Research in Medical & Engineering Sciences

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EISSN : 2576-8816
Current Publisher: Crimson Publishers (10.31031)
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Research in Medical & Engineering Sciences; doi:10.31031/rmes

Abstract:
Research in Medical & Engineering Sciences is a multidisciplinary study of research and information on the applications of Science and Engineering to medicine
Tiago C Pereira
Research in Medical & Engineering Sciences, Volume 8, pp 1-5; doi:10.31031/rmes.2019.08.000685

Hsia Wei Liu, Kuo-Ti Chen, Jui Teng Lin
Research in Medical & Engineering Sciences, Volume 8, pp 1-8; doi:10.31031/rmes.2019.08.000682

Abstract:
Kuo-Ti Chen1, Jui Teng Lin2 and Hsia Wei Liu3* 1Graduate Institute of Applied Science and Engineering, Taiwan 2New Vision, Taiwan 3Department of Life Science, Taiwan *Corresponding author: Hsia Wei Liu, Department of Life Science, Taiwan Submission: August 10, 2019; Published: August 27, 2019 DOI: 10.31031/RMES.2019.08.000682 ISSN: 2576-8816Volume8 Issue2 The kinetics and rate equations are derived to analyze the enhanced cross-linking via a two-monomer system, in which the photoinitiator (PI) triplet excited state interacts with monomers, [A] and [B], to form reactive intermediates radicals, which could interact with oxygen, [A],[B], and bimolecular termination. Quasi-steady-state conditions are employed to solve for radicals which are used to find the temporal prpfiles of the monomer efficacy and cosslink depth, as a function of light intensity, exposure time, and concentrations of PI, [A] and [B]. Higher light intensity and radical coupling rate constant lead to faster depletion of PI and oxygen concentration; and faster transient rising efficacy, but a lower steadystate efficacy. Conversion efficacy is an increasing function of the ratio [B]/[A]. In contrast, efficacy is a decreasing function of the reaction rate ratio of oxygen and triplet state, resulted by the stronger oxygen inhibition. Efficacy may be improved by additive enhancer-monomer or extended lifetime of photosensitizer triplet-state or oxygen singlet, in consistent with the measured clinical data. Oxygen inhibition effect may be reduced by the presence of D2O, which extends the lifetime of singlet oxygen. Our analytic formulas provide useful guidance for the scaling laws for further clinical studies. Keywords: Crosslinking; Photopolymerization; Conversion efficacy; Kinetic modeling; Oxygen inhibition Photopolymerization and crosslinking have been utilized in various medical and industrial applications [1-5]. Comparing to thermal-initiated polymerization, photo-initiated polymerization provides advantages of fast and controllable reaction rates, and spatial and temporal control over the formation of the material, without the need for high temperatures or harsh conditions [1,2]. Tissue-engineering using scaffold-based procedures for chemical modification of polymers has been reported to improve its mechanical properties by crosslinking or polymerization with UV or visible light to produce gels or high-molecularweight polymers [3]. Industrial applications include the develop of materials for thin films, 3D bio-printing and microfabrication [4-7], in which he kinetics and mechanisms of photopolymerization have been extensively studied theoretically and experimentally [7-16]. Conventional photopolymerization involves with a single-monomer system having either one or more initiators. Two-monomer systems were also reported such as: (i) thiol-ene system (TES), and (ii) thiol--Michael system (TMS); where in TES, cross-linked polymer networks are formed via a two steps growth mechanism: 1. Propagation of a thiyl radical through a vinyl functional group; and 2. Followed by chain transfer from the resulting carbon radical to a thiol functional group, regenerating the thiyl radical [16-21]. In comparison, TMS involves anion-mediated additions of a multifunctional thiol to an electron-deficient vinyl group of a multivinyl component [22-25]. Both TES and TMS exhibit the advantages of typical photopolymerizations including rapid, optically clear, negligible oxygen inhibition, solvent tolerance, high reaction yields, excellent mechanical properties and do not require solvents for processing [17]. Both computational and experimental investigations have been performed to evaluate the role of solvents, monomers, and catalysts on the reaction mechanism [12-25]. However, most of the previous models [18-15] are based on oversimplified assumptions of constant photoinitiator (PI) or photosensitizer (PS) concentration (without depletion), and thus the light intensity follows the conventional Beer-Lambert law (BLL), which are only valid for optically-thin polymers and will suffer huge errors in optically-thick polymers [12-14]. We have previously considered a one-monomer system for a UV light induced crosslinking (UVX), in which type-I is the predominant process [5,10,11]. In contrast, an oxygenmediated type-II process, where the single-monomer radical induced type-I conversion is not very efficient. Therefore, additive enhancer-monomer, or co-initiator is needed for improved overall (type-I plus type-II) efficacy [26]. The kinetic of a one-monomer system using UVA and riboflavin have been reported [5,10,11]. We have also reported a one-monomer, but two-initiator system, in which the coversion effeicacy is enhanced by the co-initiator in a type-II predominant prosses [15]. This article will present, for the first time, a two-monomer system, consisting of monomer-A and monomer-B. Temporal prpfiles of the monomer efficacy and cosslink depth, as a function of light intensity, exposure time, and concentrations of PI, [A] and [B]. Furthermore, the scaling laws for the crosslink depth and efficacy will be explored and compared with measurements. The measured results of Wertheimer et al [26] will be analyzed, in which the efficacy may be enhanced by an enhanceintiator or increase the lifetime of photosensitizer triplet-state, or oxygen singlet-state, in the presence of D2O. The oxygen inhibition effect and homopolymerization side-effect are also included in this study, such that the co monomers [A] and [B] cover a wider range of suitable materials; whereas they are neglected in TES and TMS, which requires a specific functional group of ene. Figure 1:Schematics of 3 photochemical pathways in a two-initiator system [15], PS and PB, in the presence of oxygen O2, for radical-mediated pathways (1 and 2), and oxygen-mediated pathway (3); where PS is excited to an excited state (Ps*) and a triplet state (T*).- As shown by Figure 1, a two-initiator, PS and...
