ISSN / EISSN : 20763921 / 20763921
Current Publisher: MDPI (10.3390)
Total articles ≅ 740
Latest articles in this journal
Antioxidants, Volume 8; doi:10.3390/antiox8080275
Abstract:Controlling unwanted hyperpigmentation is a major challenge in dermatology and cosmetology, and safe and efficacious antimelanogenic agents are deemed useful for this purpose. p-Coumaric acid is a natural metabolite contained in many edible plants, and its antioxidant activities in reducing oxidative stress and inflammatory reactions have been demonstrated in various experimental models. p-Coumaric acid has the optimal structure to be a competitive inhibitor of tyrosinase that catalyzes key reactions in the melanin biosynthetic pathway. Experimental evidence supports this notion as it was found to be a more potent inhibitor of tyrosinase, especially toward human enzymes, than other well-known tyrosinase inhibitors such as arbutin and kojic acid. p-Coumaric acid inhibited melanin synthesis in murine melanoma cells, human epidermal melanocytes, and reconstituted three-dimensional human skin models. Ex-vivo skin permeation experiments and in-vivo efficacy tests for p-coumaric acid confirmed its efficient transdermal delivery and functional efficacy in reducing erythema development and skin pigmentation due to ultraviolet radiation exposure. Human studies further supported its effectiveness in hypopigmentation and depigmentation. These findings suggest that p-coumaric acid has good potential to be used as a skin-lightening active ingredient in cosmetics. Future studies are needed to extensively examine its safety and efficacy and to develop an optimized cosmetic formulation for the best performance in skin lightening.
Antioxidants, Volume 8; doi:10.3390/antiox8080272
Abstract:Resveratrol (RSV) is a natural antioxidant commonly found in grapes, berries, and nuts that has shown promising results in the treatment of a variety of degenerative and age-related diseases. Despite the proven beneficial results on reduction of reactive oxidant species (ROS) and on inflammatory process, RSV shows various limitations including low long-term stability, aqueous solubility, and bioavailability, restricting its applications in the medical-pharmaceutical area. To overcome these limitations, it has been applied in pharmaceutical formulations as nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC). Thus, the present study focuses on the optimization of the production process of NLC. NLC was produced by high shear homogenization (HSH) and ultrasound method (US) using Compritol® ATO C888 as solid lipid and Miglyol 812® as liquid lipid. In order to obtain an optimized formulation, we used a 22 full factorial design with triplicate of central point investigating the effects of the production process parameters; shear intensity and homogenization time, on the mean particle size (PS) and polydispersity index (PDI). Instability index, encapsulation efficiency, and production yield were also evaluated. As the PS and PDI values obtained with 6 min of shear at 19,000 rpm and 10 min of shear and 24,000 rpm were similar, the instability index (<0.1) was also used to select the optimal parameters. Based on the results of the experimental design and instability index, it was concluded that the shear rate of 19,000 rpm and the shear time of 6 min are the optimal parameters for RSV-loaded NLC production. Factorial design contributed therefore to optimize the variables of the NLC production process from a small number of experiments.
Antioxidants, Volume 8; doi:10.3390/antiox8080273
Abstract:Cerebral ischemia is a devastating disease with a high incidence of death and disability; however, effective therapeutics remain limited. The transcriptional factor Nrf2 has been shown to play a pivotal role in the endogenous defense against brain oxidative stress and inflammation, and therefore represents a promising target for stroke intervention. However, the long-term effects of Nrf2 and the standardized Korean red ginseng (ginseng), a potent Nrf2 natural inducer, on permanent cerebral ischemic damage have not yet been reported. Wildtype (WT) and Nrf2-/- adult mice were pretreated with either vehicle or ginseng, and were subjected to permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (pdMCAO). The infarct volume, the reactive astrocytes and microglia, and the water regulatory protein aquaporin 4 (AQP4) were examined at 28 days after stroke. When compared with the WT matched controls, the Nrf2 disruption significantly enlarged the infarct volume (40.4 ± 10.1%) and exacerbated the progression of reactive gliosis and AQP4 protein levels after pdMCAO. In contrast, ginseng significantly reduced the infarct volume and attenuated the reactive gliosis and AQP4 in the ischemic WT mice (47.3 ± 6.9%), but not in the Nrf2-/- mice (25.5 ± 5.6%). In conclusion, Nrf2 plays an important role in the long-term recovery of permanent cerebral ischemic damage and the neuroprotection of ginseng.
