Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 14108917 / 25979914
Current Publisher: Diponegoro University (10.14710)
Total articles ≅ 217
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Mokhamat Ariefin, Vety Sri Harlinda Ayudha
Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi, Volume 23, pp 261-266; doi:10.14710/jksa.23.7.261-266

Abstract:
Two potential compounds as an n-Type organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) from benzodithiophene (BDT) derivatives have been synthesized and characterized. BDT was chosen as the core because it has π-conjugated bonds, rigid structures, and planar. Quinoid structure with end-cap (terminal group) in the form of dicyanomethylene is used because it can lower the LUMO value of the compound, and side chains are selected in the form of alkoxy so that two BDT derivatives are obtained namely BDTQ-6 (hexyloxy) and BDTQ-10 (decyloxy). Based on the results of TGA, BDTQ-6 and BDTQ-10 have decomposition points of 183°C and 203°C, which indicate the compound has excellent thermal stability. From the UV-Vis measurement, the λmax value of the two compounds is 599 nm with optical gap energy (Eg°pt) of 1.7 eV. From the DPV measurement, the LUMO value for the two compounds is -4.3 eV, with an energy gap (Eg) of 1.69 eV (BDTQ-6) and 1.70 eV (BDTQ-10). Based on observations of the crystal structure through x-ray diffraction, it was found that the BDTQ-10 crystal has a "brick type" layer arrangement with a distance between layers of 3.55 Å. With excellent thermal stability and suitable LUMO values and energy gaps, it is expected that BDTQ-6 and BDTQ-10 compounds have the potential to be n-Type OTFT materials.
Muhammad Rizki Kurniawan, Aji Humaedi, Ahmad Fitra Ritonga
Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi, Volume 23, pp 255-260; doi:10.14710/jksa.23.7.255-260

Abstract:
The Centrifugal liquid Membrane (CLM) method, which provides an ultra-thin two-phase liquid membrane system in a rotating glass cell, was successfully applied to Green Synthesis from Polyscias scutellaria (PS) capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs-PS) using a Mangkokan leaf (Polyscias scutellaria) extract as a reducing agent and stabilizer in the hexane-water system. PS extract in hexane fraction as the organic phase has a UV absorption spectrum at the maximum wavelength, λmax of 220 nm, while the precursor of HAuCl4 solution as an aqueous phase has an λmax of 214 nm. Investigation of AuNPs-PS formation was carried out at various concentrations of Mangkokan leaf extract concentration; i.e., 0.001 0.003; 0.005; 0.007 and 0.009%, while the reaction was carried out at various rotational speeds of 5,000-9,000 rpm. The formation and stability of AuNPs-PS were observed from the phenomenon of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and absorbance changes as measured by a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The results of measurements using CLM-Spectrophotometry shows the formation of AuNPs-PS in the hexane-water system at λmax of 534 nm.
Maya Rahmayanti, Erni Yunita, Nunung Faizah Yosi Putri
Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi, Volume 23, pp 244-248; doi:10.14710/jksa.23.7.244-248

Abstract:
The rapid development of the batik industry can pollute water resources and become an increasingly severe problem. This research studies the adsorption-desorption of naphthol blue-black (one of the dyes in batik liquid waste) by magnetite modified humic acid (HA-Fe 3 O 4 ). The adsorption isotherm was studied using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Meanwhile, desorption agents used in this study were distilled water and hydrochloric acid. The results show that the adsorption isotherm followed the Langmuir adsorption model with a maximum adsorption capacity of 2.41 mmol/g. Desorption studies show that the desorption efficiency of naphthol blue-black on HA-Fe 3 O 4 is 0.058% and 5.86% in the desorption agent of distilled water and HCl (1 M)
Dudi Tohir, Fitriah Sari
Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi, Volume 23, pp 234-237; doi:10.14710/jksa.23.7.234-237

Abstract:
Ethyl acetate fraction from Swietenia macrophylla was reported to have toxicity against the larvae of Artemia salina shrimp larvae. However, there areno reports aboutS. macrophylla, which can inhibit human breast cancer cells MCF-7. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate S. macrophyllaextract's cytotoxicity using human breast cancer MCF-7 cells assay, followed by confirmation of its toxicity using brine shrimp lethality assay. The most active fraction obtained from the ethyl acetate extract of S. macrophylla showed 76.49% inhibition at 50 µg/mL (IC50=34.11 µg/mL). At the same time, the most active fraction may contain a mixture of limonoid compounds after LCMS analysis. The most active fraction obtained from ethyl acetate extract of S. macrophylla showed 76.49%
Sellen Tanheitafino, Anis Shofiyani, Risya Sasri, Rudiyansyah Rudiyansyah
Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi, Volume 23, pp 249-254; doi:10.14710/jksa.23.7.249-254

