Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1410-8917 / 2597-9914
Current Publisher: Diponegoro University (10.14710)
Total articles ≅ 236
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Rifana Adilla Safitri, Maya Rahmayanti
Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi, Volume 23, pp 333-337; doi:10.14710/jksa.23.9.333-337

Abstract:
Research on chitosan application as a natural coagulant in reducing the concentration of remazol red dye from batik liquid waste has been carried out. This study aims to study the effect of the acidity of batik wastewater on the coagulant ability to reduce the remazol red dye concentration and the COD value of batik liquid waste. In this study, chitosan compounds before and after coagulation were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. The pH range used in the coagulation process was pH 2-6. Post-coagulation chitosan FTIR spectra showed a shift in the wave number in the 3400 cm-1 area, which indicated an interaction between the -OH group of chitosan and the dye remazol red. Remazol red dye was maximally coagulated by chitosan at pH 2. The percentage reduction in the dye concentration reached 100%, and the decrease in COD value at that pH was 71.69%.
Agustina L. N. Aminin, Nur Cahyanti, Alfina Sari, Nies Suci Mulyani, Bambang Cahyono
Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi, Volume 23, pp 319-324; doi:10.14710/jksa.23.9.319-324

Abstract:
This is a preliminary study to determine the bioactivity potential of purwoceng leaf endophytic fungal metabolites. Endophytic fungi were isolated from purwoceng leaf and their secondary metabolite from culture filtrate were subjected to identify the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and phytochemical screening. The antioxidant activity was screened by scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The antimicrobial activity was screened using a good agar method toward Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, dan Candida albicans. This study obtained five distinctive endophytic fungi isolates named A, B, C, D, and E. The endophytic fungal culture filtrate of C has the most extensive antimicrobial activity with phytochemical screening showing alkaloids, saponins, and terpenoids. The antioxidant potential of all culture filtrates seemed low because the DPPH amount was interfered with by pigment compounds. Culture filtrate of fungi A showed the highest antioxidant activity and contained phenolic and alkaloid compounds.
Yohanes Martono, Fidelia Novitasari, November Rianto Aminu
Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi, Volume 23, pp 325-332; doi:10.14710/jksa.23.9.325-332

Abstract:
Stekurmin MD is a syrup preparation formulated from the extract of Stevia rebaudiana leaves, temu lawak (Curcuma zanthorrhiza), and honey. One of the active compounds in Stekurmin MD products is phenolic and flavonoid compounds in which the active phenolic and flavonoid compounds can be degraded during the storage period. This study aimed to determine the shelf life of Stekurmin MD products based on the degradation of phenolic compounds and flavonoids. The Accelerated Shelf Life Test (ASLT) method was used in determining the shelf life kinetics of this product. Phenolic and flavonoid concentrations were determined using the UV-Vis spectrophotometric method with the gallic acid standard for phenolic and quercetin standard for flavonoids. Degradation of phenolic and flavonoid compounds was determined every 7 days during 35 days of storage at 25, 35, 45, and 55°C ± 2°C. In natural ingredients, there is a multi-mechanism reaction. The shelf life of Stekurmin MD products based on the degradation of phenolic and flavonoid active ingredients at room temperature were 39.909 days and 23.53 hours, respectively.
Martha Sari, Dirayanti Dirayanti, Eris Septiana, Bustanussalam Bustanussalam, Apon Zaenal Mustopa
Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi, Volume 23, pp 312-318; doi:10.14710/jksa.23.9.312-318

Abstract:
The nutrition factor governs the growth and production of Penicillin G (Pen G) by Penicillium chrysogenum in a broth medium. Proper nutrition can improve Pen G antibiotic production. In this research, the optimal condition for Pen G production from P. chrysogenum in a standard culture medium and various carbon sources medium (glucose, lactose, maltose, and sucrose) were done for ten days. Phenylacetic Acid (PAA) precursor at 0.0 – 0.6 gL-1 (increment 0.1) was used to improve Pen G production. The Pen G was detected by HPLC, compared with the standard (Penicillin G Sodium Salt). The results showed that the PDB standard medium and lactose medium (150 rpm, at 30°C) produced 0.425 gL-1 and 0.107 gL-1 Pen G. Addition of 0.6 gL-1 PAA improved the Pen G production up to 0.045 gL-1 in the PDB medium, become the final concentration of 0.470 gL-1 and 2.460 gL-1 in the lactose medium, become the final concentration of 2.565 gL-1. The antibiotic’s activity against the pathogenic bacteria, i.e., B. subtilis, S. aureus, and S. typhi employing the disk diffusion method, has been done. The TLC method’s detection of the potential Pen G spots was conducted with ethyl acetate: distilled water: acetic acid (60:20:20) as the mobile phase. The Pen G extracts could inhibit the growth of all tested bacteria in Rf 0.65. This study informs the proper combination of carbon source and precursor effects and increases the bioproduction of Pen G from P. chrysogenum.
Agus Dwi Ananto, Handa Muliasari, Saprizal Hadisaputra
Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi, Volume 23, pp 305-311; doi:10.14710/jksa.23.9.305-311

