International Journal of Design & Nature and Ecodynamics

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ISSN / EISSN : 1755-7437 / 1755-7445
Total articles ≅ 558
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Giulio Lorenzini, , Ahmed Amin Ahmed Solyman
International Journal of Design & Nature and Ecodynamics, Volume 16, pp 245-250; doi:10.18280/ijdne.160301

Abstract:
Current methods to determine the wind farms maximum size do not consider the effect of new wind generation on the Voltage Stability Margins (VSMs). Installing wind power in one area may affect VSMs in other areas of the power system. Buses with high VSMs before wind power injection may be converted into weak buses after wind power injections in other parts of power systems, which may lead to limited future wind farms expansion in other areas. In this paper, two methods are proposed to determine two new wind farms maximum size in order to maximize wind power penetration level. In both methods, the size of any new wind farm is determined using an iterative process which is increased by a constant value. Proposed methods were used in the IEEE 14-bus power system. The results of applying these new methods indicate that the second method results in higher maximum sizes than the first method.
, , Leticia Gómez-Mendoza, Ángel Refugio Terán-Cuevas, Julio Cesar Morales Hernández
International Journal of Design & Nature and Ecodynamics, Volume 16, pp 145-160; doi:10.18280/ijdne.160204

Adem Dreshaj, , Elvis Elezaj, Bekë Kuqi
International Journal of Design & Nature and Ecodynamics, Volume 16, pp 233-238; doi:10.18280/ijdne.160214

Abstract:
The purpose of this research is to determine the content of heavy metals in the lakes of Kosovo, lakes with heavy metals such as: (Hg, Cd, Pb, As, Fe, Zn, Ni, Cu), in water and water sediment in Lake Radoniq and Lake Badovc. Determination of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, As), in muscle tissue and fish organs. Parameters as an indicator of fish safety for food, indicator of environmental pollution (Kosovo lake bioten). Age of fish, the amount of fat are important factors that affect the accumulation of heavy metals in fish. This indicates that the bioaccumulation of heavy metals is a special process and indicates the concentration of heavy metals in the body of the fish. The high concentration of Fe in fish organs is of particular importance for hemoglobin and its role in fish. Metal indicators such as biocumulation factors are different, for example, for Pb can be increased with high concentrations compared to international parameters which depends on the species of fish and the location of catching s137 fish, the concentration of heavy metals in the Lake and the impacts from agricultural activities. The concentration of heavy metals in the body of aquatic life depends on the way in which heavy metals penetrate, giving the body the opportunity to detoxify them through metabolism. Metabolism means the exchange of substances, the uninterrupted exchange of matter between the living organism and the external environment. This process is the basis of life, which allows a cell to grow and reproduce, maintain its structure and respond to its environment.
, Andi Erwin Eka Putra
International Journal of Design & Nature and Ecodynamics, Volume 16, pp 227-232; doi:10.18280/ijdne.160213

Abstract:
This research examines the characteristics of microwave assisted pyrolysis products of cashew nutshell waste (CNS). The pyrolysis process of CNS conducted with microwave heating of 400 W for 60 minutes. Pyrolysis product such as bio-gas, bio-oil and bio-char were identified using proximate and ultimate analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTG), gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) Method. There is a significant increasing in volatile matter and fixed carbon of derived bio-char and the porous structure was observed in a range of macropore after pyrolysis. The TGA profile reveals CNS sample lost about 71.25% of mass before reached 750℃. The highest decomposition rate on the DTG profile was 0.57 mg/min and 0.56 mg/min as observed at about 261.2℃ and 340.3℃. Bio-oil yield has density of 1.036 gr/ml, viscosity of 19.5 cst after water removing, flash point of 138℃ and HHV of 21.7 MJ/kg. The GC-MS of the bio-oil shows about 53% phenol, 19% palmitic and oleic acid, 11% cyclobutene, 14% ethyl and methyl ester, and cyclopentene and cyclohexane in small amounts in accordance with FT-IR results.
, , Geanella Herrera-Narváez, Fernando Morante-Carballo
International Journal of Design & Nature and Ecodynamics, Volume 16, pp 191-201; doi:10.18280/ijdne.160209

Abstract:
Geodiversity and geological heritage are considered to be parallel and closely related concepts of biodiversity and biological heritage. Biodiversity is based and exists on the geodiversity of a territory. In the same way, mining activity and mining heritage are distinguished as contributing to social and economic development. The mining heritage is linked to the geological heritage and has become increasingly important for its social value and relationship with tourist activities. This study aims to analyze these fields' intellectual structure through bibliometrics as a current and innovative methodology that allows a full understanding of their structure and the relationships between these fields of cultural heritage, geodiversity, mining and geotourism. The following methodology considered: i) Search for classified information with scientific rigour in an indexed database, using search descriptors that cover the objective set, ii) analysis of scientific articles through graphical and statistical output schemes, and iii) discussion of the contributions, methodologies used, and trends on the subject. 709 documents of 29 years (1990-2019) from the Scopus database were analyzed. The results show the main themes, countries and influential institutions in cultural heritage, geodiversity, mining and tourism, which address six major research topics ranging from sustainable mining to geodiversity. Extensive information and understanding are provided that other research has partially addressed, allowing current and potential research areas to be identified.
Besma Chekchek, Mohamed Salmi, Abdelhakim Boursas, , , Younes Menni, Houari Ameur, Merzaqa Merrah, Djamal Fridja
International Journal of Design & Nature and Ecodynamics, Volume 16, pp 121-126; doi:10.18280/ijdne.160201

