Asian Culture and History
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In 1940s, the Kuomintang (KMT) retreated to Taiwan, along with a lot of amateur artists accomplished in singing and dancing of Kunqu Opera. Due to unlike and separate social environments, Kunqu Opera developed into two different ways in Taiwan and Chinese mainland since then. In contrast with Taiwan’s choice to maintain the tradition of Kunqu Opera, especially that of 1930s as much as possible, Chinese mainland turns to modernize this art to cater to social trends. This paper analyses two versions of the same scene “Broken Bridge” (断桥) from Taiwan and Chinese mainland in spoken language, melody, literary form of lyrics, dance, stage set and costumes to try to find the factors that are not changed, which can be understood as the core factors with inherited cultural values of the intangible cultural heritage. Based on these core factors, the effective protection is possible. This research shows that although Kunqu Opera in Chinese mainland is gradually changing, particularly turning realistic as opposed to the one keeping impressionistic in Taiwan, there are some factors almost untransformed: the melody (kunqiang), literary form of lyrics (qupai style), costumes evolving from the dress of Ming dynasty. An effective protection method of Kunqu Opera should put emphasis on these factors.
The hexagram “jiaren gua” 家人卦 (The Family) of Yijing 易经 (Book of Changes), a divination manual in the Western Zhou period (1046–771 BC) advocates a strict father image in family management. Is the Pre-Qin father really a strict figure? To answer this question, taking the two major Pre-Qin historical texts Guoyu 国语 and 左传Zuozhuan as targets, three sub-questions will be addressed: (1) What kind of family education records are collected in these texts? (2) How is father-son education represented in these texts? (3) Why is father-son education represented in such a way in these texts? A comprehensive textual research on a father’s role represented in these texts was conducted to collect relevant data to answer the three sub-questions. The data collected was then interpreted by a hermeneutics method, with educational and sociological perspectives to propose an answer to the main research question. The strict but caring fathers represented in these two learning texts are role models for learners and readers in that period. This role model creates a heavy burden on male leaders of upper class families because no matter fathers or sons, they have to have a high moral standard to safeguard their families. Being an upper class father in the Chunqiu period 春秋 (c.770-c.476 BC) is a difficult task as he has to strike a balance between strictness and love to teach his sons. This is also true for today’s fathers.