Journal of Alzheimer's Disease

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ISSN / EISSN : 1387-2877 / 1875-8908
Published by: IOS Press (10.3233)
Total articles ≅ 9,017
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Kaixia Zhang, Xiaoying Ma, Rui Zhang, Zanchao Liu, Lei Jiang, Yushi Qin, Di Zhang, Pei Tian, Zhaoyu Gao, Nan Zhang, et al.
Published: 28 June 2022
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, Volume 88, pp 357-373;

Background: The interactions between environmental factors and genetic variants have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The altered gut microbiota (GM) and vitamin D deficiency are closely associated with the higher risk of AD. Objective: This study was performed to evaluate whether the crosstalk between GM and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of vitamin D receptor (VDR) or vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) have a link with the risk of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) in the Chinese elderly population. Methods: A total of 171 aMCI patients and 261 cognitive normal controls (NC) were enrolled in this study. Six tag SNPs of VDR and VDBP were genotyped by PCR-RFLP. The serum levels of vitamin D, Aβ1-42, and p-tau (181P) were determined by using of ELISA kits. The alterations in the GM were analyzed by full-length 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing. Results: The frequencies of AG genotype and A allele of VDR rs1544410 in aMCI group were significantly higher than that in NC group (genotype: p = 0.002, allele: p = 0.003). Patients with aMCI showed an abnormal GM composition compared with NC group. Interestingly, significant differences in GM composition were found between aMCI and NC group among individuals with AG genotype, as well as between individuals with AG and GG genotype of VDR rs1544410 among patients with aMCI. Conclusion: These results implicated that the crosstalk between gut microflora and vitamin D receptor variants are associated with the risk of aMCI in Chinese elderly population.
Israel Contador, Patricia Alzola, Félix Bermejo-Pareja, Teodoro del Ser, Sara Llamas-Velasco, Bernardino Fernández-Calvo, Julián Benito-León
Published: 28 June 2022
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, Volume 88, pp 291-299;

Background: A protective effect of education on cognitive decline after stroke has been claimed, but evidence from prospective population-based cohorts is very limited. The differential role of literacy and education on dementia after stroke remains unexplored. Objective: This research addresses the role of education and literacy in dementia incidence after stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA). Methods: 131 participants with stroke or TIA were identified within the population-based NEDICES study (N = 5,278 persons). Participants were fully assessed at baseline (1994–1995) and incident dementia diagnosis was made by expert neurologists (DSM-IV criteria) after a mean follow-up of 3.4 years. Adjusted Cox regression analyses were applied to test the association between education, literacy, and dementia risk. Results: Within the 131 subjects with stroke or TIA, 19 (14%) developed dementia at follow-up. The Cox’s regression model (age and sex adjusted) showed that low education (HR = 3.48, 95% CI = 1.28, 9.42, p = 0.014) and literacy (HR = 3.16, 95% CI = 1.08, 9.22, p = 0.035) were significantly associated with a higher dementia risk. Low education was also associated with dementia when main confounders (i.e., cognitive/functional performance) were considered in the Cox’s model. However, after including stroke recurrence, only low/null literacy (versus education) remained as significant predictor of dementia. Finally, low/null literacy showed an effect over-and-above education on dementia risk when both factors were introduced in the adjusted Cox’s regression. Conclusion: These findings underline the importance of literacy to estimate cognitive decline after stroke in low-educated populations.
Sang-Won Han, Young Ho Park, Eun Sun Jang, Kwangsik Nho, Sangyun Kim
Published: 28 June 2022
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, pp 1-6;

To investigate an association of serum liver enzymes with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) diagnosis and cognitive performance, we performed logistic and linear regression analyses in 781 patients with AD and 405 cognitively normal subjects. We found that alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels had significant positive associations with cognitive performance and were significantly decreased in AD patients. The alkaline phosphatase level and AST to ALT ratio were significantly negatively associated with cognitive performance and were significantly increased in AD patients. This suggests that these liver enzymes might be implicated in the pathogenesis of AD.
Lone Helboe, Nina Rosenqvist, Christiane Volbracht, Lars Ø. Pedersen, Jan T. Pedersen, Søren Christensen, Jan Egebjerg, Claus T. Christoffersen, Benny Bang-Andersen, Thomas G. Beach, et al.
Published: 28 June 2022
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, Volume 88, pp 207-228;

