Annals of Thoracic Medicine
ISSN / EISSN : 1817-1737 / 1998-3557
Published by: Medknow (10.4103)
Total articles ≅ 751
Latest articles in this journal
Annals of Thoracic Medicine, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.4103/atm.atm_74_22
INTRODUCTION: There are limited direct data on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) long-term immune responses and reinfection. This study aimed to evaluate the rate, risk factors, and severity of COVID-19 reinfection. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included five hospitals across Saudi Arabia. All subjects who were presented or admitted with positive SARS-CoV-2 real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests were evaluated between March 2020 and August 2021. Reinfection was defined as a patient who was infected followed by clinical recovery, and later became infected again 90 days post first infection. The infection was confirmed with a positive SARS-CoV-2 (RT-PCR). Four hundred and seventeen recovered cases but with no reinfection were included as a control. RESULTS: A total of 35,288 RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients were observed between March 2020 and August 2021. Based on the case definition, (0.37%) 132 patients had COVID-19 reinfection. The mean age in the reinfected cases was 40.95 ± 19.48 (range 1–87 years); Females were 50.76%. Body mass index was 27.65 ± 6.65 kg/m2; diabetes and hypertension were the most common comorbidities. The first infection showed mild symptoms in 91 (68.94%) patients; and when compared to the control group, comorbidities, severity of infection, and laboratory investigations were not statistically different. Hospitalization at the first infection was higher, but not statistically different when compared to the control group (P = 0.093). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 reinfection is rare and does not carry a higher risk of severe disease. Further studies are required, especially with the continuously newly emerging variants, with the unpredictable risk of reinfection.
Annals of Thoracic Medicine, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.4103/atm.atm_506_21
OBJECTIVES: To explore the clinical value of three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction technology combined with 3D printing in the treatment of pectus excavatum (PE). METHODS: The clinical data of 10 patients with PE in our department from June 2018 to December 2020 were analyzed retrospectively. All patients underwent thin-layer computed tomography examination before the operation, and then 3D reconstruction was performed with Mimics 20.0 software. The radian and curvature of the pectus bar were designed according to the reconstructed images. Afterward, the images were imported into the light-curing 3D printer in STL format for slice printing. Hence that the personalized operation scheme, including the size of the pectus bar and the surgical approach, can be made according to the 3D printed model. The thoracoscopic-assisted Nuss operation was completed by bilateral incisions. The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, and postoperative hospitalization were counted and analyzed. The satisfaction of the surgery was evaluated according to the Haller index and the most posterior sternal compression sternovertebral distance. RESULTS: The surgeries were successfully completed in 10 patients without a transfer to open procedure. The average operation time was (56 ± 8.76) min, the intraoperative blood loss was (23.5 ± 11.07) mL, and the postoperative hospitalization was (7.2 ± 0.92) d. There were no serious complications or death during the perioperative period. Compared with the data before the operation, the most posterior sternal compression sternovertebral distance was larger, and the Haller index was lower, the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: 3D reconstruction technology combined with 3D printing, which can be used before operation, contributes to the operator performing thoracoscopic-assisted Nuss operation safely and effectively, which has productive clinical application value for the treatment of pectus excavatum.
Annals of Thoracic Medicine, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.4103/atm.atm_128_22
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Uniportal thoracoscopic surgery has been reported to result in alleviating the postoperative pain when compared with traditional video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS).However, postoperative pain is still the main concerns associated with thoracic surgeries. The objective of this study is to evaluate the postoperative pain of patients undergoing uniportal VATS, especially wedge resection, with the use of intraoperative intercostal nerve block. METHODS: All consecutive patients undergoing the uniportal VATS wedge resection between January 2019 and March 2020 were reviewed retrospectively. Twenty consecutive patients in Group A underwent the uniportal VATS wedge resection without intraoperative intercostal nerve block. The other 20 consecutive patients in Group B underwent the uniportal VATS wedge resection with intraoperative intercostal nerve block. The numeric pain rating scale (NRS) scores were recorded at 1, 12, and 24 h, postoperatively. The number of opioid consumption was also recorded until the time to chest tube removal. RESULTS: There was no difference between groups with regard to sex, age, chest tube duration, length of stay, operative time, laterality time, and diagnosis. There was a significant difference in postoperative NRS scores at 1 h (P = 0.001) and 12 h (P = 0.022) between the groups. The opioid consumption was significantly in Group B lower than those in Group A (P = 0.025). CONCLUSION: The intraoperative intercostal nerve block with bupivacaine provided immediate postoperative pain relief with reducing the postoperative opioid consumption compared in patients who underwent uniportal VATS, especially wedge resection of the lung.
Annals of Thoracic Medicine, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.4103/atm.atm_103_22
Post-COVID lung impairment and diseases are major public health concern in the pandemic of COVID-19. Multiple etiological factors can lead to post-COVID respiratory symptoms, with post COVID fibrosis or diffuse parenchymal lung disease being the major concern. We searched PubMed database for English literature related to post-COVID lung disease and we summarized the existing evidence on radiological, physiological, and histopathological aspects of post-COVID lung diseases. We suggest a guidance on the evaluation of these patients and highlight management considerations including general care, pulmonary rehabilitation, and lung transplantation. We also explain gaps in knowledge and awaited ongoing research results, especially in the field of drug therapies including corticosteroids and antifibrotics.
