MNI Open Research

Journal Information
EISSN : 25155059
Current Publisher: F1000 Research, Ltd. (10.12688)
Total articles ≅ 16
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Latest articles in this journal

Published: 10 October 2019
MNI Open Research; doi:10.12688/mniopenres

Stephen G. Nuara, Lori A. Burgess, Adjia Hamadjida, Jim C. Gourdon, Philippe Huot
Published: 22 May 2019
MNI Open Research, Volume 3; doi:10.12688/mniopenres.12818.2

Abstract:1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is a neuro-toxin that has been employed to model Parkinson’s disease in non-human primates for over 3 decades. Despite its use for such a long period, little is known about the effects of MPTP on reproductive function. Here, we report the case of a male marmoset which was able to procreate 1.5 year after having been administered the toxin. We also report on 1 male and 1 female MPTP-lesioned marmosets which produced babies after being housed together for 5 years. These cases suggest that MPTP may not interfere with marmoset reproductive function or that if it does, it may be for a limited period of time.
Stephen G. Nuara, Lori A. Burgess, Adjia Hamadjida, Jim C. Gourdon, Philippe Huot
Published: 26 April 2019
MNI Open Research, Volume 3; doi:10.12688/mniopenres.12818.1

Abstract:1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is a neuro-toxin that has been employed to model Parkinson’s disease in non-human primates for over 3 decades. Despite its use for such a long period, little is known about the effects of MPTP on reproductive function. Here, we report the case of a male marmoset which was able to procreate 1.5 year after having been administered the toxin. We also report on 1 male and 1 female MPTP-lesioned marmosets which produced babies after being housed together for 5 years. These cases suggests that MPTP may not interfere with marmoset reproductive function or that if it does, it may be for a limited period of time.
Nguyen-Vi Mohamed, Meghna Mathur, Ronan V. Da Silva, Lenore K. Beitel, Edward A. Fon, Thomas M. Durcan
Published: 3 April 2019
MNI Open Research, Volume 3; doi:10.12688/mniopenres.12816.1

Abstract:The development of brain organoids represents a major technological advance in the stem cell field, a novel bridge between traditional 2D cultures and in vivo animal models. In particular, the development of midbrain organoids containing functional dopaminergic neurons producing neuromelanin granules, a by-product of dopamine synthesis, represents a potential new model for Parkinson’s disease. To generate human midbrain organoids, we introduce specific inductive cues, at defined timepoints, during the 3D culture process to drive the stem cells towards a midbrain fate. In this method paper, we describe a standardized protocol to generate human midbrain organoids (hMOs) from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). This protocol was developed to demonstrate how human iPSCs can be successfully differentiated into numerous, high quality midbrain organoids in one batch. We also describe adaptations for cryosectioning of fixed organoids for subsequent histological analysis.
Shahab Bakhtiari, Christopher C. Pack
Published: 18 March 2019
MNI Open Research, Volume 2; doi:10.12688/mniopenres.12806.2

Abstract:Smooth pursuit eye movements have frequently been used to model sensorimotor transformations in the brain. In particular, the initiation phase of pursuit can be understood as a transformation of a sensory estimate of target velocity into an eye rotation. Despite careful laboratory controls on the stimulus conditions, pursuit eye movements are frequently observed to exhibit considerable trial-to-trial variability. In theory, this variability can be caused by the variability in sensory representation of target motion, or by the variability in the transformation of sensory information to motor commands. Previous work has shown that neural variability in the middle temporal (MT) area is likely propagated to the oculomotor command, and there is evidence to suggest that the magnitude of this variability is sufficient to account for the variability of pursuit initiation. This line of reasoning presumes that the MT population is homogeneous with respect to its contribution to pursuit initiation. At the same time, there is evidence that pursuit initiation is strongly linked to a subpopulation of MT neurons (those with strong surround suppression) that collectively generate less motor variability. To distinguish between these possibilities, we have combined human psychophysics, monkey electrophysiology, and computational modeling to examine how the pursuit system reads out the MT population during pursuit initiation. We find that the psychophysical data are best accounted for by a model that gives stronger weight to surround-suppressed MT neurons, suggesting that variability in the initiation of pursuit could arise from multiple sources along the sensorimotor transformation.
Sebastian Urchs, Jonathan Armoza, Clara Moreau, Yassine Benhajali, Jolène St-Aubin, Pierre Orban, Pierre Bellec
Published: 5 March 2019
MNI Open Research, Volume 1; doi:10.12688/mniopenres.12767.2

Abstract:The functional architecture of the brain is organized across multiple levels of spatial resolutions, from distributed networks to the localized areas they are made of. A brain parcellation that defines functional nodes at multiple resolutions is required to investigate the functional connectome across these scales. Here we present the Multiresolution Intrinsic Segmentation Template (MIST), a multi-resolution group level parcellation of the cortical, subcortical and cerebellar gray matter. The individual MIST parcellations match other published group parcellations in internal homogeneity and reproducibility and perform very well in real-world application benchmarks. In addition, the MIST parcellations are fully annotated and provide a hierarchical decomposition of functional brain networks across nine resolutions (7 to 444 functional parcels). We hope that the MIST parcellation will accelerate research in brain connectivity across resolutions. Because visualizing multiresolution parcellations is challenging, we provide an interactive web interface to explore the MIST. The MIST is also available through the popular nilearn toolbox.
Jean-Baptiste Poline
Published: 31 January 2019
MNI Open Research, Volume 2; doi:10.12688/mniopenres.12772.2