Areti Moushi
Research in Medical & Engineering Sciences, Volume 8, pp 1-2; doi:10.31031/rmes.2019.08.000681

Abstract:
Areti Moushi* Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics, Cyprus *Corresponding author: Areti Moushi, Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics, Cyprus Submission: July 25, 2019; Published: August 27, 2019 DOI: 10.31031/RMES.2019.08.000681 ISSN: 2576-8816Volume8 Issue1 MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs of approximately 22 nucleotides, that control gene expression. They pair with s specific part on the untranslated region (UTR) of their target mRNAs and silence their expression, either by inhibiting their translation or by degrading the sequence. Therefore, a dysregulation in the expression of miRNAs results to the dysregulation of their target genes which in several cases they may play in different diseases. In the past decades the investigation of these non-coding RNAs has been comprehensive and thorough. MiRNAs have been investigated for their possible role as biomarkers as well as therapeutic targets. The expression of a biomarker should be different between patients and individuals without the specific disease and ideally, they should be specific, sensitive and be collected via non-invasive techniques. MiRNAs seem to have these characteristics, since they are differentially expressed in different tissues and they can be collected through body fluids, such as blood, urine or saliva samples thus making then ideal as biomarkers. In addition, they can withstand extreme condition and be stable for long periods of times thus making them ideal as biomarkers. Cardiovascular diseases were investigated in depth, identifying miRNAs which are differentially expressed in patients compared with individuals without the disease which could potentially be promising biomarkers or prognostic factors. According to Zhou and colleagues (2018), approximately 30 miRNAs have been identified to be associated with heart failure, a condition that damages the heart muscles, which is one of the major causes of death in the United States. Additionally, in Acute Myocardial Infraction and Arrhythmia the expression levels of one and four miRNAs respectively were identified to be significantly associated with these two conditions [1]. Cancer is another condition that miRNAs were investigated in depth as possible biomarkers identifying different miRNAs which are differentially expressed in different cancer types, thus showing the specificity needed for a biomarker. It was suggested by Zhang et al. [2] that miRNAs can function as oncogenes as well as tumor suppressor genes since an upregulation of a specific miRNA can result to dysregulation of a tumor suppressor genes or my controlling genes of cell differentiation or apoptosis. Furthermore, a downregulation of specific miRNAs, such as let-7, which was detected in cancer, may lead to the overexpression of an oncogene. In addition, exosomal miRNAs in serum samples were detected to be differentially expressed in different cancer types, including breast cancer, pancreatic cancer as well as ovarian cancer [3]. In addition, miRNAs were also investigated for their association as therapeutic targets since by changing their expression the expression of their target genes ideally changes as well. Therefore, a change in miRNA and target gene expression is a promising approach for the modern medicine. Research is expanding on the development of synthetic miRNAs which could have similar functions with specific downregulated miRNAs in different disease [4]. Kreth et al. [4] has also summarized miRNA inhibitors that have been investigated in different diseases (T-cell Lymphoma, Hepatitis C). In particular, inhibitors may downregulate the expression of overexpressed miRNAs therefore increase the expression of their target genes. In a similar manner, inhibitors and synthetic miRNAs can be used to control the expression levels of miRNAs that act as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes in cancer and consequently as therapeutic targets for the disease [5]. MicroRNAs introduce a new era in the identification as well as in the therapy of numerous diseases. Several studies have investigated and identified miRNAs which are differentially expressed in plasma/serum and/or tissue samples of different diseases indicating their role as possible biomarkers. Additionally, the target genes affected were also investigated in numerous cases identifying how could possibly be associated with different diseases. Therefore, at these results it is concluded that ideally, a panel with more than one miRNAs together with their validated target genes should be used for the identification of a specific disease since the expression of the miRNAs can also be affected by age, gender, diet as well as smoking and other factors. Regarding the role of miRNAs as therapeutic targets, it was investigated in depth. Studies have identified that by targeting miRNAs which target genes that play crucial roles in specific diseases may manage the severity of the disease. In conclusion, by discussing briefly some of the data available on miRNAs it is shown that they can be both, biomarkers, as well as therapeutic targets. The identification of specific miRNAs which are dysregulated in different diseases, could lead to the discovery of new biomarkers and in addition these could be used as new therapeutic targets. © 2018 Areti Moushi. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.