Antioxidants, Volume 8; doi:10.3390/antiox8080274
Abstract:The anti-oxidative phenolic compounds in plant extracts possess multiple pharmacological functions. However, the phenolic characterization and in vitro bio-activities in various parts of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) have not been investigated systematically. In the present study, the phenolic profiles of leaves (LE), fruit pulp (FPE), and seed extracts (SE) in raspberry were analyzed by HR-HPLC-ESI-qTOF-MS/MS method, and their antioxidant activities and digestive enzymes inhibitory abilities were also investigated. The molecular docking analysis was used to delineate their inhibition mechanisms toward type II diabetes related digestive enzymes. Regardless of LE, FPE, or SE, 50% methanol was the best solvent for extracting high contents of phenolic compounds, followed by 50% ethanol and 100% methanol. The LE of raspberry displayed the highest total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC). A total of nineteen phenolic compounds were identified. The quantitative results showed that gallic acid, ellagic acid, and procyanidin C3 were the major constituents in the three extracts. The various parts extracts of raspberry all exhibited the strong antioxidant activities, especially for LE. Moreover, the powerful inhibitory effects of the three extracts against digestive enzymes (α-glucosidase and α-amylase) were observed. The major phenolic compounds of the three extracts also showed good inhibitory activities of digestive enzyme in a dose-dependent manner. The underlying inhibitory mechanisms of the main phenolic compounds against digestive enzymes were clarified by molecular docking analysis. The present study demonstrated that the various parts of raspberry had strong antioxidant activities and inhibitory effects on digestive enzymes, and can potentially prevent oxidative damage or diabetes-related problems.
Antioxidants, Volume 8; doi:10.3390/antiox8080267
Abstract:The phenolic composition of hydroethanolic extracts of Mentha aquatica L., Lavandula dentata L. and Leonurus cardiaca L., obtained from plants grown under organic cultivation, was determined and their hepatoprotective effects were investigated in vitro. L. cardiaca extract was rich in phenylethenoid glycosides, especially lavandolifolioside (254 ± 36 μg/mg), whereas rosmarinic acid and eriodictyol-O-rutinoside were the major phenolic compounds of L. dentata and M. aquatica extracts, accounting for 68 ± 7 μg/mg and 145 ± 22 μg/mg, respectively. These differential phenolic components presumably account for their dissimilar antioxidant properties. While L. cardiaca extract showed moderate biological effects, M. aquatica extract displayed high antioxidant activity in chemical models, and that of L. dentata was effective in counteracting potassium dichromate-induced ROS generation in human hepatocarcinoma cells. Moreover, M. aquatica extract (50 μg/mL) and its mixture (50%/50%) with L. dentata extract displayed an effective cytoprotective effect.
Antioxidants, Volume 8; doi:10.3390/antiox8080268
Abstract:Selenium (Se) is an important trace mineral having many essential roles at the cellular and organismal levels in animal and human health. The biological effects of Se are mainly carried out by selenoproteins (encoded by 25 genes in humans and 24 in mice). As an essential component of selenoproteins, Se performs structural and enzymic roles; in the latter context it is well known for its catalytic and antioxidative functions. Studies involving different animal models have added great value to our understanding regarding the potential implications of Se and selenoproteins in mammalian fertility and reproduction. In this review, we highlight the implications of selenoproteins in male fertility and reproduction followed by the characteristic biological functions of Se and selenoproteins associated with overall male reproductive function. It is evident from observations of past studies (both animal and human) that Se is essentially required for spermatogenesis and male fertility, presumably because of its vital role in modulation of antioxidant defense mechanisms and other essential biological pathways and redox sensitive transcription factors. However, bearing in mind the evidences from mainstream literature, it is also advisable to perform more studies focusing on the elucidation of additional roles played by the peculiar and canonical selenoproteins i.e., glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) and selenoprotein P (SELENOP) in the male reproductive functions. Nevertheless, search for the elucidation of additional putative mechanisms potentially modulated by other biologically relevant selenoproteins should also be included in the scope of future studies. However, as for the implication of Se in fertility and reproduction in men, though a few clinical trials explore the effects of Se supplementation on male fertility, due to inconsistencies in the recruitment of subjects and heterogeneity of designs, the comparison of such studies is still complicated and less clear. Therefore, further research focused on the roles of Se and selenoproteins is awaited for validating the evidences at hand and outlining any therapeutic schemes intended for improving male fertility. As such, new dimensions could be added to the subject of male fertility and Se supplementation.
