Dental Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2613-4950 / 2613-4950
Published by: Science Repository OU (10.31487)
Total articles ≅ 55
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Lara Pepita De Souza Oliveira, Moises Aleli Gomes, Jefter Haad Ruiz da Silva, Cláudia Cândida Silva, Danielson Guedes Pontes, Diego Ferreira Regalado
Dental Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research, Volume 2021, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.31487/j.dobcr.2021.03.04

Abstract:
Direct restorations in composite resin require superficial rugosity appropriate to guarantee a surface free of biofilm buildup, which interferes with the durability of the restoration, its properties and the aesthetic aspect. Thus, it is relevant to know the behaviour of the finishing and polishing systems. The in vitro study aimed to compare the polishing efficiency of three different polishing systems in promoting the surface smoothness of a nanocomposite resin. Sixty specimens of the nanocomposite resin Filtek Z350 XT (3M) were made, randomly divided into three groups (n=20), according to the tested polishing systems: Enhance (Dentsply), DFL Polishers, and Sof-Lex Spiral (3M). The surface rugosity of the samples was measured by means of the rugosimeter equipment. The data were analysed through statistical tests: ANOVA two-way and post-hoc Tukey. The results indicated Sof-Lex (3M) polishing discs as the ones with the lowest average surface rugosity (0.13µm), presenting statistically significant results (p<0.05); followed by the abrasive rubbers of the DFL system (0.17 µm) and the Enhance system (Dentsply), which showed greater average surface rugosity (0.30 µm). The lowest surface rugosity of the composite resin evaluated in this study (Z350 XT- 3M) was obtained after polishing with the multi-step system (Sof-Lex), from the same manufacturer.
Juan Fernando Buestan Zambrano, Maria de Lourdes Rodriguez Coyago
Dental Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research, Volume 2021, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.31487/j.dobcr.2021.03.01

Abstract:
Introduction: Ameloblastoma is a benign odontogenic tumor that is aggressive and localised in nature, listed as the first or second most prevalent odontogenic tumor and rarely tends to metastasis, but when it does, it receives the definition adopted by the WHO in 2017 of metastasizing ameloblastoma. Materials and Methods: This systematic review of clinical case reports of metastasizing ameloblastoma from the last 10 years, collected from PubMed, ScienceDirect and Cochrane digital databases, aims to search for association between clinical/pathological and/or molecular parameters of ameloblastoma and its metastatic potential. Results: The targeted search yielded 14 publications with a total of 18 clinical cases, which showed a mean age for diagnosis of metastasizing ameloblastoma of 46 years, with no gender predilection and a high probability of occurrence in the yellow Asian race, favouring a pattern of distant dissemination. The highest frequency of metastasis was associated with mandibular primary lesions diagnosed in young patients, and the most frequently found variant was the multicystic solid type, follicular subtype; distant metastasis was the predominant form of presentation, with the lungs being the main target. Conclusion: At the moment, there is nothing that can predict metastatic potential in ameloblastoma. More standardised studies exploring the molecular terrain are needed, as this is a key and understudied factor.
Mansi Mathur, Nillima Sharma, Mamta Parashar, S K Rasania, S Dwivedi, Mitasha Singh, Sneha Gupta
Dental Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research, Volume 2021, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.31487/j.dobcr.2021.02.06

Abstract:
Background: Periodontitis is an extension of inflammation to the supporting tissue of the tooth. Prevalence varies worldwide with a higher prevalence in Asian countries and in India as reported. Literature reports that the sub-gingival microflora and the continuous latent endotoxemia originating from the periodontal pockets is a risk factor for the damage to vascular endothelial integrity, platelet function and blood coagulation leading to periodontal disease playing a role in etiopathogenesis of coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular disease. Aim: To study periodontitis and other risk factor that correlates with CAD among the adult urban population. Settings & Design: Clinic based case control study carried out in medicine and dental outpatient departments (OPD) of Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences & Research and associated HAH Centenary Hospital, New Delhi. Minimum sample size was calculated to be 140. A 1:3 case to control ratio was taken. Methods & Materials: Periodontal Index (Russell Index) was utilized in our study to grade periodontal health status. Statistical Analysis: The data was analysed using SPSS 21.0 version. Categorical variables were tested for significance using Chi square test and multiple logistic regression was used for predicting the probability of cases with cardiac problems having periodontitis. Results: 30 (21.4%) participants were recruited as cases and 110 (78.6%) as controls. Among the cases the Mean Russell score for case was 3.98 ± 0.70 and control group was 3.11 ± 0.68, respectively. Among the total subjects 76.4% showed a RI score of ≥3 indicative of established destructive and terminal periodontal disease and 23.5% constituted the beginning of destructive periodontal disease. Conclusion: Severity of periodontitis was noted in cases as compared to controls. Findings suggest the relationship between CAD and periodontal disease.
Amreen Bashir, Peter Lambert
Dental Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research, Volume 2021, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.31487/j.dobcr.2021.02.08