Abstract:Data sharing, i.e. depositing data in research community accessiblerepositories, is not becoming as rapidly widespread across the life scienceresearch community as hoped or expected. I consider the sociological and cultural context of research and lay out why the community should instead move to data publishing with a focus on neuroscience data, and outline practical steps that can be taken to realize this goal.
Shahab Bakhtiari, Christopher C. Pack
Published: 31 October 2018
MNI Open Research, Volume 2; doi:10.12688/mniopenres.12806.1

Abstract:Smooth pursuit eye movements have frequently been used to model sensorimotor transformations in the brain. In particular, the initiation phase of pursuit can be understood as a transformation of a sensory estimate of target velocity into an eye rotation. Despite careful laboratory controls on the stimulus conditions, pursuit eye movements are frequently observed to exhibit considerable trial-to-trial variability. In theory, this variability can be caused by the variability in sensory representation of target motion, or by the variability in the transformation of sensory information to motor commands. Previous work has shown that neural variability in the middle temporal (MT) area is likely propagated to the oculomotor command, and there is evidence to suggest that the magnitude of this variability is sufficient to account for the variability of pursuit initiation. This line of reasoning presumes that the MT population is homogeneous with respect to its contribution to pursuit initiation. At the same time, there is evidence that pursuit initiation is strongly linked to a subpopulation of MT neurons (those with strong surround suppression) that collectively generate less motor variability. To distinguish between these possibilities, we have combined human psychophysics, monkey electrophysiology, and computational modeling to examine how the pursuit system reads out the MT population during pursuit initiation. We find that the psychophysical data are best accounted for by a model that gives stronger weight to surround-suppressed MT neurons, suggesting that variability in the initiation of pursuit could arise from multiple sources along the sensorimotor transformation.
Sarah E. Ali-Khan, Antoine Jean, E. Richard Gold
Published: 12 October 2018
MNI Open Research, Volume 2; doi:10.12688/mniopenres.12805.1

Abstract:Areas of open science (OS) policy and practice are already relatively well-advanced in several countries and sectors through the initiatives of some governments, funders, philanthropy, researchers and the community. Nevertheless, the current research and innovation system, including in the focus of this report, the life sciences, remains weighted against OS. In October 2017, thought-leaders from across the world gathered at an Open Science Leadership Forum in the Washington DC office of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to share their views on what successful OS looks like. We focused on OS partnerships as this is an emerging model that aims to accelerate science and innovation. These outcomes are captured in a first meeting report: Defining Success in Open Science. On several occasions, these conversations turned to the challenges that must be addressed and new policies required to effectively and sustainably advance OS practice. Thereupon, in this report, we describe the concerns raised and what is needed to address them supplemented by our review of the literature, and suggest the stakeholder groups that may be best placed to begin to take action. It emerges that to be successful, OS will require the active engagement of all stakeholders: while the research community must develop research questions, identify partners and networks, policy communities need to create an environment that is supportive of experimentation by removing barriers. This report aims to contribute to ongoing discussions about OS and its implementation. It is also part of a step-wise process to develop and mobilize a toolkit of quantitative and qualitative indicators to assist global stakeholders in implementing high value OS collaborations. Currently in co-development through an open and international process, this set of measures will allow the generation of needed evidence on the influence of OS partnerships on research, innovation, and critical social and economic goals.
Matthew Satterthwaite, Lesley K. Fellows
Published: 28 August 2018
MNI Open Research, Volume 2; doi:10.12688/mniopenres.12791.1

Abstract:Everyday decisions are generally made between options that vary on multiple different attributes. These might vary from basic biological attributes (e.g. caloric density of a food) to higher-order attributes like healthiness or aesthetic appeal. There is a long tradition of studying the processes involved in explicitly multi-attribute decisions, with information presented in a table, for example. However, most naturalistic choices require attribute information to be identified from the stimulus during evaluation or value comparison. Well-characterized stimulus sets are needed to support behavioral and neuroscience research on this topic. Here we present a set of 200 food images suited to the study of multi-attribute value-based decision-making. The set includes food items likely to appeal to those accustomed to North American and European diets, varying widely on the subjective attributes of visual-aesthetic appeal (“beauty”), tastiness and healthiness, as rated by healthy young Canadian participants (N=30-67). The images have also been characterized on objective characteristics relevant to food decision-making, including caloric density, macronutrient content and visual salience. We provide all attribute data by image and show the extent to which attributes are correlated across the stimulus set. We hope this stimulus set will accelerate progress in the study of naturalistic, value-based decision-making.