Antioxidants, Volume 8; doi:10.3390/antiox8080269
Abstract:Recently, we demonstrated the capability of the ketogenic diet (KD) to influence the microRNA (miR) expression profile. Here, we report that KD is able to normalize miR expression in obese subjects when compared with lean subjects. By applying two different bioinformatics tools, we found that, amongst the miRs returning to comparable levels in lean subjects, four of them are linked to antioxidant biochemical pathways specifically, and the others are linked to both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory biochemical pathways. Of particular interest is the upregulation of hsa-miR-30a-5p, which correlates with the decrease of catalase expression protein in red blood cells.
Antioxidants, Volume 8; doi:10.3390/antiox8080270
Abstract:Phyllanthus emblica is an edible nutraceutical and functional food in the Asia area with medicinal and nutritive importance. The fruit extract of P. emblica is currently considered to be one of the effective functional foods for flesh maintenance and disease treatments because of its antioxidative and immunomodulatory properties. We examined the antioxidant abilities of the fruit extract powder by carrying out 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, iron reducing power, and metal chelating activity analysis and showed excellent antioxidative results. In 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, the result showed that the samples had no cytotoxic effect on RAW 264.7 cells even at a high concentration of 2 mg/mL. To investigate its immunomodulatory function, our estimation was to treat it with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in RAW 264.7 cells to present anti-inflammatory capacities. The extract decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production levels in a dose-dependent manner measured by flow cytometry. We also examined various inflammatory mRNAs and proteins, including nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), inducible nitric oxide synthases (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). In quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blotting assay, all three targets were decreased by the extract, also in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, P. emblica fruit extract powder not only lessened antioxidative stress damages, but also inhibited inflammatory reactions.
Antioxidants, Volume 8; doi:10.3390/antiox8080271
Abstract:The Mediterranean diet is associated with a low incidence of physiologic and metabolic non-communicable diseases such as hypertension, obesity, and insulin resistance. These chronic diseases are closely related to oxidative status, which is determined by the balance between oxidant and antioxidant levels. The Mediterranean diet is rich in foods with important antioxidant properties, such as fruits and extra virgin olive oil. The aim of this work was to establish the relationship between dietary patterns, the total intake of polyphenols, and the levels of 8-isoprostanes in urine, as a marker of lipid peroxidation, in a group of healthy Spanish women. The main sources of dietary polyphenols were fruits, vegetables, pulses, nuts, and extra virgin olive oil. There was a significant and positive correlation between the estimated intake of polyphenols, total polyphenols excreted in urine, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, and the intake of specific food groups. A positive correlation was established between the total polyphenols in urine and the intake of raw extra virgin olive oil. However, a negative correlation was established between the amount of 8-isoprostanes in urine, total intake of polyphenols, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, and the intake of fruits and nuts. These results indicate an association between oxidative status and the intake of foods that are typical of the Mediterranean diet, in healthy women. Furthermore, the results demonstrate the use of urine 8-isoprostanes as a marker of adherence to the Mediterranean diet.
Antioxidants, Volume 8; doi:10.3390/antiox8080262
Abstract:In recent years, there has been increasing interest in studying food-originated phytocompounds with beneficial influences for humans. Amongst the most active natural substances are polyphenols, for which high content has been identified in the Viburnum opulus berry, and which are unused in Western Europe. Due to its strong antioxidant activity we explored the potential of V. opulus as a preventive agent against diet-related chronic diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Among the causes of these ailments is oxidative stress, as well as impaired glucose and free fatty acids (FFA) uptake. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine biological activity of V. opulus phenolic extracts as cytoprotective agents able to decrease induced oxidative stress, lower lipid accumulation and attenuate glucose and FFA uptake by Caco-2 cells via GLUT2 and CD36/FAT transporters. To determine the source of the most biologically active phenolic compounds, we obtained four phenolic compounds extracts as crude juice, phenolics isolated from juice and two preparations of phenolics obtained with different extraction agents from fruit pomace. Among the studied extracts, the phenolic rich fraction obtained from fruit juice revealed the strongest activity to decrease uptake of glucose, FFA and accumulation of lipid droplets in Caco-2 cells without affecting their viability (IC0 50 μg/mL). Observed uptake attenuation was followed by decrease of the CD36/FAT gene expression, without influence on the GLUT2 and PPARα levels. We suspect that V. opulus phenolics were able to modulate the cellular membrane dynamic, although that hypothesis requires further, more detailed studies. Extracts revealed strong chemo-preventive activity against oxidative stress induced chemically by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BOOH), as well as against DNA damage through the induction of DNA repair after cell exposition to methylnitronitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and H2O2. Our findings suggest Viburnum opulus fruit as a dietary source of phytocompounds, which could be considered as a tailored design food supplement components for the prevention and treatment of postprandial elevation of glucose and fatty acids through delaying the rate of glucose and fatty acid absorption by intestinal cells.