Sammerul Hassan, Xunli Zhang, Xize Niu
Research in Medical & Engineering Sciences, Volume 8, pp 1-3; doi:10.31031/rmes.2019.08.000679

Abstract:
Sammerul Hassan1,2* Xunli Zhang1,2 and Xize Niu1,2 1Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Southampton, UK 2Institute for Life Sciences, University of Southampton, UK *Corresponding author: Sammerul Hassan, Institute for Life Sciences, University of Southampton, UK Submission: July 22, 2019; Published: August 1, 2019 DOI: 10.31031/RMES.2019.08.000679 ISSN: 2576-8816Volume8 Issue1 Electrophoresis is a powerful analytical separation technique to analyses biological sample fragments such as nucleic acids, biomarkers, proteins, enzymes etc. Microchip electrophoresis (MCE) is a miniaturised form of electrophoresis and offers fast, robust and low-cost analyses and portability. However, the current format of MCE operates only in the single channel, which limits the throughput of the separations. Droplet-based microfluidics, on the other hand, offers simplicity, robustness and multiplicity in microchannels. Therefore, it has a great potential for droplet-based high throughput electrophoretic separations of DNA fragments, proteins and biomarkers from biofluids such as saliva, blood, dialysate etc. and the ease of operational procedures could further lead this for the Point-of-Care (POC) diagnostics in healthcare. Keywords: Microchip electrophoresis; Electrophoresis; Droplet-interfaced separations; Gel electrophoresis; Droplet microfluidics Electrophoresis is a powerful analytical technique to separate and analyse biological samples such as separation and detection of nucleic acid fragments (DNA, RNA) and cell proteins, immuno-separation of biomarkers and enzymes, etc. Traditional slab gel electrophoresis (SGE) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) are among the most common forms of electrophoresis and have widely been used in biochemistry laboratories. However, the requirement of higher voltages (300V/cm) and longer capillaries (40cm) [1,2] makes the CE system challenging for portable POC devices. With the advancement of microfabrication technologies, electrophoresis has been miniaturised to achieve on-chip electrophoretic separations known as microchip electrophoresis (MCE). MCE offers many advantages over conventional electrophoresis techniques such as integration of different separation functions onto the chip, consumption of small amounts of sample and reagents, faster analyses and efficient separations, etc. [3]. The working principle of the MCE is based on the mobility of charged molecules due to the electrostatic force acting on them under the presence of an electric field [4]. The type of charge on the particles and electric field strength determines the electrophoretic movement of charged particles. MCE has the potential to be adapted for portable point-of-care and clinical diagnostics. A particular interest of research in this area is the sample injections in MCE systems. Reliable and reproducible sample injection into the separation channel is significantly crucial for resolving a mixture of biomolecules such as nucleic acids, proteins, and amino acids, etc. Sample injection in MCE involves containment of the sample on the same microchip as opposite to CE where the sample is injected separately. The majority of the MCE systems have used one of the two conventional sample injection methods, i.e. electro kinetic or hydrostatic injection. Hydrostatic sample injection technique controls the fluid flow in the small microchannels via pressure control and requires sophisticated microvalve systems due to which it has limited throughput [5]. In electro kinetic injection method, the sample is mobilised electrophoretic ally, and a fraction of the sample is dispensed into the separation channel [6,7]. The MCE cross-chip consists of two channels, i.e. the sample loading channel and the separation channel. Firstly the channels are filled with a buffer solution, and the sample is electrophoretic ally driven in the sample loading channel in the presence of an electric field. This step is known as the sample loading step. Secondly, a sample plug from the intersection of the cross-channel is injected into the separation channel under an electric field. This step is known as sample dispensing. Separation occurs as the sample moves along the channel and separates into small bands. Finally, the sample enters the detection point where the electropherograms are recorded. Electro kinetic mode of sample injection may introduce bias as different analytes have different electrophoretic mobilities, and the sample is dispensed from the cross-junction. More than 90% of the sample goes to the sample waste reservoir. Therefore, the injected sample may not reflect the concentration and composition of the original sample [8]. Jacobson et al. [9] described the pinched and floating sample