Annals of Thoracic Medicine, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.4103/atm.atm_495_21
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore the diagnostic values of radial endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial lung biopsy with distance (rEBUS-D-TBLB) measurement and with guide sheath (rEBUS-GS-TBLB) for peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPLs) with a diameter ≥3 cm by thin bronchoscope. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Six hundred and three patients with PPL (diameter ≥3 cm) were enrolled in this study. The subjects were divided into the rEBUS-D-TBLB and rEBUS-GS-TBLB groups by the random number table method. Patients were assigned to undergo rEBUS-D-TBLB or rEBUS-GS-TBLB, respectively. The histopathology, positive diagnosis rates, duration of the procedure, and postoperative adverse effects between the two groups were examined. RESULTS: A total of 569 patients were included in this study according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, with 282 cases in the rEBUS-D-TBLB group and 287 cases in the rEBUS-GS-TBLB group. For malignant diseases, the positive diagnosis rates of PPL in the outer/inner-middle lung bands and the right-upper/-lower lung lobes by rEBUS-D-TBLB were noninferior to those of rEBUS-GS-TBLB. The duration of the procedure of rEBUS-D-TBLB was longer than that of rEBUS-GS-TBLB. There were 14 cases of hemorrhage >50 mL, 1 case of postoperative chest pain in the rEBUS-D-TBLB group, and 3 cases of hemorrhage >50 mL in the rEBUS-GS-TBLB group. CONCLUSION: REBUS-D-TBLB by thin bronchoscope has a high diagnostic value for PPL with a diameter ≥3 cm, which may be considered a useful alternative for rEBUS-GS-TBLB in the clinic.
Annals of Thoracic Medicine, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.4103/atm.atm_191_21
OBJECTIVE: Sleep problems during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic commonly affected general populations. Data on the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on sleep quality in Saudi Arabia are scarce. Thus, the aim of our study was to evaluate sleep quality and assess the psychological burden of the pandemic in COVID-19 patients and the general population. METHODS: This was a multicenter, observational, cross-sectional survey. Participants with COVID-19 were recruited from different health-care centers in the western region during the lockdown period from May 13, 2020 to September 2, 2020. All participants completed a validated online survey. The control group comprised individuals from the general public who responded to the online survey through social media. Demographic data, COVID-19 status, and history of chronic diseases were collected. Sleep quality, depression, and insomnia were assessed using validated questionnaires. Results: In total, 1091 participants were surveyed and 643 (58.9%) were positive for COVID-19. Poor sleep quality was reported in 66.1% of COVID-19 patients (mean score ± standard deviation [SD] 6.9 ± 4.0) and 72.8% of controls (mean score ± SD 7.6 ± 4.3). Insomnia affected 50.5% of COVID-19 patients (mean score ± SD 6.5 ± 5.5) and 58.5% of controls (mean score ± SD 7.6 ± 5.5). Depression was diagnosed in 39.5% of COVID-19 patients (mean score ± SD 4.7 ± 4.6) and 70.1% of controls (mean score ± SD 8.9 ± 6.7). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic had a great impact on mental health and sleep quality in both COVID-19 patients and the general population but more pronounced in the general population.
Annals of Thoracic Medicine, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.4103/atm.atm_357_21
OBJECTIVE: This review aimed to explore the pathophysiology and rehabilitation management of exercise intolerance in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We reviewed articles published in 2019-2021 using PubMed, Google Scholar, and CINAHL databases as an electronic database. Data obtained were pathophysiology and rehabilitation management of exercise intolerance in COVID-19 survivors. Types of the article were original articles and systematic or narrative reviews, both published and preprint articles. Articles that were written in English and freely accessible in pdf or HTML format were included. RESULTS: There were 28 articles eligible for this review. Pathophysiology, rehabilitation management, and both pathophysiology and rehabilitation management were explained in 7, 24, and 4 articles, consecutively. DISCUSSION: Exercise intolerance is caused by some pathological processes in the respiratory, cardiovascular, and musculoskeletal systems as a result of systemic inflammation. Fatigue and shortness of breath during the activity were the most common symptom in the early phase of COVID-19 and persisted until the follow-up phase. Hospital admission, especially prolonged use of ventilators and immobilization worsen functional impairment resulting in persistent symptoms. Rehabilitation management begins with a functional assessment consisting of symptom assessment and physical examination of the body systems affected. The goals of rehabilitation management are to increase functional capacity, reduce symptoms, improve the ability to perform daily activities, facilitate social reintegration, and improve quality of life. Exercise is an effective intervention to reach these goals. Several studies recommend breathing, and aerobic exercises, as well as resistance exercises for peripheral and respiratory muscles, to improve symptoms and increase functional capacity.
