Journal of Agricultural Science

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ISSN / EISSN : 1916-9752 / 1916-9760
Total articles ≅ 3,853
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Abdul Quddus, Alamgir Siddiky, Khokan Kumer Sarker, Mohibur Rahman, Mohammad Ayub Hossain Khan, Anarul Islam, Mohammad Rezaul Karim, Faruque Hossain
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.5539/jas.v14n6p206

Abstract:
Sustainable crop production through intensification of crops in cropping system is a global important issue to ensure food security, human and soil nutrition, poverty alleviation, and job opportunity creation. Rabi crop (mustard/lentil)-Jute cropping system and transplanted (T) Aman rice-Boro (T. Boro) rice cropping system are the traditional cropping systems in Low Ganges River Floodplain (AEZ-12) soils of Bangladesh. Jute and T. Aman rice are usually cultivated in summer season, but the T. Boro rice is cultivated in winter season. Jute and T. Boro rice are highly cost consuming crops due to need more irrigation, labors and fertilizer etc. T. Boro rice and jute are easily replaced by a short duration of mungbean and T. Aus rice in the existing cropping system. Hence field trial on different cropping systems were conducted in Regional pulses Research Station (RPRS), BARI, Madaripur and the adjacent farmers’ field of RPRS during 2013-14 and 2014-15 to compare and evaluate the four crop-based cropping systems with existing cropping systems based on system productivity, nutrient uptake and balance, profitability and sustaining soil fertility. The experiment was planned with six treatments comprising three of four crop-based cropping systems and three existing traditional cropping systems. The treatments were FCS1 (Mustard-Mungbean-T. Aus rice-T. Aman rice), FCS2 (Lentil-Mungbean-T. Aus rice-T. Aman rice), FCS3 (Fieldpea-Mungbean-T. Aus rice-T. Aman rice), ECS1 (Mustard-Jute), ECS2 (Lentil-Jute) and ECS3 (T. Boro rice-T. Aman rice) following randomized complete block design with three dispersed replications. As per results, the greater system productivity (rice equivalent yield: 16368 kg ha-1) was significantly obtained from FCS2 than the other system treatments. The FCS2 treatment exhibited the highest percent increment of rice equivalent yield (REY) over existing cropping system ECS1, ECS2 and ECS3 was 322%, 234% and 84.1%, respectively. Also higher %REY increment of FCS2 was 20.3% and 14.5% over the other four crop-based cropping systems FCS1 and FCS3. Production efficiency was highest in same FCS2 treatment. Land use efficiency increment was observed higher in Fieldpea-Mungbean-T. Aus rice-T. Aman rice cropping system. Total nutrient (N, P, K, S, Zn, B) uptakes and nutrient balance were positively influenced among the cropping systems, but both were showed inconsistent trends. The result of postharvest soil exhibited higher organic carbon (8.78 g kg-1) and total N content (0.74 g kg-1) was in FCS2 treatment. The FCS2 was also economically profitable and viable as compared to other cropping systems due to having higher gross return, gross margin and benefit cost ratio (2.48). The FCS3 was the second economically profitable and viable system as compared to other cropping systems. Intensification and diversification of crops from two to four crop-based cropping systems lead to increase the system productivity, profitability, and sustaining soil fertility. Results suggest that lentil-Mungbean-T. Aus rice-T. Aman rice followed by Fieldpea-Mungbean-T. Aus rice-T. Aman rice cropping system can practice in the experimental area for positive change the farmers’ livelihoods. This finding may be potential for the area where there is no practice of improving four crop-based cropping systems.
Erma Suryani, Ulfa Emi Rahmawati, Alifia Az Zahra
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.5539/jas.v14n6p68

Abstract:
Maize demand for feed, industry, and consumption is increasing in line with the increase in population and industry, while the supply of maize does not meet the demand. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the significant variables that affect maize cultivation and scenarios to increase maize production and farmers’ income using simulation model. As a method to develop the models, a system dynamics simulation model is used to accommodate internal and external variables that affect the production and farmers’ income which can be done using organic fertilizer, the integration between land expansion and organic fertilizer, and the implementation of precision agriculture. The simulation results show that land area, use of fertilizers, and technology adoption affect the production and income of maize farmers. The scenarios developed include organic fertilizer scenario, expansion and organic fertilizer scenario, and precision agriculture scenario. The resulting scenario can be used as a recommendation for the government and stakeholders in developing strategies and policies related to a sustainable maize farming system that can help increase the production and income of maize farmers.
Fabio Calixto Dos Santos, Marcio Dos Santos, Ricardo Dagnoni Huezsmann, Duan Ceola, Edmar Martendal Dias De Souza, Cezario Ferreira Dos Santos Junior, Altamir Frederico Guidolin, Jefferson Luís Meirelles Coimbra
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.5539/jas.v14n6p198