Background: Deposits of hyperphosphorylated tau fibrils are hallmarks of a broad spectrum of tauopathies, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Objective: To investigate heterogeneity of tau pathology across brain extracts from a broad selection of different tauopathies and examine the binding properties of the humanized pS396-tau antibody hC10.2 and six other anti-tau antibodies. Methods: 76 individual tauopathy tissue samples were analyzed in a battery of assays: immunohistochemistry, ELISA, tau aggregation assay, western blot, [3H]PI-2620 and [3H]MK-6240 tau tracer binding, and aggregated seeding activity in RD_P301S HEK293T Biosensor cells. The efficiency of seven anti-tau antibodies to engage with pathological tau species was directly compared. Results: Our data indicate that a strong correlation existed between the tau tracer binding, amount of tau aggregates, pS396-tau phosphorylation, and seeding activity. The hC10.2 antibody, which has entered clinical development, effectively engaged with its epitope across all individual cases of mid-stage and late AD, and primary tauopathies. hC10.2 was superior compared to other phospho- and total tau antibodies to prevent seeded tau aggregation in the biosensor cells. hC10.2 effectively depleted hyperphosphorylated and aggregated tau species across all tauopathy samples proportionally to the amount of tau aggregates. In AD samples, hC10.2 bound to ghost tangles which represent extracellular pathological tau species. Conclusion: S396 hyperphosphorylation is a feature of the formation of seeding-competent tau across different tauopathies and it is present both in intra- and extracellular pathological tau. hC10.2 represents an excellent candidate for a hyperphosphorylation-selective therapeutic tau antibody for the treatment of AD and primary tauopathies.
Martin Vyhnalek, Dylan J. Jester, Ross Andel, Hana Markova, Tomas Nikolai, Jan Laczó, Veronika Matuskova, Katerina Cechova, Katerina Sheardova, Jakub Hort
Published: 28 June 2022
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, pp 1-13;

Background: Memory tests using controlled encoding and cued recall paradigm (CECR) have been shown to identify prodromal Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but information about the effectiveness of CECR compared to other memory tests in predicting clinical progression is missing. Objective: The aim was to examine the predictive ability of a memory test based on the CECR paradigm in comparison to other memory/non-memory tests for conversion to dementia in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Methods: 270 aMCI patients from the clinical-based Czech Brain Aging Study underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment including the Enhanced Cued Recall test (ECR), a memory test with CECR, two verbal memory tests without controlled encoding: the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) and Logical memory test (LM), a visuospatial memory test: the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure test, and cognitive testing based on the Uniform Data Set battery. The patients were followed prospectively. Conversion to dementia as a function of cognitive performance was examined using Cox proportional hazard models. Results: 144 (53%) patients converted to dementia. Most converters (89%) developed dementia due to AD or mixed (AD and vascular) dementia. Comparing the four memory tests, the delayed recall scores on AVLT and LM best predicted conversion to dementia. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of immediate recall scores on ECR, AVLT, and LM were similar to the HR of categorical verbal fluency. Conclusion: Using the CECR memory paradigm in assessment of aMCI patients has no superiority over verbal and non-verbal memory tests without cued recall in predicting conversion to dementia.
Lian Duan, Xueshen Qian, Qin Wang, Lan Huang, Song Ge
Published: 28 June 2022
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, Volume 88, pp 57-74;

Background: With advancements in periodontal medicine, the relationship between periodontitis and systemic diseases has garnered increasing attention. Recently, emerging evidence has indicated that periodontitis may be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Objective: To assess the impact of experimental periodontitis on cognitive function deficits in a rat model of streptozotocin-induced AD and determine the mechanisms underlying these effects. Methods: Rats were randomly assigned to the control (C), experimental periodontitis (P), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and experimental periodontitis with streptozotocin-induced AD (AD-P) groups. Experimental periodontitis was induced using ligation and coating with Porphyromonas gingivalis. In the AD-P group, AD was induced by intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin after 6 weeks of experimental periodontitis induction. Results: Compared with the group C rats, those in group P exhibited alveolar bone resorption, learning and memory function impairment, and decreased insulin sensitivity and insulin signaling-related protein expression. Glial cell activation and cognitive impairment in streptozotocin-induced groups with significantly increased phosphorylated tau levels were more pronounced relative to the C group. The number of neurons and insulin sensitivity and insulin signaling-related protein expression in group AD-P rats were lower than those in the AD alone group, while the expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein, tau phosphorylation, interleukin-6, and cyclooxygenase-2 were significantly increased. Conclusion: Periodontitis may be a risk factor exacerbating cognitive deficits in an AD-like neurodegenerative context, possibly by impairing the insulin signaling pathway and stimulating gliosis and neuroinflammation.
Katharina Wittfeld, Mekala R. Raman, Sarah C. Conner, Asra Aslam, Alexander Teumer, Matthias Nauck, Norbert Hosten, Mohamad Habes, Charles DeCarli, Ramachandran S. Vasan, et al.
Published: 28 June 2022
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, Volume 88, pp 311-322;

