Risk Governance and Control: Financial Markets and Institutions

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2077429X / 20774303
Current Publisher: Virtus Interpress (10.22495)
Total articles ≅ 439
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Latest articles in this journal

Michel Coulmont, Sylvie Berthelot, Caroline Talbot
Risk Governance and Control: Financial Markets and Institutions, Volume 10, pp 52-60; doi:10.22495/rgcv10i1p4

Abstract:
In recent decades, financial and accounting regulators have turned the spotlight on risk management and disclosure. Like securities regulators in the United States, the United Kingdom and several other countries, Canadian Securities Administrators have set out requirements for the disclosure and discussion of risks in the MD&A section of annual reports. Responding positively to these new guidelines, organisations now report many risks in their MD&A. These disclosure requirements are intended to provide information about a company’s material risks to help stakeholders understand and evaluate interrelated risks, the risks’ impact and the company’s risk management strategies (Khandelwal, Kumar, Verma, & Pratap Singh, 2019). However, since the nature of the risks disclosed derives wholly from organisational decisions, the content of these disclosures can be considered voluntary. For this reason, some critics argue that risk disclosures are by and large boilerplate in nature (Bao & Datta, 2014; Hope, Hu, & Lu, 2016). From this perspective, this study aims to examine whether there is a relationship between the risks firms disclose in their annual reports and their systematic risk. The regression analyses were carried out on the risks disclosed by a sample of 200 Canadian companies included in the 2016 Toronto Stock Exchange S&P/TSX Composite Index. These analyses revealed a positive and significant relationship between the risks disclosed and the firms’ systematic risk. Our results support the regulatory approaches respecting this type of information adopted by a number of countries. Accordingly, disclosing the risks that companies face should help small investors understand and appreciate them.
Marco Ticciati
Risk Governance and Control: Financial Markets and Institutions, Volume 10, pp 37-51; doi:10.22495/rgcv10i1p3

Abstract:
The paper quantifies the influence of interest rates and inflation rates on default rates of banks. By expanding the work of Duffee (1998), with the unspanned risks as in the work of Joslin, Priebsch, and Singleton (2014), we estimate a multifactor model with unspanned interest rates and inflation rates to test the performance of unspanned variables in the default rate term structure of banks. The model is trained in samples of positive interest rates and evaluated in samples of negative interest rates. we check the robustness of the model by comparing the results with the performance of alternative model specifications. The model reveals that unspanned variables have worse performance than alternative models specifications. The negative effect of interest rates on default rates over longer maturities may lead the EA banks to decrease the loan supply to the real economy. As a consequence EA banks will have a lower net interest margin as the return of assets is lower. This may increase the future probability of default. Thus, the solution for EA banks is on the reach to yield behavior as described by Bruno and Shin (2015). This means that EA banks have to modify the allocation of assets more in favour of riskier and longer maturity securities to obtain higher profitability.
Mamdouh Abdulaziz Saleh Al-Faryan
Risk Governance and Control: Financial Markets and Institutions, Volume 10, pp 23-36; doi:10.22495/rgcv10i1p2

Abstract:
In spite of growing interest in Saudi corporate governance systems, there is little literature on the evolution of Saudi corporate governance. This study helps close this gap by investigating and compiling corporate governance development in Saudi Arabia. After providing background information for Saudi Arabia and its corporate governance model, we touch on the Saudi legal system and key external institutions that helped shape its corporate governance. We examine the specific contributions of the accounting and auditing professions, and the roles of the National Anti-Corruption Commission and the Saudi Stock Exchange. We describe key reforms implemented to develop the Saudi economy and evaluate their importance in facilitating change in corporate governance practices. This study contributes as an initial point of reference for future studies on Saudi Arabia, and serves as a one stop resource for both academics and practitioners, while specifically benefitting foreign and domestic investors considering investments in Saudi Arabia.
Jose Maria Fernandez-Crehuet, Jorge Rosales-Salas, Rodrigo Avilés
Risk Governance and Control: Financial Markets and Institutions, Volume 10, pp 8-22; doi:10.22495/rgcv10i1p1

Abstract:
In this paper, we propose an index to measure the quality of the most important European cities. Using collected data from 66 cities belonging to the 28 countries within the European Union and applying the principal components analysis method, we construct the European Cities Quality Index (ECQI) as a combination of eight dimensions: (1) Public health, (2) Education, (3) Employment and incomes, (4) Environment, (5) Gender equality, (6) Leisure and entertainment, (7) Housing and safety and (8) Transport and mobility, that are in turn made up of 40 distinct variables. We find that London, Aarhus, and Berlin are the cities with the highest scores in the index, with northern European cities performing the best. At the other end of the spectrum, Sofia, Plovdiv, and Bucharest, with severe deficiencies in every dimension, scored worst on the study. The comparisons with the Sustainable Cities Index (Arcadis), the Global Power City Index (Institute for Urban Strategies), Cities in Motion (IESE), the Cities Prosperity Index (UN), and Dynamic Cities (Savills) help us understand the potential use of this new index and its purpose as a tool for assessing public policy. The ECQI could be used to assist public policies designed to improve perception in regions where it is needed.
Stefania Sylos Labini
Risk Governance and Control: Financial Markets and Institutions, Volume 9, pp 4-6; doi:10.22495/rgcv9i4_editorial

