Risk Governance and Control: Financial Markets and Institutions

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2077-429X / 2077-4303
Published by: Virtus Interpress (10.22495)
Total articles ≅ 478
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Teresa Izzo, Francesco Paolone, Matteo Pozzoli
Risk Governance and Control: Financial Markets and Institutions, Volume 11, pp 8-15; https://doi.org/10.22495/rgcv11i3p1

Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to review academic literature and professional practice guidance in relation to the replacement cost (RC) method of valuation in public sector financial accounting. The replacement cost is regarded as being the most appropriate basis for the determination of fair value when the fair value of the asset could not be reliably determined using market-based evidence (Wyatt, 2009). However, several problems persist in RC definition and application, underlining the lack of a uniform approach in the current valuation standards. The paper explores the current adoption of RC by performing a content analysis of the latest financial statements published by International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS) adopter jurisdictions across the globe. The analysis highlights interesting patterns in the use of RC and provides an empirical base for further investigations. Additionally, the research offers useful insights to stimulate professional and academic debate on the replacement cost method, particularly in view of amendments proposed by the recently published Exposure Draft.
Athanasios Noulas, Ioannis Papanastasiou, Simeon Papadopoulos
Risk Governance and Control: Financial Markets and Institutions, Volume 11, pp 71-81; https://doi.org/10.22495/rgcv11i2p6

Abstract:
Based on the cyclical movements of the Athens Stock Market, the paper empirically examines the behavior of seven sectors (markets) namely: industry-services, emporium, construction, petroleum, telecommunications, food-beverages, and banks. Specifically using daily observations from January 2006 to August 2017, we estimate a dynamic equicorrelation multivariate GARCH model (DECO-MGARCH) developed by Engle and Kelly (2012), to analyze the dynamic behavior of these sectors. Furthermore, using time-dependent entropic measures we examine empirically the uncertainty (expectations) regarding the correlation behavior of these seven sectors. The empirical results are in line with previous findings (Tsai & Chen, 2010; Garnaut, 1998) and provide evidence supporting the view of high correlations during periods of crises. In addition, the dynamic entropy shows that the expectations of market participants were more concentrated (less spread out) during these periods of crises. Therefore, the empirical evidence of the paper supports the view that market participants share the same opinions (entropy exhibits low uncertainty) during crises and therefore are acting in a similar fashion (exhibiting high correlation).
Ola Nilsson
Risk Governance and Control: Financial Markets and Institutions, Volume 11, pp 58-70; https://doi.org/10.22495/rgcv11i2p5

Abstract:
This study investigates whether legislative pressure influences credit rating agency (CRA) behavior. It covers a time period in which the European Union moves from exerting minimal to intense legislative pressure on CRAs, providing an almost ideal context for analyzing if and how CRAs are affected by this pressure. Two possible outcomes are discussed: 1) more timeliness in the flow of information and 2) more stickiness in the flow of information. The analysis is based on an examination of market reactions following CRA announcements between 2000 and 2019. The results show that the market reactions after CRA announcements decrease when legislative pressure increases. The interpretation is that as legislative pressure increases, the flow of information from CRAs becomes stickier. This confirms that legislative initiatives that put pressure on CRAs have an effect, evidence that legislators’ intention to change behavior by threatening or initiating new regulations works, which confirms assumptions underlying the theory of legislative threats (Halfteck, 2008). A reasonable interpretation of legislators’ push for changes in this context is that they want to see a faster flow of information. The results, however, show the opposite. A plausible explanation for this is increased caution on the part of CRAs because if in retrospect, the information in an announcement turns out to be wrong or misleading, the ensuing criticism could lead to additional pressure.
Enrico Geretto, Maurizio Polato, Laurence Jones
Risk Governance and Control: Financial Markets and Institutions, Volume 11, pp 47-57; https://doi.org/10.22495/rgcv11i2p4

Abstract:
Asset quality review (AQR) conducted by the European Central Bank (ECB) introduced 2014 indicators and logic typically used in the context of corporate finance. The new approach tries to overcome the backward-looking approach in favour of a completely forward-looking perspective based on the assessment of cash flows. From the AQR point of view, EBITDA and DSCR have taken particular importance also in the prudential provisioning process. As is known, the AQR manual, for calculating the prudential provisioning, provides that banks, in a going-concern perspective, estimate the recoverable amount of loans by appropriately discounting the cash flows. Our work, although under some hypotheses, highlights limitations in the prudential regulatory approach. The paper, using a DSCR-based dual-leg approach, tries to propose a generalisation logically consistent with the guidelines on loan origination and monitoring recently expressed by the European Banking Authority (EBA) (EBA, 2020). Although there is literature dealing with access to credit constraints (Demirgüç-Kunt & Maksimovic, 1999; Beck & Demirgüç-Kunt, 2008; Calabrese, Girardone, & Slip, 2020), with the relationship between credit risk management framework and accounting standard (Porretta, Letizia, & Santoboni, 2020) and with loan loss coverage policies (Alessi, Bruno, Carletti, Neugebauer, & Wolfskiel, 2020), no empirical or theoretical research analyses the relationship between prudential provisioning and underlying incentive structure. This paper offers a contribution in this regard highlighting how an economic approach for provisioning tends to reward companies capable of generating adequate prospective cash flows given the contractual structure of the loan, thus mitigating the potential allocative distortions implicit in the incentive structure underlying the AQR approach.
Simon Man Shing So
Risk Governance and Control: Financial Markets and Institutions, Volume 11, pp 32-46; https://doi.org/10.22495/rgcv11i2p3