Abstract:
Introduction: Toothbrushes can readily become contaminated with microbes during use and storage. They present a potential hazard of cross-contamination and subsequent infection. Aims: To investigate the nature and level of microbial contamination of used toothbrushes and influence of participant lifestyle. Methods and Results: 103 used toothbrushes were donated, and microbial contents were determined by microbial culture and identification. 97% of toothbrushes revealed contamination. The microbial loads ranged from 0-1010 cfu/brush with median values of around 107, with Candida isolated in the highest levels. 90% of toothbrushes were stored in bathrooms presumably exposed to environmental contamination and 72% revealed the presence of enteric bacteria including Klebsiella, Serratia and Enterobacter. 50% of participants kept toothbrushes for >3 months and 40% retained toothbrushes for 4-6 months; microbial loads were fully established during the first three months of use and did not increase further with prolonged use. Only 57% of participants brushed their teeth twice a day and 41% brushed once a day. Conclusion: Used toothbrushes are heavily contaminated and the presence of potentially pathogenic microorganisms constitutes a potential health risk. Significance and Impact of Study: There is an under-recognised risk of cross-contamination/infection, especially when multiple users store toothbrushes in close contact. Guidance on toothbrush age, brushing frequency and storage is not being followed. Further education is required to improve public awareness.
Linda E May, Alexis Brown, Alex Kordis, Christopher Cotterill, Vanessa Pardi
Dental Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research, Volume 2021, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.31487/j.dobcr.2021.02.07

Abstract:
Objectives: This study’s objective was to evaluate if exercise during pregnancy, a healthy diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and calcium, and the mother’s educational level influenced the dental health measures of caries risk and tooth eruption of their offspring. Methods: Women with children 6 years and younger completed questionnaires regarding PA and diet (PUFA-rich, calcium-rich (Ca) dairy foods) during pregnancy and education level prior to their child’s dental examination. T-tests were used to compare exercisers and non-exercisers; correlation and regression analyses were conducted to determine relationships and predictors of child dental health, respectively. Results: Eighty-two mother-child pairs were analysed. Exercisers had trends of increased PUFA (p=0.07) and Ca-rich dairy foods (p=0.12) to non-exercisers during pregnancy. Ca-rich dairy foods during pregnancy had positive associations with primary tooth count (p=0.004), mixed surface count (p=0.02), and tooth eruption (p=0.04). Controlling for maternal education and exercise, tooth eruption was predicted by PUFA summary and cheese consumption while dairy summary predicted primary tooth count; caries risk was predicted by maternal education; primary surface caries was associated with exercise duration. Conclusion: During pregnancy, calcium-rich dairy and PUFA-rich foods influenced child tooth eruption and thus tooth count, while exercise duration was associated with primary surface caries. Maternal education was associated with lower caries risk. Our findings support educating women on calcium intake and appropriate exercise levels during pregnancy, plus oral health counseling for their child.
Qingsong Yu, Qing Hong, Xiaoqing Dong, Meng Chen, Hongmin Sun, Liang Hong, Yong Wang
Dental Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research, Volume 2021, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.31487/j.dobcr.2021.02.05

Abstract:
The objective of this study is to evaluate the plasma treatment effects on oral fungal biofilms. Candida albicans biofilms were developed on the 48-well plate to serve as a model of oral fungal biofilm. The treatment of 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) was used as a positive control compared with plasma treatments. The efficacy of treatments was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). The survival percentage of Candida albicans decreased from 52% to 27% as the plasma power increased from 6mA to 8mA and plasma exposure time extended from 2 min to 10 min. Moreover, it was found that there is a synergistic effect of the combination of plasma and CHX treatments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination indicated severe cell damages resulting from plasma treatment. In conclusion, the low-temperature plasma treatment is effective in deactivating Candida albicans biofilms and thus provides a promising alternative to disinfect oral fungal biofilms.
Yuanyuan Duan, Lohitha Kalluri, Megha Satpathy
Dental Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research, Volume 2021, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.31487/j.dobcr.2021.02.04