injection methods into the separation channel. Cross-chip design injects the sample into the separation channel via the intersection, and the width of the channel intersection controls the volume of the sample injection. To reduce the sample bias, a higher volume of sample can be injected into the loading channels. However, because of the diffusion in the channels, this increases the bandbroadening effect in the separation channel. This method only uses the electrokinetic movement of the sample in the loading channel known as the floating sample injection [9]. Droplet-based microfluidics encapsulates samples into discrete droplets and allows the manipulation of droplets in a highthroughput format. Therefore, it has been applied to inject droplets into the separation channels such as Edgar et al. [10] developed a microfluidics device to inject droplets into the separation channel. The authors fabricated the chip with integrated droplet generation part and separation region and introduced the membrane between these two parts. The droplets were generated in the channels and then transported towards the separation channel where aqueous droplets were diffused into the separation channel by the...
Snehasis Jana, Dahryn Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Gopal Nayak
Research in Medical & Engineering Sciences, Volume 8, pp 1-7; doi:10.31031/rmes.2019.08.000678

Abstract:
Dahryn Trivedi1, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi1, Alice Branton1, Gopal Nayak1 and Snehasis Jana2* 1Trivedi Global, Inc, Henderson, USA 2Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt Ltd, India *Corresponding author: Snehasis Jana, Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt Ltd, India Submission: May 28, 2019; Published: July 22, 2019 DOI: 10.31031/RMES.2019.08.000678 ISSN: 2576-8816Volume8 Issue1 Tellurium (Te) is used in the heavy industry for the preparation of alloys, pigments, rubber, etc. and could be used as a new class of anti-inflammatory drugs. This study was performed to determine the changes in the physicochemical and thermal properties of tellurium that might result due to the impact of the Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment. For this, the sample was divided into the control (not given Biofield Energy Treatment) and treated parts that received the Trivedi Effect®-Biofield Energy Healing Treatment, remotely, by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Dahryn Trivedi. The data showed the significant impact of the Biofield Energy Treatment on the particle sizes of the treated tellurium at d10, d50, d90, and D(4,3) that were decreased by 26.09%, 30.63%, 21.72%, and 24.98%, respectively, compared to the control sample. The treated tellurium showed an increase in the specific surface area by 38.89% compared with the control sample. The PXRD peak intensities of the treated tellurium were altered ranging from -32.00% to 7.00%; while the crystallite sizes were decreased ranging from 10.25% to 38.49%, along with 23.59% decrease in the average crystallite size, compared to the control sample. The total weight loss was decreased after the thermal degradation by 2.88%; however, the residue weight was increased by 5.25%, compared to the control sample. Similarly, the maximum thermal degradation temperature of the treated tellurium showed a significant increase by 2.83% (~16ºC) than the control sample. Thus, the overall study showed the ability of the Biofield Energy Treatment in changing the physicochemical and thermal properties of the tellurium sample as compared to the control sample. Therefore, the Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment could be considered an important approach for improving the solubility, dissolution, bioavailability, and thermal stability of tellurium sample. Besides, the treated tellurium could be more useful for many industrial applications, i.e., metallurgy (in iron, stainless steel, copper, and lead alloys), pigments for ceramics, cadmium telluride solar panels, glass optical fibres for telecommunications, vulcanization of rubber, blasting caps, catalysts for the heterogeneous reactions, production of iodine-131, etc. Keywords:Tellurium; The Trivedi Effect®; Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment; PSA; PXRD; TGA Tellurium (Te) was discovered in 1782 by F. J. Mueller von Reichenstein from ores mined in the gold districts of Transylvania and the name was taken from the Latin word “tellus”, which means “earth” [1]. There were both the inorganic and organic derivatives of tellurium in which the organotellurium compounds could be divided into two distinct groups based on the oxidation state of tellurium. The first group of organotellurium compounds is the divalent derivatives of tellurium. In this, there are tellurols that seemed analogues of alcohols and thiols and further oxidized to ditellurides. Moreover, the di-organo- tellurides