ISSN / EISSN : 20763921 / 20763921
Current Publisher: MDPI (10.3390)
Total articles ≅ 1,091
Latest articles in this journal
Antioxidants, Volume 8; doi:10.3390/antiox8120634
Abstract:Female reproductive (ovarian) aging is distinctively characterized by a markedly reduced reproductive function due to a remarkable decline in quality and quantity of follicles and oocytes. Selenium (Se) has been implicated in playing many important biological roles in male fertility and reproduction; however, its potential roles in female reproduction, particularly in aging subjects, remain poorly elucidated. Therefore, in the current study we used a murine model of female reproductive aging and elucidated how different Se-levels might affect the reproductive efficiency in aging females. Our results showed that at the end of an 8-week dietary trial, whole-blood Se concentration and blood total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) were significantly reduced in Se-deficient (0.08 mg Se/kg; Se-D) mice, whereas both of these biomarkers were significantly higher in inorganic (0.33 mg/kg; ISe-S) and organic (0.33 mg/kg; OSe-S) Se-supplemented groups. Similarly, compared to the Se-D group, Se supplementation significantly ameliorated the maintenance of follicles and reduced the rate of apoptosis in ovaries. Meanwhile, the rate of in vitro-produced embryos resulting from germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes was also significantly improved in Se-supplemented (ISe-S and OSe-S) groups compared to the Se-D mice, in which none of the embryos developed to the hatched blastocyst stage. RT-qPCR results revealed that mRNA expression of Gpx1, Gpx3, Gpx4, Selenof, p21, and Bcl-2 genes in ovaries of aging mice was differentially modulated by dietary Se levels. A considerably higher mRNA expression of Gpx1, Gpx3, Gpx4, and Selenof was observed in Se-supplemented groups compared to the Se-D group. Similarly, mRNA expression of Bcl-2 and p21 was significantly lower in Se-supplemented groups. Immunohistochemical assay also revealed a significantly higher expression of GPX4 in Se-supplemented mice. Our results reasonably indicate that Se deficiency (or marginal levels) can negatively impact the fertility and reproduction in females, particularly those of an advancing age, and that the Se supplementation (inorganic and organic) can substantiate ovarian function and overall reproductive efficiency in aging females.
Antioxidants, Volume 8; doi:10.3390/antiox8120633
Abstract:Oxidative stress plays a role in carcinogenesis, but it also contributes to the modulation of tumor cells and microenvironment caused by chemotherapeutics. One of the consequences of oxidative stress is lipid peroxidation, which can, through reactive aldehydes such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), affect cell signaling pathways. On the other hand, cancer stem cells (CSC) are now recognized as a major factor of malignancy by causing metastasis, relapse, and therapy resistance. Here, we evaluated whether oxidative stress and HNE modulation of the microenvironment can influence CSC growth, modifications of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, the antioxidant system, and the frequency of breast cancer stem cells (BCSC). Our results showed that oxidative changes in the microenvironment of BCSC and particularly chronic oxidative stress caused changes in the proliferation and growth of breast cancer cells. In addition, changes associated with EMT, increase in glutathione (GSH) and Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) were observed in breast cancer cells grown on HNE pretreated collagen and under chronic oxidative stress. Our results suggest that chronic oxidative stress can be a bidirectional modulator of BCSC fate. Low levels of HNE can increase differentiation markers in BCSC, while higher levels increased GSH and NRF2 as well as certain EMT markers, thereby increasing therapy resistance.
Antioxidants, Volume 8; doi:10.3390/antiox8120632
Abstract:Like other members of the Colchicum genus, C. szovitsii subsp. szovitsii is also of medicinal importance in Turkish traditional medicine. However, its biological properties have not been fully investigated. Herein, we focused on the evaluation of the in vitro antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory effects of flower, root and leaf extracts, obtained using different extraction methods. In addition, a comprehensive (poly)-phenolic and alkaloid profiling of the different extracts was undertaken. In this regard, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS) allowed us to putatively annotate 195 polyphenols and 87 alkaloids. The most abundant polyphenols were flavonoids (83 compounds), whilst colchicine and 2-demethylcolchicine were some of the most widespread alkaloids in each extract analyzed. However, our findings showed that C. szovitsii leaf extracts were a superior source of both total polyphenols and total alkaloids (being, on average 24.00 and 2.50 mg/g, respectively). Overall, methanolic leaf extracts showed the highest (p < 0.05) ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) reducing power (on average 109.52 mgTE/g) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging (on average 90.98 mgTE/g). Interestingly, each C. szovitsii methanolic extract was more active than the water extracts when considering enzymatic inhibition such as against tyrosinase, glucosidase, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Strong correlations (p < 0.01) were also observed between polyphenols/alkaloids and the biological activities determined. Multivariate statistics based on supervised orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) allowed for the detection of those compounds most affected by the different extraction methods. Therefore, this is the first detailed evidence showing that C. szovitsii subsp. szovitsii might provide beneficial effects against oxidative stress and the associated chronic diseases. Nevertheless, the detailed mechanisms of action need to be further investigated.