Abstract:
Background: Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) has been widely investigated for various biomedical applications, such as craniofacial bone regeneration, wound dressing and tissue engineering. Electrospinning is a versatile technology used to produce micro/nanoscale fibers with large specific surface area and high porosity. Purpose: The aim of the current study is to prepare PLGA nanofibers using electrospinning for guided tissue regeneration/guided bone regeneration applications. The objective of this study is to determine the appropriate electrospinning parameters such as applied voltage, flow rate, spinneret-collector distance and polymer solution concentration for preparation of PLGA fibrous membrane and their effect on the mean fiber diameter of the electrospun fibers. Method: PLGA pellets were dissolved in Hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) in various concentrations overnight using a bench rocker. The resulting PLGA solution was then loaded into a syringe and electrospinning was done by maintaining the other parameters constant. Similarly, various fibrous mats were collected by altering the specific electrospinning parameter inputs such as applied voltage, flow rate and spinneret-collector distance. The morphology of the fibrous mats was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope. The mean fiber diameter was assessed using ImageJ software and the results were compared using one-way ANOVA. Results: We obtained bead-free uniform fibers with various tested solution concentrations. One-way ANOVA analysis demonstrated significant variation in mean fiber diameter of the electrospun fibers with altering applied voltage, solution concentration, flow rate and spinneret-collector distance. Conclusion: The above-mentioned electrospinning parameters and solution concentration influence the mean fiber diameter of electrospun PLGA nanofibers.
Lena Wischerath, Arne C. Rodloff, Holger Jentsch, Paul Vielkind, Catalina S. Stingu
Dental Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research, Volume 2021, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.31487/j.dobcr.2021.02.03

Abstract:
Actinomyces naeslundii and A. oris are dental plaque formers involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. The aim of the study was to investigate the clonal relationship within two oral Actinomyces populations collected from plaque of patients with chronic periodontitis. The 223 clinical strains of A. naeslundii and A. oris were isolated from biofilm samples collected supra and subgingivally from teeth with shallow (probing depth (PD) = 3-4 mm), deep (PD = 5-6 mm) and very deep (PD ≥7 mm) pockets from 20 chronic periodontitis patients. All strains were submitted to repetitive sequence-based PCR typing using DiversiLab (BioMerieux,Marcy l´Étoile, France). Seven patients harboured only unrelated (95% similarity) and unrelated isolates at different sites. Identical (>98% similarity) strains were found to be present in the subgingival shallow depths more often than in the other subgingival depths. The number of clones in individual patients varied from 2 to 17 different rep-PCR genotypes. The clonal relationship within the oral populations of A. naeslundii and A. oris in an individual was unpredictable, ranging from the presence of multiple genotypes with no clonal similarity to only two different clones supra or subgingivally at different sites.
I. Dupuy-Bonafé, C. François, J. Yachouh, L. Frapier, S. Millot
Dental Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research, Volume 2021, pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.31487/j.dobcr.2021.02.02

Abstract:
Background: Continuous positive airway pressure is a cost-effective treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), but in case of craniofacial anomalies, which have a recognized role in OSA development, maxillary-mandibular advancement surgery is a recommended therapeutic option. Clinical Presentation: We describe a patient with severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index = 42) treated by maxillary-mandibular advancement (MMA) surgery. Effective results were confirmed by polysomnography at 6 months post-surgery with normalization of the polysomnographic parameters (apnea-hypopnea index = 17) but due to persistent sleepiness, the patient was unable to resume his work. Conclusion: Maxillary-mandibular surgery can be a valid option for treating severe OSA associated with craniofacial anomalies. However, our results emphasize the need of critically assessing surgical approaches and the need to redefine success for OSA management.
Mohammed S Mustak, Chitta Chowdhury, Shahnawaz Khijmatgar, Avidyuti Chowdhury, Divya Kumari P, Edward Lynch, Martin Grootveld
Dental Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research, Volume 2020, pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.31487/j.dobcr.2020.02.04

Abstract:
Objective: To determine any genetic association of COL1A2 polymorphism and the occurrence of dental fluorosis within an Indian human dental fluorosis population. Material and Methods: Fifty-six (56) subjects from two groups i.e. cases with dental fluorosis from the Pavagada population (n=29) and a control group (n=27) without fluorosis, were explored. The ages ranged between 15 and 76 years (mean 50.8 years) were included, and the male to female ratio was 70:30. The severity of dental fluorosis was graded using WHO’s Thylstrup-Fejerskov index (TF), and the concentration of fluoride was determined by a fluoride ion selective electrode (ISE). Genomic DNA was extracted using the standard phenol-chloroform method. The rs412777 and rs414408 polymorphism in COL1A2 were genotyped using the Sanger sequence method. Results: Genotype distributions for rs412777 within each group were: AA 41%, AC 51%, and CC 7% for dental fluorosis participants, and AA 56%, AC 46%, and CC 0% for the control participants. Conclusions: The rs412777 and rs414408 polymorphisms in the COL1A2gene showed no significant association between COL1A2 and the occurrence of dental fluorosis amongst this Indian population.
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