are considered as the analogues of ethers and tio-ethers, which comprise most of the organotellurium compounds studied till date. The other category in this class is di-organo-ditellurides that are products of oxidation of tellurols and thus related to peroxides. The second group of organotellurium compounds is the hypervalent derivatives with the oxidation states of +4 and +6. This group contains the classes of organotellurium trihalides, di-organo-tellurium dihalides, organo-tellurates, organotellurium oxides, and organopertelluranes [2,3]. The biological use of tellurium was mentioned in history in the treatment of microbial infections before the discovery of antibiotics. Some early studies done in 1926 reported its use in the treatment of leprosy and syphilis [4]. In now days, the research studies reported that the organotellurane compound RT-01 has shown toxic effects against promastigotes and amastigotes [5]. The telluride nanoparticles containing cadmium could be used as quantum dots in diagnosis and imaging as they are fluorescent in nature. Some of the organotelluranes such as, 2-naphthyl diorganyltellurium dichloride’s was known to possess the gramnegative antibacterial effect. Some studies also reported the antioxidant effects of organotellurides and diorganoditellurides, as well as the immunomodulatory effects of the inorganic tellurane (AS-101) and organic telluranes as protease inhibitors [3]. It was studied that the compound AS101 and other Te (IV) compounds worked by specifically inactivating the cysteine proteases, while they do not pose any effect on the other families of serine, metalloproteases, and aspartic. The effects of the inorganic tellurium complexes, such as, AS101 and SAS are primarily caused by their specific Te(IV) redox-modulating activities that resulted in the inhibition of specific tumor survival proteins like survivin, inactivation of cysteine proteases such as cathepsin B, or obstruction of tumor IL-10 production [6]. The positive effect of AS101 has also been seen in animal models of Parkinson’s disease, where it protects the dopaminergic neurons and thereby helps in improving the motor function [7]. It also induced PC12 differentiation and thereby protects the neurons from apoptotic death [8]. AS101 has also been found to be a novel inhibitor of IL- 1beta converting enzyme (caspase-1) and it inhibits the production of IL-10, IFN-γ, IL-2R, and IL5 [9]. It also helps in protecting the bone marrow stem cells during...
Korablev Ga
Research in Medical & Engineering Sciences, Volume 8, pp 1-5; doi:10.31031/rmes.2019.07.000676

Abstract:
Korablev GA* Izhevsk State Agricultural Academy, Russia *Corresponding author: Korablev GA, Izhevsk State Agricultural Academy, Russia Submission: June 27, 2019;Published: July 09, 2019 DOI: 10.31031/RMES.2019.07.000676 ISSN: 2576-8816Volume8 Issue1 In systems in which the interaction proceeds along the potential gradient (positive work), the resulting potential energy, as well as the reduced mass, are found based on the principle of adding reciprocals of the corresponding values of subsystems. This is the corpuscular process and the entropy can be its theoretical concept. In the systems in which the interaction proceeds against the potential gradient (negative work), the algebraic addition of their masses, as well as the corresponding energies of subsystems, are performed. This is the wave process and the negentropy can be its theoretical concept. The resonance stationary state of the systems is realized under the condition of equality of degrees of their corpuscular and wave interactions. Such correlations are confirmed by the equations of Plank constant, constant of fine structure and for π. These principles can be practically applied to seek for optimal technological solutions. Keywords: The first law of thermodynamics; Gradient of the directivity of processes; Wave-particle duality, Entropy, Negentropy In the process of research, not at once but nearly always, you come across the necessity to solve pending problems. Such problematic issues also exist in physical chemistry. Here are some examples. The analysis of kinetics of various physical and chemical processes shows that in some cases the direct addition of velocities, kinetic or energy characteristics is performed, in others-their reciprocals are added. In particular, such supposition is confirmed by the formula of electron transport possibility due to the overlapping of wave functions 1 and 2 (in steady state) during electron-conformation interactions: Equation (1) is used when evaluating the characteristics of diffusion processes followed by non-radiating transport of electrons in proteins [1]. And also: “From classical mechanics it is known that the relative motion of two particles with the interaction energy U(r) takes place as the motion of material point with the reduced mass μ: in the field of