Abstract:
Modification of silica xerogel with TMCS (trimethylchlorosilane) reagent has been carried out to improve the hydrophobicity of silica xerogel. Silica xerogel was synthesized based on the sol-gel method using sodium silicate as a precursor, and citric acid as a catalyst, with a mole ratio of sodium silicate and citric acid, was 0.172: 0.004. The sol-gel process was carried out through several stages, i.e., hydrolysis and condensation of sodium silicate to form sol, gelation (sol transition to gel), aging, and drying. Surface modification was performed by studying the effect of TMCS: methanol: petroleum benzine volume ratio of 0.5:1:1, 1:1:1, 1.5:1:1, 2:1:1, and 2.5:1:1 on the characteristics of silica xerogel synthesized. FTIR, SEM, and GSA characterized the synthesized results. The results of FTIR characterization on silica xerogel with volume ratios of 2:1:1 and 2.5:1:1 indicate the presence of the Si‑C group absorption at a wavenumber of 848.68 cm-1 which shows that the formation of silyl groups on the modified silica xerogel surfaces occurs at a TMCS: methanol: petroleum benzine ratio of 2:1:1 and 2.5:1:1. SEM results indicate that the silica xerogels produced are porous. Meanwhile, the GSA analysis results show that the pore size distributions are in the mesoporous region with an average pore radius of 8-13 nm. The greater the volume of TMCS used, the higher the surface area, and the resulting xerogel’s hydrophobicity. Based on the contact angle and seeped time test, the highest hydrophobicity is produced by the material synthesized at a TMCS: methanol: PB volume ratio of 2.5:1:1 with a contact angle of 116.346°.
Ansharullah Ansharullah, Nur Muhammad Abdillah Saenuddin, Rh Fitri Faradilla, Asranuddin Asranudin, Asniar Asniar, Muhammad Nurdin
Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi, Volume 23, pp 147-151; doi:10.14710/jksa.23.5.147-151

Abstract:
This study was aimed to examine the production of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) from tapioca solid waste (TSW), using HCl hydrolysis with various concentrations, i.e., 2 N, 2.5 N, 3 N, and 3.5 N. MCC was produced by delignifying the TSW with NaOH 20%, and bleaching with NaOCl 3.5% to produce α-cellulose, and subsequently hydrolyzing α-cellulose with three different HCl concentrations to produce MCC. The physicochemical properties of MCC were then analyzed, including Scanning Electron Micrograph (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and FTIR spectra. The results showed that hydrolysis with 2.0 N HCl resulted in a higher yield of 61.28%, α-cellulose content of 56.33%, moisture 6.25%, pH of 6.54; ash 0.23%, and water solubility 0.34%. SEM analysis showed the morphology and size of the MCC produced were like those of a commercial MCC (Avicel PH101), while the XRD analysis showed the higher concentration of HCl gave rise to an increased crystalline index. FT-IR spectrum analysis indicated that TSW, MCC produced, and commercial MCC had similar functional groups.
Risnita Vicky Listyarini, Puspita Ratna Susilawati, Esther Natalia Nukung, Maria Anastasia Toyo Yua
Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi, Volume 23, pp 203-208; doi:10.14710/jksa.23.6.203-208

Abstract:
Plastic derived from petroleum is challenging to degrade and pollute the environment. There are alternatives to making biodegradable plastics to reduce the adverse effects of plastics on the environment. This study aims to utilize dragon fruit peel waste as a material for making bioplastic. Plastic characterization was carried out by FTIR analysis to determine the functional groups contained in bioplastics. The results showed that dragon fruit peel could be extracted by HCl solution, and the pectin yield is 11%. Extracted pectin was used to make bioplastics with and without the addition of ethylene glycol. The results showed that moisture content of bioplastics of dragon fruit peel pectin is 5.71–12%, while dragon fruit peel pectin and ethylene glycol are 2.86–5.71%. FT-IR spectra showed that the bioplastics from dragon fruit peels belong to the pectin group, which produces carbonyl absorption at 1636–1628 cm-1 and stretching C-O stretch at 1098–1101 cm‑1.
Widia Wati, Gunawan Pamudji Widodo, Rina Herowati
Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi, Volume 23, pp 189-195; doi:10.14710/jksa.23.6.189-195

