Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology

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ISSN / EISSN : 1559-0631 / 1559-064X
Published by: Springer Nature (10.1038)
Total articles ≅ 1,701
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Cheng Lin, Kevin J. Lane, Jeffrey K. Griffiths, Doug Brugge
Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41370-021-00397-3

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Tara P. McAlexander, S. Shanika A. De Silva, Melissa A. Meeker, D. Leann Long, Leslie A. McClure
Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41370-021-00391-9

Abstract:
Background Studies of PM2.5 and type 2 diabetes employ differing methods for exposure assignment, which could explain inconsistencies in this growing literature. We hypothesized associations between PM2.5 and new onset type 2 diabetes would differ by PM2.5 exposure data source, duration, and community type. Methods We identified participants of the US-based REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort who were free of diabetes at baseline (2003–2007); were geocoded at their residence; and had follow-up diabetes information. We assigned PM2.5 exposure estimates to participants for periods of 1 year prior to baseline using three data sources, and 2 years prior to baseline for two of these data sources. We evaluated adjusted odds of new onset diabetes per 5 µg/m3 increases in PM2.5 using generalized estimating equations with a binomial distribution and logit link, stratified by community type. Results Among 11,208 participants, 1,409 (12.6%) had diabetes at follow-up. We observed no associations between PM2.5 and diabetes in higher and lower density urban communities, but within suburban/small town and rural communities, increases of 5 µg/m3 PM2.5 for 2 years (Downscaler model) were associated with diabetes (OR [95% CI] = 1.65 [1.09, 2.51], 1.56 [1.03, 2.36], respectively). Associations were consistent in direction and magnitude for all three PM2.5 sources evaluated. Significance 1- and 2-year durations of PM2.5 exposure estimates were associated with higher odds of incident diabetes in suburban/small town and rural communities, regardless of exposure data source. Associations within urban communities might be obfuscated by place-based confounding.
Linden B. Huhmann, Charles F. Harvey, Ana Navas-Acien, Joseph Graziano, Vesna Slavkovich, Yu Chen, Maria Argos, Habibul Ahsan, Alexander van Geen
Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41370-021-00387-5

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Dana E. Goin, Jessica Trowbridge, Lara Cushing, Sabrina Crispo Smith, June-Soo Park, Erin DeMicco, Amy M. Padula, Tracey J. Woodruff, Rachel Morello-Frosch
Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41370-021-00386-6

Abstract:
Background Per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are commonly detected in a variety of foods and food packaging materials. However, few studies have examined diet as a potential source of PFAS exposure during pregnancy. In the present cross-sectional study, we examined prenatal PFAS levels in relation to self-reported consumption of meats, dairy products, and processed foods during pregnancy. Methods Participants were enrolled in the Chemicals in Our Bodies study, a demographically diverse pregnancy cohort in San Francisco, CA (N = 509). Diet was assessed using a self-reported interview questionnaire administered during the second trimester. Participants were asked on average how many times a day, week, or month they ate 11 different foods since becoming pregnant. Responses were categorized as at least once a week or less than once a week and foods were grouped into three categories: processed foods, dairy products, and meats. Twelve PFAS (ng/mL) were measured in second trimester serum samples. We investigated relationships between consumption of individual dairy products, meats, and processed foods and natural log-transformed PFAS using separate linear regression models adjusted for maternal age, education, race/ethnicity, and nativity. Results Seven PFAS were detected in ≥65% of participants. Consumption of dairy milk and cheese at least once per week was moderately associated with elevated levels of perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDeA) relative to those who ate dairy products less than once week. The strongest associations observed were with PFDeA for dairy milk (β = 0.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.02, 0.39) and PFNA for cheese (β = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.02, 0.41). Eating fish, poultry, and red meat at least once per week was associated with higher levels of perfluoroundecanoic acid, PFDeA, PFNA, and perflucorooctane sulfonic acid. Conclusions Results indicate that consumption of animal products may contribute to elevated prenatal PFAS levels.
, Patrick Schlegel, Gregor Peters, Caroline Westphalen, Bernhard Jakubaß, Reinhard Veltrup, Andreas M. Kist, Michael Döllinger, Sophia Gantner, Liudmila Kuranova, et al.
Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41370-021-00385-7

Abstract:
Background In the CoVID-19 pandemic, singing came into focus as a high-risk activity for the infection with airborne viruses and was therefore forbidden by many governmental administrations. Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of surgical masks regarding the spatial and temporal dispersion of aerosol and droplets during professional singing. Methods Ten professional singers performed a passage of the Ludwig van Beethoven’s “Ode of Joy” in two experimental setups—each with and without surgical masks. First, they sang with previously inhaled vapor of e-cigarettes. The emitted cloud was recorded by three cameras to measure its dispersion dynamics. Secondly, the naturally expelled larger droplets were illuminated by a laser light sheet and recorded by a high-speed camera. Results The exhaled vapor aerosols were decelerated and deflected by the mask and stayed in the singer’s near-field around and above their heads. In contrast, without mask, the aerosols spread widely reaching distances up to 1.3 m. The larger droplets were reduced by up to 86% with a surgical mask worn. Significance The study shows that surgical masks display an effective tool to reduce the range of aerosol dispersion during singing. In combination with an appropriate aeration strategy for aerosol removal, choir singers could be positioned in a more compact assembly without contaminating neighboring singers all singers.
Azin Eftekhari, Glenn C. Morrison
Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41370-021-00383-9

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
James L. Crooks, Rachel Licker, Adrienne L. Hollis, Brenda Ekwurzel
Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41370-021-00375-9

Abstract:
Background While ozone levels in the USA have decreased since the 1980s, the Denver Metro North Front Range (DMNFR) region remains in nonattainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). Objective To estimate the warm season ozone climate penalty to characterize its impact on Colorado Front Range NAAQS attainment and health equity. Methods May to October ozone concentrations were estimated using spatio-temporal land-use regression models accounting for climate and weather patterns. The ozone climate penalty was defined as the difference between the 2010s concentrations and concentrations predicted using daily 2010s weather adjusted to match the 1950s climate, holding constant other factors affecting ozone formation. Results The ozone climate penalty was 0.5–1.0 ppb for 8-h max ozone concentrations. The highest penalty was around major urban centers and later in the summer. The penalty was positively associated with census tract-level percentage of Hispanic/Latino residents, children living within 100–200% of the federal poverty level, and residents with asthma, diabetes, fair or poor health status, or lacking health insurance. Significance The penalty increased the DMNFR ozone NAAQS design values, delaying extrapolated future attainment of the 2008 and 2015 ozone standards by approximately 2 years each, to 2025 and 2035, respectively.
, Erick Kill, Stefania Papatheodorou, Petros Koutrakis, Joel D. Schwartz
Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41370-021-00380-y

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
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