Antioxidants, Volume 8; doi:10.3390/antiox8120635
Abstract:Raw cocoa beans were processed to produce cocoa powders with different combinations of fermentation (unfermented, cool, or hot) and roasting (not roasted, cool, or hot). Cocoa powder extracts were characterized and assessed for α-glucosidase inhibitory activity in vitro. Cocoa processing (fermentation/roasting) contributed to significant losses of native flavanols. All of the treatments dose-dependently inhibited α-glucosidase activity, with cool fermented/cool roasted powder exhibiting the greatest potency (IC50: 68.09 µg/mL), when compared to acarbose (IC50: 133.22 µg/mL). A strong negative correlation was observed between flavanol mDP and IC50, suggesting flavanol polymerization as a marker of enhanced α-glucosidase inhibition in cocoa. Our data demonstrate that cocoa powders are potent inhibitors of α-glucosidase. Significant reductions in the total polyphenol and flavanol concentrations induced by processing do not necessarily dictate a reduced capacity for α-glucosidase inhibition, but rather these steps can enhance cocoa bioactivity. Non-traditional compositional markers may be better predictors of enzyme inhibitory activity than cocoa native flavanols.
Antioxidants, Volume 8; doi:10.3390/antiox8120636
Abstract:Insulin resistance (IR) and cardiometabolic disorders are the main consequences of today’s alimentary behavior. This study evaluates the effects of a chronic-discontinuous treatment with alpha-lipoic acid (AL), an antioxidant substance that improves glycemic control associated with diabetes mellitus, on metabolic disorders and plasma oxidative stress induced by fructose intake, in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats (48 animals) were randomized into two series (n = 24): rats fed with standard chow or with standard chow supplemented with 60% fructose. In each of the two series, for 2 weeks/month over 12 weeks, a group of rats (n = 12) was intraperitoneally injected with NaCl 0.9%, and a second group (n = 12) received AL 50mg/kg/day. Body weight, glycemia, and systolic blood pressure were monitored throughout the study. After 12 weeks, IR, plasma lipoproteins, uric acid, transaminase activities, and oxidative stress markers were assessed. The high fructose-enriched diet induced cardiometabolic disorders (hypertension, hyperglycemia, IR and dyslipidemia), an increase in uric acid concentration, transaminase activities and C-reactive protein level. This diet also enhanced plasma products of lipid and protein oxidation, homocysteine level, and decreased GSH/GSSG ratio. In this field, there is evidence to indicate that oxidative stress plays an important role in the etiology of diabetic complications. AL discontinuous treatment prevents the metabolic disorders induced by fructose intake, reduced plasma lipid and protein oxidation-products, and restored the GHS/GSSG ratio. Our study proves a promising potential of the chronic-discontinuous treatment of AL and highlights the pleiotropic effects of this antioxidant substance in metabolic disorders such as diabetes.
Antioxidants, Volume 8; doi:10.3390/antiox8120637
Abstract:Helicobacter pylori infection causes the hyper-proliferation of gastric epithelial cells that leads to the development of gastric cancer. Overexpression of tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor (TRAF) is shown in gastric cancer cells. The dietary antioxidant β-carotene has been shown to counter hyper-proliferation in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells. The present study was carried out to examine the β-carotene mechanism of action. We first showed that H. pylori infection decreases cellular IBα levels while increasing cell viability, NADPH oxidase activity, reactive oxygen species production, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-B) activation, and TRAF1 and TRAF2 gene expression, as well as protein–protein interaction in gastric epithelial AGS cells. We then demonstrated that pretreatment of cells with β-carotene significantly attenuates these effects. Our findings support the proposal that β-carotene has anti-cancer activity by reducing NADPH oxidase-mediated production of ROS, NF-B activation and NF-B-regulated TRAF1 and TRAF2 gene expression, and hyper-proliferation in AGS cells. We suggest that the consumption of β-carotene-enriched foods could decrease the incidence of H. pylori-associated gastric disorders.