Abstract:
Design new compounds of Meisoindigo using the QSAR approach with semiempirical methods have been successfully made with better biological activity as anti-breast cancer results. The research method used to design the new compound of meisoindigo derivatives uses the semiempirical methods. The research procedure divide into tree step, molecular modeling, QSAR equation analysis, and design of new compounds. The PM3 method was chosen as a better method because it has model results that are more representative of physicochemical aspects. The selection of the best model is made by multilinear regression statistical analysis. New compounds derived from the design are expected to bind to the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4 (CDK4) enzyme that helps in the cell cycle to prevent cell division. Based on the design, the compound of (E)-2-(2-oxo-1-(2-(trifluoromethyl) benzyl)indolin-3-ylidene)-N-(quinoline-7-yl) acetamide choose as a new compound with more better biological activity (log 1/IC50 = 6.992) than before (log 1/IC50 = 5.823)
Enny Fachriyah, Dewi Kusrini, Ifan Bagus Haryanto, Synta Mutiara Bunga Wulandari, Widyaningrum Islami Lestari, Sumariyah Sumariyah
Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi, Volume 23, pp 290-294; doi:10.14710/jksa.23.8.290-294

Abstract:
Moringa ( Moringa oleifera Lam) is a medicinal plant that is a source of nutrients. It is rich in protein, fatty acids, minerals, relatively high polyphenol compounds, and has antioxidant activity. This study aims to obtain information about secondary metabolites, total phenol content, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of the ethanol extract of Moringa leaves. Total phenol was determined by the Folin–Ciocâlteu method, while total flavonoids were determined by the AlCl 3 colorimetric method. Whilst the antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method at a wavelength of 517 nm. The results showed that the ethanol extract of Moringa leaves contained flavonoids, phenols, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, and steroids. The total phenol content in the ethanol leaf extract was 63.16 mg GAE/g extract, and the total flavonoid content was 10.477 mg QE/g extract. Moringa leaf ethanol extract has antioxidant activity with an IC 50 of 118.6145 mg/L, classified as having moderate antioxidant activity. Moringa ( Moringa oleifera Lam) is a medicinal plant that is a source of nutrients. It is rich in protein, fatty acids, minerals, relatively high polyphenol compounds, and has antioxidant activity. This study aims to obtain information about secondary metabolites, total phenol content, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of the ethanol extract of Moringa leaves. Total phenol was determined by the Folin–Ciocâlteu method, while total flavonoids were determined by the AlCl 3 colorimetric method. Whilst the antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method at a wavelength of 517 nm. The results showed that the ethanol extract of Moringa leaves contained flavonoids, phenols, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, and steroids. The total phenol content in the ethanol leaf extract was 63.16 mg GAE/g extract, and the total flavonoid content was 10.477 mg QE/g extract. Moringa leaf ethanol extract has antioxidant activity with an IC 50 of 118.6145 mg/L, classified as having moderate antioxidant activity.
Shafira Ananda Djakaria, Irmanida Batubara, Rika Raffiudin
Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi, Volume 23, pp 267-275; doi:10.14710/jksa.23.8.267-275

Abstract:
Honey has natural bacteriostatic and bactericide activities; thus, it could be active compounds as an antibacterial against Propionibacterium acnes, the main bacteria in acne forming state. Our study aims to determine phenolic and flavonoid contents (qualitative and quantitative), antioxidants, along with antibacterial activity against P. acnes of selected Indonesian honey. Honey used in this study, including honeybees and stingless bees, were collected from Sumbawa, Riau, Belitung, Sukabumi, Banyuwangi, Bogor, and South Sulawesi. In the method, the quantitative content of phenols and flavonoid were measured using a spectrophotometer. Further, DPPH (2, 2’-diphenylpicryl hydrazyl) and ABTS (2’-azino-bis (3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assays were used to measure the antioxidant activities, and subsequently microdilution method was applied to determine antibacterial activity. The results showed that Indonesian honey contains phenolics and flavonoids in the range of 49.5-67.3 μg Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE)/g and 766.5-1509.5 μg Quercetin Equivalent (QE)/g, respectively. All honey samples also show antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Of note, Apis cerana honey from Banyuwangi has the highest antioxidant and antibacterial activity compared to others. It has the Inhibition Concentration (IC50), Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericide Concentration (MBC) values of 59.85 mg/L, 122 μg Trolox/g, 125 mg/mL, and 500 mg/mL respectively. Our study reveals that Indonesian honey can inhibit and kill P. acnes as well. Nonetheless, the phenolic content of honey is not always linear with antioxidant and antibacterial activities.
Retno Ariadi Lusiana, Nurwarrohman Andre Sasongko, Vivi Dia A. Sangkota, Nor Basid Adiwibawa Prasetya, Parsaoran Siahaan, Agung Abadi Kiswandono, Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan Othman
Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi, Volume 23, pp 283-289; doi:10.14710/jksa.23.8.283-289

