Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2075-0943 / 2520-0313
Published by: Empirical Economic Review (10.32350)
Total articles ≅ 238
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Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization, Volume 12, pp 298-310; https://doi.org/10.32350/jitc.121.18

Abstract:
After having reached the stage where Islamic civilization delivered optimum, it started declining. Nevertheless, in different epochs of Islamic history, some remarkable personalities emerged reclaiming the functionality of iḥyā; i.e., the renaissance principle. In the contemporary times, Mālek Bennabī and Syed Mawdūdī have phenomenally contributed to the Muslim renaissance discourse. Both of them have critically examined the pathology of jumūd; i.e., the tendency of stagnation in the Muslim world. Although, they identified similar causes and symptoms, nevertheless, having lived in different socio-political contexts, they came up with certain methodological differences in their approach. Both the scholars developed a systematic response suggesting a way forward--the method of renaissance. In Bennabī’s discourse, the pathology is fundamentally civilizational, i.e., crisis in the civilizational equation between man, soil and time. While in Mawdūdī’s discourse, the pathology is fundamentally political; i.e., crisis in the nature of political relation between state, society and religion. Against this backdrop, the paper aims to present following points. First, the paper presents a brief analysis of Bennabī’s civilizational approach and Mawdūdī’s political approach in order to understand their scheme of thought while engaging with the question of jumūd and iḥyā. Second, the paper juxtaposes the three key concepts namely civilization, religion, and revival used by both Bennabī and Mawdūdī in their theoretical elaborations to outline the differences and similarities in their method of analysis. Keywords:Islam, Decline, Renaissance, Civilizational Approach, Political Approach
Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization, Volume 12, pp 270-283; https://doi.org/10.32350/jitc.121.16

Abstract:
The paper aimed to discuss the contribution of Shaykh Nuruddin ar-Raniry in popularizing Islamic Law through his work al-Shirath al-Mustaqim in the Nusantara. Shaykh Nuruddin ar-Raniry was a prominent scholar among the Nusantara Scholars who had a major influence on the intellectual and spiritual development of the Kingdom of Aceh Darussalam in the 17th century AD. He is a scholar who is known as an expert in fiqh (Islamic Law) and served as a judge (Qadli Malikul Adil) just during the reign of Sultan Iskandar Tsani. Therefore, this study aims to examine Shaykh Nuruddin Ar-Raniry's contribution to Islamic law through his book entitled as-Shirath al-Mustaqim. The research method in this study is a library study by analyzing the books of Shaykh Nuruddin ar-Raniry and other books related to this study. This study explains that Shaykh Nuruddin ar-Raniry contributed to grounding the Islamic jurisprudence of the Syafii Madhhab in Nusantara in the 17th century AD through his work as-Shirath al-Mustaqim and encouraged the later Nusantara scholars in advancing Islamic legal literacy in Nusantara. Keywords: Shaykh Nuruddin ar-Raniry, As-Shirath al-Mustaqim, Islamic Jurisprudence
Muniba Tariq, Iram Rubab, Hafiza Shahida Parveen
Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization, Volume 12, pp 284-297; https://doi.org/10.32350/jitc.121.17

Abstract:
A phenomenological study was conducted to understand religious practices of khawajasiras, with an emphasis on instances where Islam provides a historically-rooted identity and offers belonging, and to highlight the challenges faced by them in exercising their fundamental rights. Six in-depth interviews were conducted from Lahore’s khawajasira community. Theoretically, the study utilized the theory of marginality for the refinements of its findings. The study was divided into two phases. The first one offered an overview of organization and rights of khawajasira people globally, in Pakistan, and within Islamic thought. The second phase dealt with the study’s empirical findings in the domains of preferred gender identity, societal discrimination, and appeal and challenges of religious affinity. The findings indicated that most participants wanted to articulate a feminine identity. Additionally, five of them had been abandoned by their birth families in early childhoods. Then, broader khawajasira community and civil society organizations were instrumental in sustaining their survival. With respect to religion, all participants identified themselves as the practicing Muslims – where religion was a source of personal comfort, its social practice was found to evoke a negative response as well because Islam has also guided the majority of the participants to seek halāl work. On the basis of the study findings, it is argued that the status of khawajasira community should be restored in the light of Islamic teachings and that the restoration of their historical and religious belonging along with the assurance of equal citizenship rights. Keywords: Khawajasira, Community, Islam, Religion, Discrimination
Mansoor Ahmed, Shama Anbrine
Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization, Volume 12, pp 311-321; https://doi.org/10.32350/jitc.121.19