central force U(r), and general translational motion-as a free motion of material point with the mass: Such things take place in quantum mechanics as well” [2]. At the same time, the problem of quantum-wave dualism is still not completely solved, though the application of de Broglie equation allows defining the manifestation borders of such phenomena. But which property predominates depends on the process conditions. And it is quite complicated to define in advance which part of them will operate in each particular case, although it is known that the wave picture is more often takes place at low energies, and corpuscular-at high ones. One of the founders of quantum mechanics Max Born said about this: “Each process can be interpreted either from corpuscular or wave point of view. However, the proof that we are really dealing with particles or waves is beyond our capabilities since we are not able to define all characteristic properties of the process. Therefore, we can say that wave and corpuscular descriptions should be considered only as two complementing each other methods of analyzing one and the same objective process” [3]. Therefore, these problematic issues of physical chemistry need to be further investigated and discussed. The multifaceted manifestation of the idea of entropy is of considerable interest. In thermophysical processes entropy (S) is the function of the system state whose differential in the elementary reversible process equals the relation between the infinitely little quantity of heat transferred to the systems and its absolute temperature: Using such heat-physical definition we can calculate only the difference between entropies. The entropy itself can only be found with the accuracy to the constant summand (integration constant). In statistic thermodynamics the entropy of the isolated and equilibrious system equals the logarithm of the probability of its definite macrostate: where W-number of available states of the system or degree of the degradation of microstates; k- Boltzmann’s constant. These correlations are general assertions of macroscopic character, they do not contain any references to the structure elements of the systems considered and they are completely independent from microscopic models [4]. Therefore, the application and consideration of these laws has multifaceted manifestations, which are most fruitfully used in statistic thermodynamics. The notion of entropy, stemming from the second law of thermodynamics, is the criterion of the process directedness and degree of the system randomness. In this investigation the attempt is made to illustrate the above problems from the position of notions of the directedness of such processes. For moving thermodynamic systems, the first commencement of thermodynamics is as follows: where: amount of energy transferred to the system; element-characterize the changes in internal and kinetic energies of the system; -work performed by the system; -work performed with the system. As the work value numerically equals the change in the potential energy, then: It is probable that not only in thermodynamic but in many other processes in the dynamics of moving particles interaction not only the value of potential energy is critical, but its change as well. Therefore, the following should be fulfilled for two-particle interactions: where U2 and U1 and potential energies of the system in final and initial states. The character of the change in the potential energy value (ΔU) was analyzed by its sign for various potential fields and the results are given in Table 1 [5]. Table 1: From the table it is seen that the values and accordingly (positive work)...
Yoshikazu Mori, Ken Maejima, Masato Yukishita
Research in Medical & Engineering Sciences, Volume 7, pp 1-8; doi:10.31031/rmes.2019.07.000675

Abstract:
Yoshikazu Mori1*, Ken Maejima2 and Masato Yukishita3 1Domain of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Japan 2Nakayama Corp. Ltd, Japan 3PHC Holdings Corp, Japan *Corresponding author: Yoshikazu Mori, Domain of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Ibaraki University, Japan Submission: June 26, 2019Published: July 02, 2019 DOI: 10.31031/RMES.2019.07.000674 ISSN: 2576-8816Volume7 Issue5 A novel standing style transfer system, ABLE, has been developed to assist a person with disabled lower limbs during daily life. The ABLE-I and ABLE-II systems comprise three modules: a pair of telescopic crutches, a powered orthosis for the lower extremities, and a pair of mobile platforms. The crutches, which protect body stability in a standing posture, are useful when rising from a chair. All joints have actuators in this lower extremity orthosis. Together, these module components actively hold joints, bend joints, and extend joints. The platforms, which have crawlers to traverse uneven surfaces, facilitate turning on a rotation board mechanism. The third