ISSN / EISSN : 1092-8529 / 2165-6509
Published by: Cambridge University Press (CUP) (10.1017)
Total articles ≅ 4,041
Latest articles in this journal
CNS Spectrums pp 1-28; doi:10.1017/s109285292100064x
CNS Spectrums pp 1-35; doi:10.1017/s1092852921000638
CNS Spectrums pp 1-16; doi:10.1017/s1092852921000596
CNS Spectrums pp 1-9; doi:10.1017/s1092852921000602
Background Few studies have analyzed compulsive buying behavior in relation to a specific product. Smartphones are hugely popular products today, especially among young people. These two aspects have motivated this research into the compulsive buying behavior of Smartphones by university students. Methods To study this behavior, the main features that differentiate compulsive buyers from those that are not are analyzed, and their risk profiles are obtained through a discrete choice model. Results Sociodemographic features that define buyers with the greatest propensity to compulsiveness are younger age, longer time spent daily using social networks, higher spending on the acquisition of Smartphones and having owned a greater number of these devices. These buyers also show shopping addiction and greater feelings of guilt after the purchase as well as more positive and negative affective states when purchasing Smartphones. Conclusions This analysis not only determines the characteristics that define young individuals with a tendency toward compulsiveness in Smartphone purchases, but also contributes to quantifying the probability of having this tendency.
CNS Spectrums pp 1-2; doi:10.1017/s1092852921000559
CNS Spectrums pp 1-26; doi:10.1017/s1092852921000584
CNS Spectrums pp 1-15; doi:10.1017/s1092852921000432
Background There is strong comorbidity between atherosclerosis (ATS) and depression which is attributed to increased atherogenicity, insulin resistance (IR), and immune and oxidative stress. Aim of the study To examine the role of the above pathways and mu-opioid receptor (MOR), β-endorphin levels, zinc, copper, vitamin D3, calcium, and magnesium in depression due to ATS/unstable angina (UA). Methods Biomarkers were assayed in 58 controls and 120 ATS patients divided into those with moderate and severe depression according to the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) scores >19 and >29, respectively. Results Neural network and logistic regression models showed that severe depression due to ATS/UA was best predicted by interleukin-6 (IL-6), UA, MOR, zinc, β-endorphin, calcium and magnesium, and that moderate depression was associated with IL-6, zinc, MOR, β-endorphin, UA, atherogenicity, IR, and calcium. Neural networks yielded a significant discrimination of severe and moderate depression with an area under the receiver operating curves of 0.831 and 0.931, respectively. Using Partial Least Squares path analysis, we found that 66.2% of the variance in a latent vector extracted from ATS/UA clinical features, and the BDI-II scores, atherogenicity, and IR could be explained by the regression on IL-6, IL-10, zinc, copper, calcium, MOR, and age. The BDI-II scores increased from controls to ATS to UA class III to UA class IV. Conclusions Immune activation, the endogenous opioid system, antioxidants, trace elements, and macrominerals modulate a common core shared by increased depressive symptoms, ATS, UA, atherogenicity, and IR.
CNS Spectrums pp 1-8; doi:10.1017/s1092852921000444
Background The present study explored the influence of romantic love on the expression of several obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) characteristics, including symptom severity, symptom dimensions, age at onset, sensory phenomena (SP), and developmental course, as well as other related comorbid disorders. It was hypothesized that love-precipitated OCD would be associated with a set of distinct characteristics and exhibit greater rates of comorbid disorders. Methods The analyses were performed using a large sample (n = 981) of clinical patients with a primary diagnosis of OCD (Females = 67.3%, M age = 35.31). Results Love-precipitated OCD was associated with greater severity of SP and later age at onset of obsessions. However, symptom severity, symptom dimension, developmental course, and psychiatric comorbidities were not associated with love-precipitated OCD. Conclusion It was concluded that romantic love does shape the expression of OCD, especially with regard to SP and onset age. These findings encourage further exploration to determine its clinical significance as a phenotype.
CNS Spectrums pp 1-10; doi:10.1017/s1092852921000547
Background Our goal was to identify the demographic profile of the people living homeless with mental illness in Lisboa, Portugal, and their relationship with the national healthcare system. We also tried to understand which factors contribute to the number and duration of psychiatric admissions among these homeless people. Methods We used a cross-sectional design, collecting data for 4 years among homeless people, in Lisboa, Portugal, that were referred as possible psychiatric patients to Centro Hospitalar Psiquiátrico de Lisboa (CHPL). In total, we collected data from 500 homeless people, then crosschecked these people in our CHPL hospital electronic database and obtained 467 patient matches. Results The most common psychiatric diagnosis in our sample was drug abuse (34%), followed by alcohol abuse (33%), personality disorder (24%), and acute stress reaction (23%). Sixty-two percent of our patients had multiple diagnoses, a subgroup with longer follow-ups, more psychiatric hospitalizations, and longer psychiatric hospitalizations. The prevalence of psychotic disorders was high: organic psychosis (17%), schizophrenia (15%), psychosis not otherwise specified (14%), and schizoaffective disorder (11%), that combined altogether were present in more than half (57%) of our homeless patients. Conclusion The people living homeless with multiple diagnoses have higher mental health needs and worse determinants of general health. An ongoing effort is needed to identify and address this subgroup of homeless people with mental illness to improve their treatment and outcomes.
CNS Spectrums pp 1-5; doi:10.1017/s1092852921000535
Exploring space is one of the most attractive goals that humanity ever set, notwithstanding, there are some psychological and psychopathological risks that should be considered. Several studies identified some possible hazards of space travels and related physical and psychological consequences on astronauts. If some psychological reactions are obviously inherent to the characteristics of the spaceships (habitability, confinement, psychological, and interpersonal relationships), other (disturbances of sleep-wake cycle, personality changes, depression, anxiety, apathy, psychosomatic symptoms, neurovestibular problems, alterations in cognitive function, and sensory perception) represent a clear warning of possible central nervous system (CNS) alterations, possibly due to microgravity and cosmic radiation. Such conditions and eventual CNS changes might compromise the success of missions and the ability to cope with unexpected events and may lead to individual and long-term impairments. Therefore, further studies are needed, perhaps, requiring the birth of a novel branch of psychology/psychiatry that should not only consider the risks related to space exploration, but the implementation of targeted strategies to prevent them.