Abstract:
The aim of this research is to create an understanding regarding the relationship between Grand Mosques in urban structure of the Islamic Communities. For this study, Faysal Mosque, Grand Mosque of the Federal Capital of Pakistan, Islamabad, has been selected as a primary site of inquiry for investigating function and purpose of a mosque in an Islamic community. Using a conceptual framework developed using Michel Foucault’s framework for Enunciative Modalities and design analysis of key examples of major grand mosques in the Islamic history, the paper highlights that a grand mosque holds a vital position in the historic Islamic cities. Its placement at an anchoring point generally connects it with the urban fabric of the city. Historically, the vital positioning in the mosque is also associated with the diverse function that generally work as a school, a treasury, a lecture hall, a guest room, and place of worship. However, with the evolution of the Muslim societies the mosque’s function was confined to a religious place and a school as the rest of the function were shifted into more specialized buildings. Through the assessment of architectural, political, and sociological impacts, however, it has been concluded that whether modern or traditional, the Islamic city was never conceptualized without the grand mosque.Keywords: Mosque Architecture, Faysal Mosque, Modernity, Symbolism
Hafiz Hassan Madni
Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization, Volume 12, pp 322-332; https://doi.org/10.32350/jitc.121.20

Abstract:
Occasionally some laws are enacted without proper deliberation and comprehensive understanding of the issue in focus. The same can be said about The Waqf Property Act 2020 which was passed in Islamabad and all the provinces of Pakistan in September 2020 in which some new laws were made and some previous laws were amended. The Rules regarding Awqāf Act were disseminated across all the provinces and advertised on national media. Having explained the rules of the Act, some guardians of the Waqf properties were also issued notices. However, the Waqf Property Act has received a social backlash from ulamas, the political fraternity & the public. It is said that the Act is not only against the Islamic law but is also against the Constitution of Pakistan. Keeping this scenario in view the aim of this paper was set to discuss the violation of the Constitution that has occurred in the enactment of this law. For this purpose the original text of the Waqf Property Act 2020 along with certified references have been analyzed so that the gaps in the focused law are fully identified. The findings of the study can provide a good insight to the law makers as well as common readers. Keywords: Waqf, Constitution of Pakistan, Fundamental Rights, Religious Minorities, Sharī‘ah
Hamid Fahmy Zarkasyi, , Mohammad Syam’Un Salim,
Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization, Volume 12, pp 138-163; https://doi.org/10.32350/jitc.121.07

Abstract:
In contrast to the West, which considers God as a myth and negates values ​​about reality and truth, the Muslim philosophers and Sufis base their knowledge on the concept of God that has been established in Islam. This article describes the approach of the Sufis and the Muslim philosophers regarding God as reality and truth. By using the descriptive analysis method, this study draws conclusions based on various arguments: first, there is a meeting point between the two, especially in terms of 'al-Haqq' as one of the 'Names' (asmā) of Allah which also means 'reality' and 'truth' which are linguistically unified. Therefore, everything that is called 'reality' has to do with the existence of God which provides wisdom behind all reality as God's creation. Because God created reality with a 'true' purpose. Second, despite the fundamental differences in various worldviews, the West has never assumed that God is Reality in itself because its worldview has negated the Diversity of metaphysical reality. This is also affirmed, only at the metaphysical level as 'speculative science' or 'noumena' in Kant's account. Third, different from the West in Islam, there are various treasures of intellectual property discussions about God as Reality. Although there are many schools in understanding God as Reality, the Muslims have almost the same opinion because they affirm revelation as the only authoritative source of explanation for the concept of God. Keywords: Reality, Truth, Muslim philosophers, Sufism, al-Haqq, Worldview, Epistemology
, Abdesselam Fazouane
Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization, Volume 12, pp 23-47; https://doi.org/10.32350/jitc.121.02

Abstract:
The concept of well-being “Ar-rafahiya” has been addressed by the Holy Qur’ān, the Sunnah and several Arab-Muslim thinkers in the previous centuries through the idea of 'happiness,' “As-sâada.” With this backdrop, this article aims to highlight how the Arab-Muslim thought has defined, developed and used the concept of well-being over time. Additionally, it seeks to underscore the contributions of the Holy Qur’ān, the Sunnah and the Arab Muslim thinkers and philosophers regarding ethical principles that aim to foster human well-being through a balanced subsistence that is free of both excess and deficiency. To elaborate on this subject, we analyze some literature reviews by authors from the Muslim countries in Africa, the Middle East and the Southeast Asia as well as other countries. Finally, we conclude that the definitions of the concept of well-being and its realization have always been demarcated in the Arab-Muslim thought by the recognition of Allah Almighty by a human and the satisfaction of Allah Almighty with human acts. Moreover, we clarify how the contemporary Arab-Muslim thought considers the principles of Islamic economic theory. This clarification therefore enables us to understand how contemporary Arab-Muslim thinkers, especially in Southeast Asia, envision the concept of social well-being. Finally, we show that the general concept of well-being in the Western thought stems from a specific influence of the Arab-Muslim thought.
Sayyed Kamal Keshiknevis Razavi, Abbas Ahmadvand, Mina Moazzeni
Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization, Volume 12, pp 96-113; https://doi.org/10.32350/jitc.121.05