version, the ABLE-III, is designed to improve safety. The powered lower extremity orthosis is replaced with a two-link arm between legs of the person. No telescopic crutches are necessary because of the large mobile platform. Experimentally obtained results of basic operations related to movement while in a standing posture, sitting and standing with a chair, and descending and ascending a step confirm the design’s effectiveness. Keywords: Aids for the disabled; Rehabilitation; Standing Posture; Wearable Persons with disabilities of the lower limbs are becoming increasingly numerous worldwide. In Japan, the number of disabled persons in 2011 was estimated at about 3,922,000 [1]. Most of them use wheelchairs daily. Wheelchairs are used as “second legs” by numerous users. They are neither difficult to use nor expensive. Electric wheelchairs are widely used recently. They have excellent control features and running time. However, even with those benefits, wheelchairs do present several shortcomings. During movement and use at various locations and institutions, wheelchairs need a sufficient area for operation. Ascending stairs presents numerous obstacles. Actually, wheelchair users need a separate infrastructure. Moreover, conditions such as excretion failure, arthropathy, and hematogenous disorder of legs can result from prolonged sitting. All such physical difficulties must be resolved, in addition to mental stress deriving from the low eye position. One can surmise that a device that can move an ambulatory-disabled person stably in a standing posture can surmount most of these obstacles. Considerable advancement has been achieved in robotic and mechatronic technologies. Many researchers are developing applications in the rehabilitation field [2-15]. Some power-assisted devices of exoskeleton design have been developed [9-15], such as the HAL (Hybrid Assistive Limb) device [13]. This apparatus, which is designed for persons with leg muscle atrophy, can be coordinated using the surface potential of the leg. Unfortunately, people with disabled lower limbs find that using surface potential with the system not a simple matter. The automatic control mode provided with this device does not allow a user free operation. HAL is used lately mainly for medical purposes. It has been clinically tested and approved for CE marking in Europe [15]. WPAL (Wearable Power-Assist Locomotor) comprises powered lower limbs driven by an electric motor at each hip and knee and a cart with control switches [12]. The purpose of this robot is rehabilitation. ReWalk (Argo Medical Technologies Ltd.) has been commercialized to assist the independent walking patients with spinal cord injury. The ReWalk user maintains the body balance with crutches. All have been developed for use by patients for daily life activities in society. This paper presents a conceptual design of standing style transfer system “ABLE” for those with disabled lower limbs [16-19]. Mainly ABLE is intended for use by persons who have spinal cord injuries and who cannot move hip joints those with L1 of lower spinal cord injury. A pair of telescopic crutches, a powered lower extremity orthosis, and a pair of mobile platforms are the three main component systems of the ABLE-I and ABLE-II systems. Together, those components realize three fundamentally indispensable operations of daily life: moving in a standing posture, even when traversing uneven surfaces; standing from a chair; and stair-ascension. Three ABLE systems are proposed in this paper. The second section presents the conceptual design, the design of each module, and experimentally obtained results of the ABLE-I. The third section describes ABLE-II, which was improved by the use of crutches and mobile platforms. We propose ABLE-III in the fourth section. The mobile platform and upper link mechanisms are discussed. The experimentally obtained results of the scale model are presented. Concluding remarks follow in the last section (Figure 1). Figure 1 presents an illustration of the standing style transfer system ABLE-I, comprising three modules: a pair of telescopic crutches, a powered lower extremity orthosis, and a pair of mobile platforms [16,17]. After a user puts on the powered lower extremity orthosis to secure the user posture, the user can ride on the mobile platforms in a standing posture. During the movement, the user touches the ground immediately with the telescopic crutches because they can realize motion while preserving body stability. These crutches also facilitate standing sitting motions or when negotiating a step. Some benefits over those provided by wheelchairs are that ABLE-I enables a user to enter narrow spaces, but it has particular stability in wide spaces because it can alter the crutch contact points freely according to different circumstances. Figure 2a depicts a shoulder crutch prototype that can supply power...