Abstract:
High concentrations of creatinine and urea in the blood can be removed by dialysis using semipermeable membranes that are selective for certain species and hold other species through diffusion processes. This ability requires a membrane that has an active side, which functions as a targeted species identifier. The membrane must be biocompatible because the membrane will be in direct contact with the body’s biological systems. The membrane material that is made must be acceptable to the blood system so that there is no rejection from the body and have a large contact area to obtain an effective diffusion process. For this reason, a hollow fiber membrane (HFM) is needed. One of the synthetic polymers used as the base material for HFM is PSf. PSf has mechanical strength, heat resistance, and is easily formed into HFM. However, PSf has disadvantages such as lack of active side and less compatible with blood due to its hydrophobic properties. Modification using PEG and chitosan will reduce the hydrophobicity of the PSf. Membrane results were analyzed the physical, chemical, and transportability for urea and creatinine. The results of functional group characterization by FTIR show that the modification reaction was successfully carried out on polysulfone to produce PEG-PSf/CS. The modification succeeded in making the PSf membrane more hydrophilic, as evidenced by a decrease in the contact angle from 69.4° (PSf) to 53° (PEG-PSf/CS). Water uptake capability increases to 609%, and membrane porosity increases porosity increased from 72 to 83%. The water flux is also increased. Creatinine clearance ability increases from 0.09 mg/dl to 0.25 mg/dL. Urea clearance ability increases from 2.3 mg/dL to 3.07 mg/dL. The SEM image showed that the modification makes the membranes more porous.
Wida Banar Kusumaningrum, Firda Aulya Syamani, Lisman Suryanegara
Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi, Volume 23, pp 295-304; doi:10.14710/jksa.23.8.295-304

Abstract:
Polylactic acid (PLA) is a biopolymer that can replace thermoplastic polymers such as polypropylene (PP) in various applications due to strength, young modulus, biocompatibility, biodegradability, good clarity, oil resistance, and oxygen barrier ability. However, PLA has some drawbacks, including brittle, high glass transition temperature (Tg), and low degradation and crystallization rates. Therefore, modification is needed with the addition of nucleating agents and plasticizers to overcome these limitations of PLA. This research aims to study the effect of plasticizers and microfibril cellulose of oil palm frond (OPF) on thermal stability and to review the crystallization kinetics of PLA biocomposites. Polyethylene glycol and triacetin were used as plasticizers. Thermal analysis was performed using Thermal Gravimetry analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The crystallization kinetics study was analyzed using a modified Avrami model under non-isothermal conditions. PLAP4000 has better thermal stability than PLAP200 and PLAG with Tonset and Tmax values reaching 349.17°C and 374.68°C, respectively, which are close to pure PLA. All types of plasticizers influenced decreasing the Tg value in the range of 27–42%, whereas OPF microfiber addition contributes to a Tg reduction of 37-55 %. Crystallization kinetic study was informed for heterogeneous and simultaneous nucleation mechanisms with an n value range of about 2-3 for PLAP4000 and PLAOP4000. The crystallization rate was multiplied 4-9-fold for PLAOP200 and 2-3-fold for PLAOP4000.
Mega Safithri, Susi Indariani, Rosalina Yuliani
Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi, Volume 23, pp 276-282; doi:10.14710/jksa.23.8.276-282

Abstract:
Functional drinks based on red betel leaf extract have antioxidant activity, but they still have a bitter taste. This study aims to determine the effect of microencapsulation on phenol content, antioxidant activity, and sensory quality of functional drinks based on betel leaf extract. Microencapsulation of functional drinks was made using maltodextrin coatings with concentrations of 10% and 20%. Antioxidant activity was tested by the CUPRAC method. The ready to drink (RTD) functional drink has a total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of 782.30 ± 2.54 mg GAE/g and 1660.19 ± 31.67 µmol Tr/g, respectively. These values are higher than microencapsulated functional drinks with maltodextrin (MM). The microencapsulated functional drink with 10% maltodextrin coating (MM10) is the chosen formulation since it has the smallest particle size (1.283 µm), total phenolic content of 12.90 ± 0.01 mg GAE/g and antioxidant activity of 189.41 ± 1.88 µmol Tr/g. Microencapsulated functional drinks provide sensory quality that is not significantly different (p
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