Background: Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling has been implicated in Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis, and further evidence suggests inflammation can be a moderator of this association. However, most research to date has been conducted on older adults. Objective: To investigate the association of serum IGF-1 and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) concentrations with MRI markers of Alzheimer’s disease in predominantly middle-aged adults, and further assess moderation by chronic inflammation. Methods: We included participants from the Framingham Heart Study (n = 1,852, mean age 46±8, 46% men) and the Study of Health in Pomerania (n = 674, mean age 50±13, 42% men) with available serum IGF-1, IFGBP-3, as well as brain MRI. IGF-1 and IFGBP-3 were related to MRI outcomes (i.e., total brain, cortical gray matter, white matter, white matter hyperintensities (WMH), and hippocampal volumes) using multivariable regression models adjusting for potential confounders. Subgroup analyses by C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations were also performed. Cohort-specific summary statistics were meta-analyzed using random-effects models and corrected for multiple comparisons. Results: Meta-analysis results revealed that higher IGF-1 concentrations were associated with lower WMH (estimate [β] [95% CI], –0.05 [–0.09, –0.02], p = 0.006) and larger hippocampal volumes (0.07 [0.02, 0.12], p = 0.01), independent of vascular risk factors. These associations occurred predominantly in individuals with CRP concentrations < 75th percentile. We did not observe associations between IGFBP-3 and MRI outcomes. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that IGF-1-related signaling may be implicated in brain health as early as midlife.
Anna Lidia Wojdała, Davide Chiasserini, Giovanni Bellomo, Silvia Paciotti, Lorenzo Gaetani, Federico Paolini Paoletti, Lucilla Parnetti
Published: 28 June 2022
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, pp 1-10;

Background: Phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein 1 (PEBP1) is a multifunctional protein, mainly known for its specific binding of phosphatidylethanolamine and the ability to suppress the Raf1-MAPK pathway. Its potential role as an Alzheimer’s disease (AD) biomarker has been proposed in several studies. However, evaluation of its discriminative value in clinical cohorts is missing. Objective: We aimed to develop a new immunoassay for the measurement of PEBP1 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and assess the possible role of this protein as AD biomarker. Methods: We developed a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of PEBP1 in CSF and performed a technical and a clinical validation on two well-characterized cohorts. The first cohort included 14 mild cognitive impairment due to AD (MCI-AD) and 11 other neurological diseases (OND) patients. The second, larger cohort, included 25 MCI-AD, 29 AD dementia (AD-dem), and 21 OND patients. Results: PEBP1 is highly sensitive to pre-analytical conditions, especially to prolonged storage at room temperature or 4°C. Analysis of the first cohort showed a trend of an increase of PEBP1 level in MCI-AD patients versus OND subjects. Analysis of the second cohort did not show significant differences among diagnostic groups. Weak, positive correlation was found between CSF PEBP1 and t-tau, p-tau, and Aβ 40 in the AD-dem group. Conclusion: A novel ELISA for the detection of PEBP1 in CSF was developed. Further research is needed to assess the potential of PEBP1 in AD diagnostics. The observed dependence of the PEBP1 signal on operating procedures encourages its potential application as CSF quality control.
Xue-Ying He, Carl Dobkin, W.Ted Brown, Song-Yu Yang
Published: 28 June 2022
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, pp 1-11;

Background: Mitochondrial 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 10 (17β-HSD10) is necessary for brain cognitive function, but its studies were confounded by reports of Aβ-peptide binding alcohol dehydrogenase (ABAD), formerly endoplasmic reticulum-associated Aβ-peptide binding protein (ERAB), for two decades so long as ABAD serves as the alternative term of 17β-HSD10. Objective: To determine whether those ABAD reports are true or false, even if they were published in prestigious journals. Methods: 6xHis-tagged 17β-HSD10 was prepared and characterized by well-established experimental procedures. Results: The N-terminal 6xHis tag did not significantly interfere with the dehydrogenase activities of 17β-HSD10, but the kinetic constants of its 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity are drastically distinct from those of ABAD, and it was not involved in ketone body metabolism as previously reported for ABAD. Furthermore, it was impossible to measure its generalized alcohol dehydrogenase activities underlying the concept of ABAD because the experimental procedures described in ABAD reports violated basic chemical and/or biochemical principles. More incredibly, both authors and journals had not yet agreed to make any corrigenda of ABAD reports. Conclusion: Brain 17β-HSD10 plays a key role in neurosteroid metabolism and further studies in this area may lead to potential treatments of neurodegeneration including AD.
Sarah M. Goldberg, Yanji Zhao, Yu Cheng, Andrea M. Weinstein, Swathi Gujral, Sarah B. Berman, Robert A. Sweet, Meryl A. Butters, Oscar L. Lopez, Beth E. Snitz
Published: 28 June 2022
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, pp 1-8;

Background: This memory-clinic study joins efforts to study earliest clinical signs and symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias: subjective reports and objective neuropsychological test performance. Objective: The memory-clinic denoted two clinical “grey zones”: 1) subjective cognitive decline (SCD; n = 107) with normal objective test scores, and 2) isolated low test scores (ILTS; n = 74) without subjective complaints to observe risk for future decline. Methods: Initial and annual follow-up clinical research evaluations and consensus diagnosis were used to evaluate baseline characteristics and clinical progression over 2.7 years, compared to normal controls (NC; n = 117). Results: The ILTS group was on average older than the NC and SCD groups. They had a higher proportion of people identifying as belonging to a minoritized racial group. The SCD group had significantly more years of education than the ILTS group. Both ILTS and SCD groups had increased risk of progression to mild cognitive impairment. Older age, minoritized racial identity, and baseline cognitive classification were risk factors for progression. Conclusion: The two baseline risk groups look different from each other, especially with respect to demographic correlates, but both groups predict faster progression than controls, over and above demographic differences. Varied presentations of early risk are important to recognize and may advance cognitive health equity in aging.
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