Abstract:
A solar polymer heat exchanger is designed to heat water; its primary materials are plastic water bottles with a capacity of 1.5 liters. These materials were recycled to preserve the environment and to make use of it again. The thermal insulation properties are adopted for the characterization of polymeric materials. These properties concern the conservation of energy for the longest period of time and the absence of problems caused by rust and corrosion, which are usually encountered in traditional heat exchangers. The heat exchanger experiments start by tracking the flow of water inside the pipes by a valve. The water temperature and flow rates are determined at the inlet and outlet surfaces of the exchanger. The obtained results indicated an increase in water temperature exceeding 10℃ in an ideal spring day. The thermal efficiency of the solar collector was about 62% under the sunlight, and 44% in the laboratory where halogen lamps were used as an industrial light source.
, Hassan Ahmed Hassan, Ahmed Alchalaby, Ahmed C. Kadhim
International Journal of Design & Nature and Ecodynamics, Volume 16, pp 219-226; doi:10.18280/ijdne.160212

Abstract:
In this paper, texts were experimentally transmitted by pulse width modulation (PWM) using an underwater wireless optical communication system (UWOC) in a channel containing water of varying salinity as a result of changes in the concentration of sodium chloride (NaCl). Mathematical equations are used using a MATLAB program to compare theoretical and practical results at different slop angle (θ0). (NaCl) concentration was changed from (0% w/v) to (90% w/v) to achieve different salinity of water (i.e., from clear water to turbid water). A diode laser with a power of 30 mW and a wavelength of 532 nm has been employed in the transmitter. The experimental results show that the extinction coefficient or the overall attenuation C(λ) is equal to (0.083/m) in the water containing a low concentration of (NaCl) which is consistent with pure seawater. Additionally, the obtained optical power (PR) and the signal to noise ratio (S/N) decreases to (27.6) mW and (23.99) dB, respectively. Furthermore, it was found that the water had a maximum total attenuation C(λ) equal to (2.565/m) in the water containing a high concentration of (NaCl) which was compatible with turbid harbour water, as well as the received power and (S/N) decreases to (2.306) mW and (13.2) dB, respectively. The theoretical results were similar to the practical results when the slope angle of the target or detector relative to the optical transmitter was (zero).
Riyadh Jasim Mohammed Al-Saadi, , Aysar Tuama Al-Awadi
International Journal of Design & Nature and Ecodynamics, Volume 16, pp 127-134; doi:10.18280/ijdne.160202

Abstract:
The common tool to evaluate the groundwater quality is so-called the Irrigation Water Quality Index (IWQI). In the present study, the IWQI model developed by Meireles is used to assess the quality of groundwater in Karbala - Najaf plateau, Iraq. The quality parameters that collected from groundwater tests of 78 wells in the study area are; EC, Na+1, Mg+2, Ca+2, Cl-1, and HCO3-1. The SPSS software program is employed to develop a non-linear regression model of the IWQI for the study area. The results show that the IWQI values for 90% of groundwater wells fall within the Severe Restriction (SR) category, which means that it’s only suitable for irrigation of high salt tolerance crops. While its remaining 10% of the wells are in the High Restriction (HR) category, and this means it is suitable for irrigation of moderate to high salt tolerance crops. The calibration and validation for the developed model presented that this model has a good estimation of the IWQI values. Due to flexible and unbiased, the current study recommends to use the proposed model to estimate the IWQI.
, Adam Malik, Naharuddin Naharuddin, Andi Sahri Alam
International Journal of Design & Nature and Ecodynamics, Volume 16, pp 239-244; doi:10.18280/ijdne.160215

Abstract:
Non-timber forest products were potential assets to generate foreign exchange. Some types of which had good prospects and were in demand in the world of trade were rattan, gondorukem, eucalyptus and cassava. The purpose of this study was to determine the rattan types diversity in Rompo Village, Lore Lindu National Park. The study was conducted in December 2018 to March 2019. This research used the "survey" method by making a plot measuring 20 m x 20 m along to 1000 m. The distance between one track to another was to 200 m. The results showed that the type of Lambang Rattan (Calamus ornatus var celebicus Becc) had the highest density of 563.75 individuals/ha, then Pai Rattan (Calamus koordersianus Becc) 229 individuals/ha, Batang Rattan (Calamus zollingeri Becc) 183 individuals/ha, Ibo Rattan (Calamus ahlidurii) 52 individuals/ha, Rattan Tohiti Botol (Calamus sp) 46.25 individuals/ha, Pute Rattan (Calamus leiocaulis Becc ex. Heyne) 11.75 individuals/ha, Karuku Rattan (Calamus macrosphaerica Becc) 10 individuals/ha and the smallest was the type of Tohiti Wulo Rattan (Calamus sp) 9.75 individuals/ha. Rattan which had the highest Importance Value Index was the Lambang Rattan (Calamus ornatus var celebicus Becc) with an Importance Value Index value of 72.14% while the rattan that had the lowest Importance Value Index was Tohiti Wulo Rattan (Calamus sp) with an INP value of 5.02%. The level of species diversity (H ') of the rattan types found in the research location was classified as moderate with an H value of 1.75. The higher the area where the rattan is grown, the fewer types of rattan that can grow and only small rattan can grow on high ground, especially Tohiti rattan and large rattan cannot be found any more like Lambang rattan.
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