Annals of Thoracic Medicine, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.4103/atm.atm_174_21
OBJECTIVES: Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) have an increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). The current guidelines recommend pharmacologic prophylaxis, but its timing remains unclear. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, patients with moderate-to-severe TBI admitted to a tertiary care intensive care unit between 2016 and 2019 were categorized into two groups according to the timing of pharmacologic prophylaxis: early if prophylaxis was given within 72 h from hospital admission and late if after 72 h. RESULTS: Of the 322 patients in the cohort, 46 (14.3%) did not receive pharmacological prophylaxis, mainly due to early brain death; 152 (47.2%) received early pharmacologic prophylaxis and 124 (38.5%) received late prophylaxis. Predictors of late pharmacologic prophylaxis were lower body mass index, intracerebral hemorrhage (odds ratio [OR], 3.361; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.269–8.904), hemorrhagic contusion (OR, 3.469; 95% CI, 1.039–11.576), and lower platelet count. VTE was diagnosed in 43 patients on a median of 10 days after trauma (Q1, Q3: 5, 15): 6.6% of the early prophylaxis group and 26.6% of the late group (P < 0.001). On multivariable logistic regression analysis, the predictors of VTE were Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and late versus early pharmacologic prophylaxis (OR, 3.858; 95% CI, 1.687–8.825). The late prophylaxis group had higher rate of tracheostomy, longer duration of mechanical ventilation and stay in the hospital, lower discharge Glasgow coma scale, but similar survival, compared with the early group. CONCLUSIONS: Late prophylaxis (>72 h) was associated with higher VTE rate in patients with moderate-to-severe TBI, but not with higher mortality.
Annals of Thoracic Medicine, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.4103/atm.atm_487_21
CONTEXT: Tuberculosis (TB) remains endemic in Saudi Arabia. Little local data have been reported on bronchoscopic evaluation of sputum-negative pulmonary TB patients, which poses a significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. AIMS: To determine the diagnostic value of bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and its correlation with clinical and radiological features in sputum-negative, culture-confirmed pulmonary TB patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with definite or probable pulmonary TB with overall negative (smear and/or polymerase chain reaction [PCR]) or scanty sputum that had undergone bronchoscopy with BAL over a period of 5 years. Patients' symptoms, radiological features, lung lobe lavaged, BAL acid-fast bacilli (AFB) stain, Mycobacterium TB (MTB)-PCR, and mycobacterial cultures were analyzed. Mycobacterial cultures (either sputum or BAL) were used as a reference standard. RESULTS: Out of 154 patients, 49 (32%) were overall sputum negative and underwent a diagnostic bronchoscopy. Dry cough and fever were the most common symptoms. Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus was the most frequent comorbidity identified in 15 (31%) patients. Fifty-nine percent of the patients had diffuse lung infiltrates, with consolidation being the most common abnormality (41%), followed by cavitation (39%). Right upper lobe was the most frequent lung lobe lavaged (31%), while transbronchial lung biopsies (TBLB) were obtained in 21 (43%). BAL mycobacterial culture and MTB PCR were positive in 35 (71%) and 23 (47%) patients, respectively. Combined BAL MTB PCR and TBLB provided rapid diagnosis in 28 (57%) patients. CONCLUSIONS: An overall diagnostic yield of 90% was achieved with combined use of BAL MTB PCR, culture, and histopathology. Upper lobe lavage and presence of cavities on chest imaging had a higher diagnostic yield.
Annals of Thoracic Medicine, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.4103/atm.atm_82_21
BACKGROUND: The long-term effects of respiratory function and related physiological characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survivors have not yet been studied in depth. OBJECTIVE: To examine pulmonary function, exercise capacity, and health-related quality of life among COVID-19 survivors. METHODS: Eighty-five survivors with confirmed COVID-19 were evaluated at the end of 3 and 6 months after disease onset. The assessment included lung function, diffusing capacity, 6-min walk distance (6MWD), and health status by the 36-item Short-Form General Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire. RESULTS: Totally 85 survivors, 48 (56.5%) were men. The mean (standard deviation) age was 34.6 (9.9) years. Thirteen patients (15.2%) had medical co-morbidities the mean length of hospitalization was 18.5 (5.6) days. 25 (29.4%) required intensive care unit admission, whereas 6 (7%) of them required invasive mechanical ventilation. No significant differences were observed between lung volume parameters. At 6 months, there was a significant reduction in diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), P = 0.02*. 25 (29.4%) of patients had impaired DLCO ≤80% predicted. Regarding 6MWD, a significant increase was noted in 6MWD from 486 ± 72 m at 3 months to 526 ± 82 m at 6 months (P = 0.001*). The 6MWD was lower than that for normal controls of the same age groups. There was significant impairment of health status assessed by SF-36 questionnaire among COVID-19 survivors at 6 months as compared with controls of the same age groups. There were significant positive correlations between lung function parameters (FVC, VC, FEV1, and DlCO) with several SF-36 domains. CONCLUSION: In discharged survivors with COVID-19, 23.5% had significant impairment of diffusion capacity abnormality of lung function. The exercise capacity and health status were considerably lower than that of a normal population after 6 months postinfection.