ISSN : 2212-6708
Published by: Elsevier BV (10.1016)
Total articles ≅ 519
Latest articles in this journal
APCBEE Procedia, Volume 10, pp 31-36; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcbee.2014.10.010
The purpose of this study was to explore a possible relationship between inorganic metals and oxidative stress in marine plants of south east coast of India. The investigation was carried out during the low tides in Pudumadam, Mandapam, Pamban and Keelakarai coastal areas. The distribution of elements such as phosphorus, nitrogen, lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) were determined in the marine plants and its surrounding seawater. An atomic absorption spectrometer, Varian Model SPECTRAA was used to determine the level of heavy metals. The impact of metals on the metabolism of the plants was determined by the level of antioxidant response. Low levels of Mn, Cu were observed in Pudumadam species. The thiobarbutric acid reactive substances formation in the marine plants showed a positive correlation with the trace element selected sites, which indicates the contamination of sewage and industrial pollution in these waters.
APCBEE Procedia, Volume 10, pp 12-15; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcbee.2014.10.005
Mercury pollution is a widespread danger to human health and environment. To developed a effective method for mercury detecting is in high demand. This work demonstrated a novel bright fluorescent molecule DPDTC for the sensing of mercury. The approach was mainly based on the mercury-induced fluorescence turn-off of DPDTC. The probe was prepared by a simple method and exhibited high fluorescence. The fluorescence of DPDTC was very stable and immue to photobleaching. Results showed that DPDTC was a promising tool for mercury detection. Moreover, DPDTC could be immoblized on a paper to prepare an simple and portable sensor which expanded its real application.
APCBEE Procedia, Volume 9, pp 170-174; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcbee.2014.01.030
The variety in physiochemical characteristics of cellulosic biomass reveals the need for pretreatment technologies to help in the rapid and efficient conversion of carbohydrate polymers into fermentable sugars. Suitable pretreatment methods enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass because of the crystalline structure of cellulose and the complex structure of lignin and hemicellulose. The choice of pretreatment method affects on the sugar yield, avoids the degradation of sugars derived from hemicellulose and minimize the formation of inhibitors for subsequent fermentation steps. A suitable process should minimize heat and power requirements to be cost effective in operation. The present review focuses on various chemical pretreatment methods for lignocellulosic biomass based on recent reports in literature. An analysis of the methods shows that the composition of biomass is the main factor in the selection of pretreatment method.
APCBEE Procedia, Volume 9, pp 365-369; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcbee.2014.01.064
High-rise building safety has drawn public attention due to the occurrence of many catastrophic fires, to study the temperature distribution in the emergency staircase of a high-rise building in an accident, a set of experiments were conducted in a scaled building model. The window state in the staircase has a significant effect on the temperature distribution. When the window in the staircase is opened, the temperatures below the fire source floor almost maintain the ambient temperature during the whole period, but the temperatures above the fire source increase quickly and finally reach a quasi steady stage due to the stack effect. Moreover, if the doors below the fire source are opened, the fresh air flow into the staircase and decrease the temperature. On the contrary, when all windows in the staircase are closed, the doors state has a slight effect on the temperature distribution in the staircase. Because of the absence of the stack effect, the temperatures are low and the temperature attenuation coefficient β is larger.
APCBEE Procedia, Volume 9, pp 70-74; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcbee.2014.01.013
In this paper, degradation of a basic dye (methylene blue), using electrochemical oxidation is studied. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency obtained under optimum conditions of present setup was 62%. The optimum operating conditions were 2 V applied voltage, 0.01 M NaCl concentration with 14 x 4 cm2 immersed electrode area. Under optimum conditions the observed EC and CE are 82.35 KWH/Kg COD and 81.5% respectively.
APCBEE Procedia, Volume 9, pp 192-196; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcbee.2014.01.034
PH sensitive hydrogel particles were characterized for their rheological and swelling behaviour at various pH values specific to the gastrointestinal tract simulated conditions. Scanning electron microscopy was used to view the surface morphology of the hydrogels at different pHs. Swelling at pH 7.4 and shrinkage at pH 1.2 confirmed the pH sensitive behaviour of the hydrogel particles. The Linear Viscoelastic (LVE) range was determined by considering G’, one of the strain amplitude. Furthermore frequency sweep tests were performed in the LVE range where the storage modulus and loss modulus were determined at constant strain. It was observed that the loss modulus was higher at basic pH while the storage modulus was higher at lower pH. This rheological method can be used to explain the pH sensitive behaviour of hydrogels.
APCBEE Procedia, Volume 9, pp 360-364; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcbee.2014.01.063
Numerical studies on impacts of vent location on building compartment fires under natural roof ventilation were conducted. The results indicated that there was no significant difference of the smoke filling among compartment fires with different vent locations. For compartment fire with a vent at the ceiling center, the oxygen concentration was much larger, and the gas temperature was lower. The pressure difference of the center vented compartment fire was larger than that of the corner vented fire, and the mass flow rate into the compartment was larger than out of the compartment from the perspective of the whole burning stage. For the two scenarios, the mass flow rates of the center vented compartment fire were much larger than that of the corner vented compartment fire. Cares should be taken when use the model for fires directly under the ceiling vent.
APCBEE Procedia, Volume 9, pp 30-35; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcbee.2014.01.006
Integrated Coastal Management (ICZM) is a process which ensures a balance between coastal demands related to the socio economic and environmental aspects. Throughout the globe, coastal zones are of strategic importance because of their aesthetic attributes. An ICZM policy is regarded as a way to improve the quality of life of communities dependent on coastal zone resources and maintain the existing biodiversity and ecosystems. It is also a guide of concerted future actions from stakeholders that may be adopted to attain the goals of ICZM. The ICZM process in many countries has known difficulties owing to loopholes at different levels. In this paper, an analysis of ICZM policies for three countries has been carried out. The results also show that ICZM in the three countries are at different levels of progress in terms of performance and reveals a series of factors that either hinders or promotes the process of ICZM
APCBEE Procedia, Volume 9, pp 36-41; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcbee.2014.01.007
The management as well as the associated Environmental and health risks of medical waste are of global concern. There exist critical steps for safe and scientific management of medical waste which healthcare establishment can adopt. Medical waste may be disposed using different methods which many countries have adopted. However, the disposal of medical waste needs to be carried out in a way that neither the environment nor the health conditions of people are put at risk as they are hazardous. This paper focuses on the assessment of potential risks associated with medical waste management in Mauritius. Two medical institutions: one private and one public have been purposely chosen for proper analysis. Observations have been made on how they manage their medical waste through visits in those institutions. Results have demonstrated that both institutions manage their medical waste differently. Recommendations on how to improve the practices of these two medical institutions of Mauritius have also been made
APCBEE Procedia, Volume 9, pp 54-58; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcbee.2014.01.010
Oxygen mass transfer is an important phenomenon in any biological treatment systems, fermentation reactors and other biochemical reactors. In biological treatment processes, aeration and agitation is carried out to enhance the oxygen mass transfer in the system, which in turn enhances the fermentation or treatment efficiency. In case of wastewater treatment plant, this process takes around 45-50% of the total energy requirement of the treatment plant. This paper proposes a new method for enhancing an oxygen mass transfer phenomenon in biological treatment processes by introducing non-aqueous phase liquids in the treatment system