Antioxidants, Volume 8; doi:10.3390/antiox8120631
Abstract:Wild edible plants have been used in cooking since ancient times. Recently, their value has improved as a result of the scientific evidence for their nutraceutical properties. Sanguisorba minor Scop. (salad burnet) plants were hydroponically grown and two consecutive cuts took place at 15 (C1) and 30 (C2) days after sowing. An untargeted metabolomics approach was utilized to fingerprint phenolics and other health-related compounds in this species; this approach revealed the different effects of the two cuts on the plant. S. minor showed a different and complex secondary metabolite profile, which was influenced by the cut. In fact, flavonoids increased in leaves obtained from C2, especially flavones. However, other secondary metabolites were downregulated in leaves from C2 compared to those detected in leaves from C1, as evidenced by the combination of the variable important in projections (VIP score > 1.3) and the fold-change (FC > 2). The storage of S. minor leaves for 15 days as fresh-cut products did not induce significant changes in the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, which indicates that the nutraceutical value was maintained. The only difference evidenced during storage was that leaves obtained from C2 showed a lower constitutive content of nutraceutical compounds than leaves obtained from C1; except for chlorophylls and carotenoids. In conclusion, the cut was the main influence on the modulation of secondary metabolites in leaves, and the effects were independent of storage.
Antioxidants, Volume 8; doi:10.3390/antiox8120630
Abstract:Centella asiatica (CA) herb is a traditional medicine, long reputed to provide cognitive benefits. We have reported that CA water extract (CAW) treatment improves cognitive function of aged Alzheimer’s disease (AD) model Tg2576 and wild-type (WT) mice, and induces an NRF2-regulated antioxidant response in aged WT mice. Here, CAW was administered to AD model 5XFAD female and male mice and WT littermates (age: 7.6 +/ − 0.6 months), and object recall and contextual fear memory were tested after three weeks treatment. CAW’s impact on amyloid-β plaque burden, and markers of neuronal oxidative stress and synaptic density, was assessed after five weeks treatment. CAW antioxidant activity was evaluated via nuclear transcription factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2) and NRF2-regulated antioxidant response element gene expression. Memory improvement in both genders and genotypes was associated with dose-dependent CAW treatment without affecting plaque burden, and marginally increased synaptic density markers in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. CAW treatment increased Nrf2 in hippocampus and other NRF2 targets (heme oxygenase-1, NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1, glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit). Reduced plaque-associated SOD1, an indicator of oxidative stress, was observed in the hippocampi and cortices of CAW-treated 5XFAD mice. We postulate that CAW treatment leads to reduced oxidative stress, contributing to improved neuronal health and cognition.
Antioxidants, Volume 8; doi:10.3390/antiox8120629
Abstract:Women with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have an increased susceptibility of developing cardio-renal disease compared to men, the reasons and the mechanisms of this vulnerability are unclear. Since oxidative stress plays a key role in the development of cardio-renal disease, we investigated the relationship between sex, plasma antioxidants status (glutathione peroxidase (GPx-3 activity), vitamin E and selenium), and adiposity in patients with T2DM at high risk of cardio-renal disease. Women compared to men had higher GPx-3 activity (p = 0.02), bio-impedance (p ≤ 0.0001), and an increase in waist circumference in relation to recommended cut off-points (p = 0.0001). Waist circumference and BMI were negatively correlated with GPx-3 activity (p ≤ 0.05 and p ≤ 0.01, respectively) and selenium concentration (p ≤ 0.01 and p ≤ 0.02, respectively). In multiple regression analysis, waist circumference and sex were independent predictors of GPx-3 activity (p ≤ 0.05 and p ≤ 0.05, respectively). The data suggest that increased central fat deposits are associated with reduced plasma antioxidants which could contribute to the future risk of cardio-renal disease. The increased GPx-3 activity in women could represent a preserved response to the disproportionate increase in visceral fat. Future studies should be aimed at evaluating if the modulation of GPx-3 activity reduces cardio-renal risk in men and women with T2DM.
Antioxidants, Volume 8; doi:10.3390/antiox8120623
Abstract:Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants, fruits, and vegetables. They act as antioxidants against free radicals from UV light, pathogens, parasites, and oxidative stress. In Drosophila models, feeding with various polyphenols results in increased antioxidant capacity and prolonged lifespan. Therefore, dietary polyphenols have several health advantages for preventing many human diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the exact role of polyphenols in neurodegenerative diseases is still yet to be completely defined. This review focuses on the most recent studies related to the therapeutic effect of polyphenols in neurodegenerative disease management and provides an overview of novel drug discovery from various polyphenols using the Drosophila model.