Abstract:
Syzygium polyanthum leaf extract and Syzygium cumini herbs extract have been reported to have antidiabetic activity. This study aimed to predict the molecular target of chemical constituents of S. polyanthum and S. cumini as well as study their interactions with various macromolecular targets of an antidiabetic agent. Molecular docking of all ligands was studied using the Autodock Vina program in PyRx, and the results are presented as binding affinity values (kcal/mol) of ligand against the protein. PyMOL is used to visualize the 3D molecular of docked conformation and ligand-protein interactions. The predicted pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained by SwissADME. Delphinidin-3-gentiobioside and isoquercitrin are predicted to have good interaction with DPP-4 and α-glucosidase, respectively. However, they are predicted to have poor absorption properties. Quercetin and kaempferol are predicted to have good interaction with PTP1B and glucokinase and showed good pharmacokinetic properties.
Anis Kristiani, Kiky Corneliasari Sembiring, Yosi Aristiawan, Fauzan Aulia, Luthfiana Nurul Hidayati, Haznan Abimanyu
Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi, Volume 23, pp 209-215; doi:10.14710/jksa.23.6.209-215

Abstract:
Utilizing lignocellulosic biomass into valuable products, such as chemicals and fuels, has attracted global interest. One of lignocellulosic biomass, palm oil empty fruit bunch (EFB), has major content of cellulose (30-40%), which is highly potential to be a raw material for fermentable sugar production. In this research, a series of sulfonated carbon catalysts with various concentrations of sulfuric acid (H2SO4, 10-30 v/v%) solutions have been successfully prepared and applied for a single stage of heterogeneous acid-catalyzed hydrolysis over microcrystalline cellulose and EFB under moderate temperature condition and ambient pressure. The catalysts’ physical and chemical properties were characterized by using a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA), X-ray diffractometer, surface area analyzer, and Fourier-transform infrared spectrophotometer. The characterization results showed that sulfonated carbon had relatively similar physical properties with the parent of active carbon. The hydrolysis activity of sulfonated carbon catalysts gave various Total Reducing Sugar (TRS). The effects of sulfate loading amount in catalyst samples and various ionic liquids were investigated. The hydrolysis of pure microcrystalline cellulose powder (Avicel) using 30%-sulfonated carbon (30-SC) catalyst in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl) ionic liquid at 150°C yielded the highest TRS of 16.11%. Subsequently, the catalyst of 30-SC was also tested for hydrolysis of EFB and produced the highest TRS of 40.76% in [BMIM]Cl ionic liquid at 150°C for 4 h. The obtained results highlight the potential of sulfonated carbon catalysts for hydrolysis of EFB into fermentable sugar as an intermediate product for ethanol production.
Iman Abdullah, Widayanti Wibowo, Soleh Kosela, Yuni Krisyuningsih Krisnandi
Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi, Volume 23, pp 196-202; doi:10.14710/jksa.23.6.196-202

Abstract:
SiO2 was extracted from kaolin using concentrated HCl and HNO3 mixture and used as solid support for both Bronsted (HClO4 and H2SO4) and Lewis Acid (AlCl3 and ZnCl2). Before extraction, kaolin was calcined at 800°C for eight hours to form metastable kaolin. After the extraction procedure, silica was recovered in 51.6% yield. Silica and the resulting solid acids were then characterized using XRD, XRF, and FTIR. XRD pattern shows that silica synthesized from kaolin is in the mixture of amorphous and α-quartz silica. Immobilization of acids alters its structure becomes more crystalline. XRF analysis shows that the loading of AlCl3 and ZnCl2 was 9.5 and 24.8%, respectively. The acid catalysts were then used in the esterification reaction of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid with sucrose. The reactions were conducted in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent by varying reaction time and reaction temperature. The highest conversion of starting materials and selectivity towards ester was obtained over the AlCl3/SiO2 catalyst. DPPH radical scavenging test shows that the ester exhibits good antioxidant activity.
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