Abstract:
Alexandria is the second-largest city in Egypt; this city is the threshold of Egypt and the first place by the sea where travelers encounter and create an idea of Egypt in their minds. Many western travelers, such as Hartmann Schedel, André Thevet, Jacob Peeters, Charles Perry, Volney, Dumont, and others have visited Alexandria and wrote reports on the City past and present, through which their opinions of the city can be accessed. Without a doubt, looking at Alexandria from a traveler's point of opinion differs from the opinions of a person who has lived there and observed the city from the inside. The question is how each of these two perspectives encounters the city. What questions have each of them asked and what answers have they given? And do these questions and answers come from their social and cultural background? Can a comparison of these two opinions provide a picture of the city to help better understand its history? It seems that the questions and answers of these observers come from their social backgrounds. At the same time Volney (1757-1820) lived in France, Abdul Rahman bin Hassan al-Jabarti (1825-1753) lived in Egypt. In this study, using an asymmetric macro-comparison method, we have attempted to evaluate the information in Volney's travelogue and Jabarti's ''Ajāeb-al Asār'' based on their perspective of the inside (Jabarti) and outside (Volney) of Alexandria. In his introduction to the late 18th century Alexandria, Volney seems to be much attached to the ideas from the French society, At the same time, Jabarti did not pay much attention to the question of Alexandria's urbanization and focused more on those who went to the city and left it. He laid the focus on the political and military situation of the city. Keywords: Alexandria, Volney, Jabarti, Egyptology, Travelogue, Travel Theory
, Mohamad Firdaus Mansor Majdin, Fauziah Fathil, , Saleh Al Zuheimi
Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization, Volume 12, pp 48-74; https://doi.org/10.32350/jitc.121.03

Abstract:
This paper seeks to examine the legacy of the Omani presence in the states of Malaysia, which arguably has made itself apparent in the royal dress of the Kedah Sultanate. This discovery indeed calls for further investigation, especially on how the Omani dress later became a model for Kedah royal dress which is famously known as Baju Muskat. Further analysis is essential to determine to what extent did the Kedah Sultanate adopted the Omani dress of the Muscati style and what aspects of the Kedah royal dress resemble the Omani dress substantially. Preliminary research indicates that there are few similarities that one can find between the Omani dress with that of the Kedah royal dress, which is said to be worn by the latter since the 17th century. Reading through the existing literature in the field also reveals one interesting picture that points to the underrepresentation of Omani individuals, merchants, and scholars in the Malay texts as the former tends to describe them, often as Arab traders, or Persian traders. In short, this paper has attempted to explore and examine the above-mentioned circumstances for a better understanding of the subject matter under study through a method of content analysis. Keywords: Well-being, Happiness, Subsistence, Ethical Principles, Arab-Muslim Thought
, Ridani Faulika Permana, Abdullah Muslich Rizal Maulana
Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization, Volume 12, pp 114-137; https://doi.org/10.32350/jitc.121.06

Abstract:
This paper aimed to analyse Bediuzzaman Said Nūrsi’s ideas regarding the nature of human creation in his major works. In order to achieve such goal, this paper utilized a ‘conceptual analysis’ method to reveal Nūrsi’s elaboration on the concept. The research found that humans, according to Nūrsi, arise from the mother's womb with God's fondness -Rahīm- governed with the eternal pact in the metaphysical realm to be ‘abid in the physical world, who are expected to fulfil their responsibility as God's servant by worshipping Him and Him alone in the form of honest submission. Furthermore, worship is only possible via the perfect actualization of intellect, and recognizing the essence of worship is the Amānah to be the vicegerent of God -Khalīfatullāh- as humans will discover a comprehensive understanding of God -Ma'rifātullah- through their worldly journey. This work finally ended with a reflection pertaining to the possibility of the philosophical thoughts of Nūrsi as a breakthrough in advancing Islamic philosophy in the present age. Keywords: Bediuzzaman Said Nūrsi, Human Creation, Islamic Philosophy, Khalīfatullah, Risale-i Nūr
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