Abstract:
The leitmotif of this fourth issue of the journal seems to revolve around the role of finance in the current context of climate change. Concerns about the disastrous effects of climate change affect many areas. The rapidity of climate change requires urgent action from governments, industries and businesses to build more resilient communities and reduce the impact of disasters. The most recent example is the disaster that is affecting Australia, with fires fueled by record temperatures and entrenched drought conditions. Coordinated national action is critical for managing the impacts of this phenomenon. Although the most immediate financial impact of catastrophic events regards the insurance sector, the whole world of finance is affected by these phenomena. In this context, areas of growing interest for scholars at the international level are sustainable finance, corporate social responsibility and insurance.
George Tsalikis, Simeon Papadopoulos
Risk Governance and Control: Financial Markets and Institutions, Volume 9, pp 67-76; doi:10.22495/rgcv9i4p6

Abstract:
Exchange-traded funds (ETFs) have grown considerably since their first introduction two and a half decades ago, becoming one of the most popular passive investment vehicles among retail and professional investors. However, their tracking ability is often questioned. In this paper we estimate tracking errors from a sample of 15 American and European ETFs utilizing three different methods. We find that American ETFs seem to exhibit lower tracking errors than European ETFs in all measurements of tracking error. We also analyse and discuss the factors that influence tracking error. Fund size and expense ratios are found to be affecting the tracking ability of ETFs. The results of this study concerning the performance and tracking error determinants of ETFs are consistent with the evidence presented in the literature. To our knowledge, this is the first study to compare American and European ETFs in terms of their tracking ability and their tracking error determinants.
Enrico Cervellati, Francesco Corea, Paolo Zanghieri
Risk Governance and Control: Financial Markets and Institutions, Volume 9, pp 49-66; doi:10.22495/rgcv9i4p5

Abstract:
We analyse the effect of behavioural biases on entrepreneurs’ decisions to insure their firms against different kinds of corporate risks. We use a large sample of 2,295 Italian small and medium enterprises (SMEs), finding that they under-insure themselves. Since SMEs should insure more – in proportion – compared to bigger companies, analysing the reasons for this underinsurance is relevant to improve entrepreneurs’ decisions and help their firms, but also from a policy-making point of view. We link corporate insurance choices with the entrepreneurs’ personal characteristics and behavioral traits as well as with their households’ financial choices. Our methodology uses stepwise regressions to discern which variables are statistically significant. In our results, we find that entrepreneurs not only underinsure their firms but also themselves, thus exposing themselves, their firms and their families to high idiosyncratic risk. We find that these suboptimal decisions are affected by behavioural biases such as overconfidence, over optimism, risk misperceptions, and stubbornness, even though in a not straightforward manner. We measure both the overall effect on the number of insurances underwritten and on the specific type of insurance contract. In general, we find that relatively bigger firms do buy more insurance, and that trust in insurance companies is a key driver to insurance purchasing, as well as the estimated probability of suffering damages in the future. In contrast, entrepreneurs do underwrite fewer insurance contracts if their firms caused or suffered damages in the past, but also if they possess personal insurances, thus treating them as substitutes for firm insurance. Since SMEs represent a very important part not only of the Italian economy but also of the economy of many other countries, analyzing their insurance-related decisions is relevant because understanding the determinants that may lead entrepreneurs to mitigate the risks they face is beneficial not only for them and their firms but also for the economy as a whole.
Jahidur Rahman, Yu Fang
Risk Governance and Control: Financial Markets and Institutions, Volume 9, pp 41-48; doi:10.22495/rgcv9i4p4

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between corporate social responsibility and firm performance in China. We have used the sample of A-share listed firms from Shenzhen and Shanghai Stock Exchange for the period 2011 to 2017. We used pooled ordinary least squares (OLS) regression as a baseline methodology. We find that corporate social responsibility has a significantly positive effect on firm performance in China. Our results suggest that Chinese companies having better financial performance undertake more CSR reporting. This paper contributes to the existing literature by investigating the effect of firm performance on CSR reporting of Chinese listed companies.
Guan-Chih Chen, Shuling Tsao, Ren-Her Hsieh, Pan Hu
Risk Governance and Control: Financial Markets and Institutions, Volume 9, pp 20-29; doi:10.22495/rgcv9i4p2

Abstract:
An increasing number of commercial banks in China began to pay attention to comprehensive risk management after the global financial crisis. With the accelerated pace at which China’s commercial banks are expanding abroad, establishing a comprehensive risk management system appropriate for the international financial market has become a critical hurdle for these banks’ further development. This paper explores the impact of risk management on the financial performance of listed banks in China, comparing state-owned banks and non-state-owned banks, by establishing multiple linear regression analysis models. The results reveal a significant impact on the financial performance of state-owned commercial banks, such as on insolvency risk index, loan-to-deposit ratio, nonperforming loan ratio, and bank size. Insolvency risk index and bank size are found to positively impact state-owned commercial banks’ financial performance. For non-state-owned banks, capital adequacy ratio, nonperforming loan ratio, and bank size have significantly impact financial performance, with bank size positively influencing financial performance.