Pain Studies and Treatment
ISSN / EISSN : 23293268 / 23293276
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 47
Latest articles in this journal
Pain Studies and Treatment, Volume 8, pp 1-21; doi:10.4236/pst.2020.81001
Pain Studies and Treatment, Volume 7, pp 21-31; doi:10.4236/pst.2019.72002
Aim and Objective: To study musculoskeletal problems like musculoskeletal pain, postural deformity and nerve radiculopathy in women engaged in Papad making by clinical assessment. Methodology: A cross-sectional observational survey carried out at Shri. Mahila Gruh Udyog Lijjat Papad, Nandanvan, Nagpur (2014). 50 female subjects were selected for the study. After taking permission from factory in-charge, the survey was conducted at the factory site and subjects were explained about the study in details in language they can understand. Consent form was obtained by subjects to participate. Data were collected by interview and clinical examination of women engaged in this occupation, As per proforma of musculoskeletal examination. Result: Almost 37 subjects out of 50 complaints about low back pain as a chief complaint followed by neck pain in 34, thoracic kyphosis was more profound postural deviation seen in 10 subjects. Paraspinal and calf muscle spasm is more common. Radiating pain and numbness more in dominant hand suggestive of involvement of median nerve were confirmed by Upper Limb Traction Test [ULTT]. Discussion: Socioeconomic status greatly influences the working needs of women. Shri. Mahila Gruh Udyog Lijjat Papad factory provides a platform for Women Empowerment. Faulty posture adoption for longer duration during work gives rise to various musculoskeletal problems. Conclusion: 74% of the study population has low back pain as a chief musculoskeletal problem. 34% present with postural deviation and 82% belong to poor socioeconomic scale.
Pain Studies and Treatment, Volume 7, pp 1-20; doi:10.4236/pst.2019.71001
Pain Studies and Treatment, Volume 7, pp 33-54; doi:10.4236/pst.2019.73003
Background: Thermal Microcautery (TMC) is a form of peripheral nerve field stimulation and is a technique used in Traditional Indian Medicine (Agnikarma) to manage chronic pain. The aim was to asses TMC in painful knee osteoarthritis (PKO). Methods: A non-randomized controlled trial was employed. All PKO patients on a waiting list for knee replacement were offered PNFS-TMC. Patients in the intervention group received 4 sessions (2 weeks apart) of PNFS-TMC by a pin-point tip of a metal rod. The rod was heated over a flame for 5 minutes before being used to induce a single 1 mm second-degree burn over points of tenderness. The control group was selected from the same waiting list. The primary outcome was assessed by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores. The secondary outcomes were changes in levels of physical day to day activity, sleep and analgesics. Results: 16 PNFS-TMC intervention group patients and 15 control group patients were subject to analysis. Baseline VAS score was higher in PNFS-TMC group [9 ± 1.23 (95% CI 8.38 - 9.61) versus 5.93 ± 2.11 (95% CI 4.81 - 7.06) in the control, P < 0.0001]. VAS scores after 8 weeks (i.e. 4 sessions) were lower in the PNFS-TMC group [4.64 ± 2.08 (95% CI 3.57 - 5.72) versus 6.73 ± 2.01 (95% CI 5.61 - 7.85) respectively with P = 0.0058]. In the PNFS-TMC group, VAS score decreased from 9 ± 1.23 (95% CI 8.38 - 9.61) at baseline to 4.64 ± 2.08 (95% CI 3.57 - 5.72) after 4 sessions (P < 0.0001). In control group, VAS score showed a non-significant increase in VAS score from 5.93 ± 2.11 (95% CI 4.81 - 7.06) to 6.73 ± 2.01 (95% CI 5.61 - 7.85) (P = 0.2844). Results indicate reduction of pain VAS scores in the PNFS-TMC group (P < 0.0001). Eleven patients (68.7%) experienced increased capacity to perform daily physical activities P < 0.0001 and 5 (31.2%) showed no change in activity P < 0.0418. 5 (33.3%) of the patients in the control group became worse and 10 (66.7%) experienced no change. Conclusions: PNFS-TMC could offer a simple, safe, cheap and effective method of pain management in chronic PKO patients.
Pain Studies and Treatment, Volume 6, pp 1-8; doi:10.4236/pst.2018.61001
Pain Studies and Treatment, Volume 6, pp 9-14; doi:10.4236/pst.2018.62002
Cervical dystonia (CD) is a condition that typically presents with cervical muscle spasm, producing head tilt and cervical rotation. CD is most often idiopathic, however, in a small number of patients, CD occurs within one day to one year after mild to severe trauma. This type of CD is further classified as posttraumatic CD. OnabotulinumtoxinA (Botox) injections are considered to be a controversial treatment for posttraumatic CD and have produced variable result. This report describes the case of a 32-year-old female presenting with a two year history of posttraumatic CD and associated head, neck, and shoulder pain after obtaining a severe head injury during a motorcycle accident. OnabotulinumtoxinA was used to successfully treat her posttraumatic CD muscle spasms and associated chronic pain. Three months after her first and second ONA treatments, the patient reported at least 50% improvement in her overall pain symptoms and a noticeable reduction in cervical paraspinal muscle spasms.