Surya Prakash Gautam, Arun Gupta, Tapsya Gautam
Research in Medical & Engineering Sciences, Volume 7, pp 1-4; doi:10.31031/rmes.2019.07.000674

Abstract:
Surya Prakash Gautam1*, Arun Gupta2 and Tapsya Gautam1 1CT Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences , Shahpur Campus, Jalandhar 2Chameli Devi Institute of Pharmacy, India *Corresponding author: Surya Prakash Gautam, CT Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences , Shahpur Campus, Jalandhar Submission: June 12, 2019;Published: July 01, 2019 DOI: 10.31031/RMES.2019.07.000674 ISSN: 2576-8816Volume7 Issue5 Dendrimers has proved to be the molecule of the millennium. It acclaimed to this fascinating position is in the nanoworld. Despite of short history of nearly three decades, it has proved itself in the market as dendrimers-based products are contributing significantly and efficiently. Top leaders and Pharma giant companies are further strengthening their global presence by launching dendrimer-based products. Star pharma solely dedicated to dendrimers-based product have launched couple of products in the market and many more are in clinical trials. Scientists actively involved in research, number of patents filed every year; new drug applications submitted to FDA are witnessing and forecasting the future of dendrimers. Dendrimers if trusted will surely address the challenges of medical science. Dendrimers may address the problems in healthcare and feasibly our beloved ones may live long, or we may provide them the better quality of life. Keywords: Clinical trial; Dendrimers; Drug Delivery; Nanoworld; Targeted In early 1980 Donald A. Tomalia started and published the birth of new member of Nano family. Vogtle, Jean Fréchet, Newcome have initiated and dedicated their work for dendrimers and have contributed scientifically [1,2]. The journey has started from providing proof of concepts and the number of research publications, patents filed every year is justifications of its global presence. The science of miniature has gained attraction of both beginners and advanced scientists (Figure 1). Figure 1:Growth track of Dendrimers. Dendrimers proved itself to be molecule of millennium. Potted seeds in early 1980 have started giving froots (dendrimer-based products). More than 10 products are commercialized and are doing well in market. Top dendrimers-based products Vivagel, Stratus CS®, SuperFect®, Starburst®, Priofect®, SPL7013, Nano-Juice™ and many more are proving themselves to be the products of choice [3]. Continuously increasing number of IND application is forecasting the future of this magical segment of drug delivery. Dendrimers being an architecture of functional groups mimicks natural material such as amylopectin (natural dendrimer) and proteins as well as the drug candidates already in the market. Star pharma commences Dendrimer-Docetaxel clinical trial and working with full potential especially in cancer segment. Dade Behring, Qiagen, Sigma Aldrich, Starpharmassl, Starpharma, Baker, Stiefel, EMD Chemicals are the top leaders engaged with dendrimers-based formulation development especially in drug delivery (Table 1) [1,4,5,]. Table 1:Dendrimers based products and market prospects. Dendrimer based products hitting the market, number of patents every year, IND applications to FDA have strongly motivated the scientists across the globe to engage themselves in research dedicated to Dendrimers (Figure 2). Concepts/hypotheses are increasing day by day and getting converted to reality. The number of products in market and many more in clinical trial are explaining how this Nano-molecule is doing big things. Scientists are going from small to achieve big. Contextual reviews and comprehensive research work on dendrimers disclosed inherent properties especially its medicinal claims and health benefits. Figure 2:Dendrimers triangle domains. Dendrimers branches are emanating in all direction in almost every field. Major applications to drug delivery are highlighted in present review. Dendrimers have disclosed inherent medicinal activities including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, wound healing and even in the Alzheimer’s management. Artificial joints and bones are also utilizing dendrimers as a basic material of construction. Diagnostic applications are gaining much attraction. Purification of water using dendrimers is gaining commercial utility. These nanocarriers are used in drug delivery for plethora of drug candidates (Figure 3) [6-9]. Drug delivery and gene delivery aspects of dendrimer polymer reported by Yu Gao and his colleagues [10,11]. Antihypertensive and anticancer drugs can be used mostly by oral route with the help of Dendrimers [12-16]. Use of dendrimers in ocular region shows better results compare to the other methods of ocular delivery of drugs, because, dendrimers overcome the problems and complications which are associated with the other drug delivery systems [17,18]. Transdermal formulation of dendrimers shows better water solubility and plasma circulation time also enhanced and it can easily deliver the drug into the specific site [19-24]. Antihypertensive, antiviral, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory and anticancer drugs are delivered via the transdermal route with the help of dendrimers [20,24]. Twibanire and co-worker reported the use of polyester dendrimer in drug delivery system [25] (Figure 3). Figure 3:Dendrimers applications. Interaction with receptor regulates plethora of chemical pathways responsible for the clinical activity. Receptors are basically Nano units and it needs Nano compounds to activate or deactivate receptors and their functions. Dendrimers being Nano in size and are basically functional groups arranged in a systematic way and synthesized by iterative fashion. Literature claims dendrimers interacts with TLR4-MD-2-LPS receptor complex, Dendrimer-GPCR ligand complex from a receptor (AR) antagonist, P2Y Receptors, H1 receptor [26-28]. Knocking the receptors by dendrimers is expressing the potential of new segment ready to treat the diseases regulated by these pathways. Dendrimer alone or in conjugated form if interacts with...
Yoshikazu Mori, Shohei Kojima, Keisuke Yagi, Zeenat Hussain
Research in Medical & Engineering Sciences, Volume 7, pp 1-3; doi:10.31031/rmes.2019.07.000673

Abstract:
Parkinson disease, a degenerative brain disorder, affects many people worldwide. In Japan in 2011, 116,536 patients had symptoms and brain dysfunction commonly associated with Parkinsonism.
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