Abstract:
This study attempts to enhance the corporate social responsibility (CSR) performance measurement by introducing the concept of environmental contributions. As suggested by Xu and Zhu (2010), we modify the formula of social contribution value per share (SCVPS) developed by the Shanghai Stock Exchange (SSE) in 2008 by employing two environmental elements, namely, the audited environmental cost (AEC) and additional audited environmental cost (AddAEC). Using pooled least square regressions to examine the relationship between the two modified SCVPSs, under the accrual basis and the cash basis, and the performance of the listed firms in the SSE social responsibility index, we find that they have a positive relationship — a larger modified SCVPS corresponds to better CSR performance and firm performance. Our results for the two modified SCVPSs are relatively unaffected by the different ownership structures, state-owned (SO) and non-state-owned (NSO). Evidence also indicates that the influence on firm performance of the modified SCVPS under the accrual basis is more significant for SO firms than NSO firms. Companies are encouraged to increase their environmental contribution and SCVPS to go beyond the minimum environmental protection standards.
Risk Governance and Control: Financial Markets and Institutions, Volume 11, pp 18-31; https://doi.org/10.22495/rgcv11i2p2

Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to determine the cross-market liquidity and price spillover effects across euro area sovereign bond markets. The analysis is carried out with the constructed minute frequency order-book dataset from 2011 until 2018. This derived dataset covers the six largest euro area markets for benchmark 10-year sovereign bonds. To estimate the cross-market spillover effect between sovereign bonds, it was decided to use the empirical approach proposed by Diebold and Yilmaz (2012) and combine it with the vector error correction model (VECM). We also employed the panel regression model to identify why some bond markets had a higher spillover effect while others were smaller. The dependent variable was the daily average spillover effect of a particular bond. As the spillover effects vary highly across different bonds, country-specific fixed effects were used, and the clustered standard errors were calculated for robustness reasons. Lastly, the cross-market spillovers were analyzed daily to compare them with the results of the model with intraday data. The analysis was performed with rolling 100-day window variance decompositions and a 10-day forecast horizon for six sovereign bonds and the overnight indexed swap (OIS) market. The results of the created time-series model revealed that intraday cross-market spillovers exist but are relatively weak, especially in the case of liquidity spillovers. As the cross-market linkages became much more robust with the model using daily data, the liquidity or price disbalances between different markets are usually corrected on longer intervals than minutes. Distance between countries is the most important explanatory variable and is negatively linked to the magnitude of both liquidity and price spillovers. These findings should be of particular interest to bond market investors, risk managers, and analysts who try to scrutinize the liquidity and price transmission mechanism of sovereign bonds in their portfolios.
Noomen Chaabane
Risk Governance and Control: Financial Markets and Institutions, Volume 11, pp 8-17; https://doi.org/10.22495/rgcv11i2p1

Abstract:
The objective of this research is to review, analyse, and provide empirical evidence about the impact of the intellectual capital (IC) characteristics on the firm performance on listed 26 companies in Tunisian Stock Exchange for the years 2010–2019. 260 companies were taken as a sample of this research using the purposive sampling method. The efficiency of intellectual capital was measured using the value added intellectual coefficient (VAIC) method developed by Pulic (2000). The research method used was multiple linear regression analysis. Our empirical analysis substantiates the fundamental role of IC components in improving the financial and stock market performance of listed Tunisian companies. The results obtained on the human capital efficiency variable contribute to improving the market of Tunisian listed companies and confirm the role attributed to human capital in the knowledge economy and even the basic hypothesis of the VAIC method. Investors do not place any importance on the following variables: structural capital, human capital and the efficiency of structural capital during market valuation. Future research is suggested to use cross-country companies as the sample.
Risk Governance and Control: Financial Markets and Institutions, Volume 11, pp 4-6; https://doi.org/10.22495/rgcv11i1editorial

Abstract:
In the first issue of the journal Risk Governance and Control: Financial Markets & Institutions in 2021 contributions are published that studied industries that provide finance from a different point of view and papers related to human capital with various declensions.
Alessandra Von Borowski Dodl
Risk Governance and Control: Financial Markets and Institutions, Volume 11, pp 80-93; https://doi.org/10.22495/rgcv11i1p6

Abstract:
This study focuses on the value structure that correlates improvements in the financial services consumer’s decision-making quality with the development of their autonomy. The discussion is based on the concepts of ceremonial and instrumental values, according to Bush (1987). We anchor our analysis on the premise that there is still room for enhancing the results within the National Financial System – NFS – by broadening the scope of initiatives on financial services consumers’ education and protection (von Borowski Dodl, 2020). Strengthening this perspective, we emphasize the consumer’s role as an agent and the relevance of taking decisions according to their life plans. The analysis is undertaken through the institutional literature lens, considering both schools of thought: Original Institutional Economics (OIE) (drawing on Tauheed, 2013a, 2013b) and New Institutional Economics (NIE) (focusing on North, 1990). From the conjunction of the theoretical apparatus and the applied analysis, we propose a governance policy within the NFS aimed at increasing its efficiency. Effective communication between stakeholders and consumers’ participation in the structuring of institutions – by publicly evincing their political power – hold the potential for promoting governance effectiveness. Additionally, although the approach taken focuses on the NFS, the diagnosis process carried out in this study can be easily reproduced in other contexts.
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