Pain Studies and Treatment, Volume 6, pp 15-23; doi:10.4236/pst.2018.63003
Pain Studies and Treatment, Volume 5, pp 11-19; doi:10.4236/pst.2017.52002
We hypothesised a 10 minute mindfulness based intervention performed by a novice therapist would have a beneficial effect on pain responses in naive participants. Twenty-four participants were randomly assigned to the control group or mindfulness meditation group. The control group sat quietly for 10 minutes in between two cold pressor tasks. The mindfulness meditation intervention group practiced 10 minutes of mindfulness meditation in between cold-pressor tasks following standardised mindfulness of breathing meditation technique instructions provided by a male investigator. A significant interaction effect was found between anxiety towards pain ratings (pre-intervention vs. post-intervention) and intervention (F = 6.29, p = 0.02). There was a significant decrease (t = 4.07, p = 0.002) in anxiety towards pain ratings in the mindfulness meditation group following intervention. A significant interaction effect was found between pain threshold times (pre-intervention vs. post-intervention) and intervention (F = 18.45, p < 0.001). There was a significant increase (t = -4.38, p = 0.001) in pain threshold times in the mindfulness meditation group following intervention. A significant interaction effect was found between pain tolerance times (pre-intervention vs. post-intervention) and intervention (F = 18.34, p < 0.001). A significant increase (t = -4.20, p = 0.001) in pain tolerance times in the mindfulness meditation group following intervention was also found. The results suggest a single 10 minute mindfulness meditation intervention administered by a novice therapist can improve pain tolerance, pain threshold and decrease anxiety towards pain in na?ve healthy university aged individuals.
Pain Studies and Treatment, Volume 5, pp 21-36; doi:10.4236/pst.2017.53003
Purpose: The adaptation of BPI-B into North/Northeast of Brazil. The purpose of this study was the translation and adaptation of the BPI to Portuguese language, as spoken in Brazil, aiming at its posterior usage to measure both intensity and interference of pain in cancer patients’ life. Methods: The BPI-B was developed from the original BPI, using back-translation and committee review. The Back Translation was compared to the original BPI, as a result, the North/Northeast Brazilian version proved to have the same goals, and is similar to other current versions, observing its psychometrics properties. The inventory presented a final sample of 475 patients, whose average age was 54.37 years old (DP = 14.56), most female (58.9%). One hundred ninety-six patients in elementary school took part. It had its objective to group multiple indicators that responded to validation, precision and parsimony criteria. The patients answered the BPI at the very moment they were diagnosed as cancer cases. All of them were above 18 years old and they were also undergoing treatment at Cancer Ambulatory in a Hospital in Ceará, Brazil. The retest was carried, after about a month of the first application. In order to verify the reliability of inventory adaptation, the exploratory factorial analysis was used as the oblique rotation axis. Results: Exploratory factor analysis confirmed two underlying dimensions, pain severity, and pain interference, with Cronbach’s α 0.833 and 0.733, respectively. Conclusion: A proposition of a north/northeast Brazilian version of BPI turned out to be adequate, gathering evidences of adaptation and internal consistency similar to already validated versions.
Pain Studies and Treatment, Volume 5, pp 37-43; doi:10.4236/pst.2017.54004
Introduction: Pain is the sensory and emotional experience, which altered human health and well-being. When pain does not resolve, it may be associated with a serious disease, condition, or injury that needs timely medical care and also irrational prescribing of analgesics, which is possible to lead to unwanted side effects. Therefore, this study has been intended to evaluate the prescribing pattern of analgesics drugs at Boru Meda Hospital. Method: A retrospective cross sectional descriptive study was conducted. A total of 200 prescriptions containing analgesic were systematically collected by using well designed and pretested Data collection format. The necessary information was extracted from the prescription sheets by trained pharmacists and later analyzed using SPSS version 20 software. Result: Regarding prescribed analgesic acetaminophen 115 (36.9%) was the most prescribed, and then followed diclofenac 83 (26.6%) and Ibuprofen 64 (20.5%). The maximum number of analgesic drugs was administered to patients by oral rout (75%), which is followed by parenteral (19%). About dosing approach 94% acetaminophen prescribed as needed (PRN) based, whereas ibuprofen 59.4% and tramadol 40% were prescribed as twice a day (bid) based. Acute fibril illness (13.6%) was the highest reason for prescribing analgesics. Conclusion: Majority of the prescription analgesics drugs were prescribed as PRN dosing approaches with a very large percentage of oral medications. Some of the prescriptions revealed irrational prescribing of analgesics, in accordance of clinical indication, frequency of administration and combination of analgesic.