresh air systems for ventilation, natural ventilation with windows remains the main means of improving indoor air quality and adjusting indoor thermal comfort. However, knowledge of the ventilation characteristics of various window-opening forms in actual buildings is limited and current methods for evaluating ventilation performance lack a comprehensive consideration of ventilation rate and thermal comfort. In this study, the ventilation characteristics of different window-opening forms were systematically compared by conducting computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. A full-scale experiment was conducted in a typical office room in a university in Tianjin to validate the CFD simulation. Two ventilation modes (wind-driven cross-ventilation and temperature-driven single-sided ventilation), three window-opening angles, and seven window types were investigated. Additionally, the ratio of the ventilation rate to the absolute value of thermal sensation was used to quantify the indoor natural-ventilation performance. The results showed that a sliding window with a full opening has the highest discharge coefficients of 0.68 and 0.52 under wind-driven cross-ventilation and temperature-driven single-sided ventilation, respectively, and top-hung windows opening both inwards and outwards have better ventilation performance than other window types under the two ventilation modes. This study is applicable to the design and practice of natural ventilation.
Published: 26 September 2021
by MDPI
Applied Sciences, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11198968

Abstract:
Although Wiener process models with the consideration of uncertainties, which are nonlinearity, random effects, and measurement errors, have been developed for lifetime prediction in the accelerated degradation test (ADT), they fail to describe the real degradation process because these models assume that the drift parameter correlates with the applied stress, while the diffusion parameter is constant. This paper put forward a nonlinear doubly Wiener constant-stress accelerated degradation model, where both diffusion and drift parameters were compatible with the applied stress according to the acceleration factor constant principle. When degradation data were available, we obtained the unknown parameters by applying a maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) algorithm in the constant-stress ADT (CSADT) model taking uncertainties into account. In addition, the proposed model’s effectiveness was validated through an illustrative example, and an application to the traveling wave tube (TWT) was carried out to demonstrate the superiority of our model in practical applications.
Published: 26 September 2021
by MDPI
Applied Sciences, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11198975

Abstract:
Doppler backscattering (DBS) is a microwave diagnostics method typically used to study the plasma rotation velocity. Apart from conventional techniques, more advanced forms of DBS implementation were suggested on Globus-M. More specifically the study of a variety of oscillating processes was performed using DBS. In this review we present a detailed description of all of the methods and techniques employed in Globus-M alongside results obtained using DBS in all the years up until the shutdown of the tokamak. These include research similar to that done on other devices into the properties of such phenomena like geodesic acoustic modes or limit cycle oscillations, along with innovative works regarding the detection and investigation of Alfven eigenmodes and filaments that were the first of their kind and that provided important and novel results. Apart from that, the specific aspects of DBS application on a spherical tokamak are discussed. An in-depth look into the gradual change and improvement of the DBS diagnostics on Globus-M is also presented in this paper.
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