Abstract:
Hops (Humulus lupulus L.) is a key ingredient in beer, with great significance for the Brazilian industry. The economically viable production of hops in Brazil depends on the genetic variability available to be used in the selection and development of high-as performance photo-neutral cultivars and their interaction with the environment. The objective of this research was to evaluate the phenotypic variability of alpha-effective character in relation to the environmental variation in different Brazilian regions. Alpha-acids tests were performed through the American Society of Brewing Chemists (ASBC-HOPS 6. B-Conductometric titration methodology). Phenotypic variation assessment showed that 30% of the variation occurred among clones, while 47% was attributed to the environmental components of cultivation. The repeatability coefficient (t) was below 0.25, demonstrating that interaction between genotype and environment inflicted on alpha-acid levels. Results showed variability in the alpha-acid contents depending on the hops growing regions. According to the results, clones 9 (8.22%), 26 (12.95%) and 27 (9.94%) added the highest levels of alpha-acids. Therefore, there is variability available for the genetic improvement of the culture in Brazil and its effects must be evaluated in each microclimate of cultivation.
A. Akwero, M. H. Otim, M. Ochwo-Ssemakula, T. L. Odong, J. Lamo
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.5539/jas.v14n6p125

Abstract:
Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV) disease is endemic to Africa where it affects rice production. Host plant resistance would form a cost effective and sustainable option for managing the disease. However, there is still lack of knowledge on the reaction of rice germplasm and the genetic basis of their resistance/susceptibility to RYMV coupled with lack of molecular markers to facilitate the development of RYMV resistant varieties. We screened 56 rice accessions drawn from breeding lines and varieties commercially cultivated in Uganda for their resistance/susceptibility to RYMV. We also sought to develop and validate allele specific markers for RYMV1 alleles. The rice accessions showed variation in their reaction to RYMV; 14, 12, 17 and 13 accessions were categorized as resistant, moderately resistant, moderately susceptible and susceptible respectively. Among the resistant accessions, five possessed a single SNP (G/A) corresponding to the rymv1-2 allele. The new accessions can be deployed as resistant cultivars and/or used to introgress rymv1-2 allele into susceptible adapted cultivars throughout Africa. We developed two functional allele specific markers, which co-segregated with the rymv1-2 resistance allele in an F2 population and clearly differentiated between the susceptible and resistant individuals in the F2 population. The functional allele specific marker developed in this study can be used in MAS programs for introgression of rymv1-2 resistance allele.
Zhen Wu, Yoshifumi Takahashi, Mitsuyasu Yabe
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.5539/jas.v14n6p1

Abstract:
Methane fermentation digested sludge is a sustainable resource that is used as a liquid fertilizer. An innovative liquid fertilizer called Bio-Concentrated Liquid Fertilizer (Bio-CLF) was developed to solve the problems such as high transportation cost associated with current liquid fertilizer. As an innovation product, Bio-CLF inevitably creates remarkable resistance from consumers. Hence, we used the Innovation Resistance Theory (IRT) to determine the reasons for consumer resistance to Bio-CLF products. A total of 2,000 samples from three major cities, including Tokyo, were extracted via the Internet, and 703 samples were finally selected for analysis. Perceived risk, complexity, and attitude toward existing products were found to have a positive and direct impact on consumer resistance to Bio-CLF products, while motivation and purchase intention were found to have a negative and direct impact on consumer resistance to Bio-CLF products. Notably, Relative Advantage and Compatibility had a positive impact on motivation and indirectly influenced consumer resistance to Bio-CLF products, the results of which are inconsistent with IRT, as those characteristics could have a direct influence on resistance. Additionally, we opted to provide some advice that for market managers: (1) allocate a specialized corner for the Bio-CLF product and (2) place the Bio-CLF product alongside other green products. For producers: (1) disclosure of production information; (2) design of an attractive and clear label sheet; (3) proving the advantage of Bio-CLF and that the Bio-CLF product is a green product.
M. D. Iffah Haifaa, Christopher Moses
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.5539/jas.v14n6p55

Abstract:
Use of Gibberellic acid (GA3) application in rice cultivation for increasing the grain yield is well documented. However, improper and untimely use of GA3 could result in poor response to GA3 application. This study was aimed at to investigate the timing of application during different growth stages and mode of application of GA3 on the growth and yield of MR219, a popular Indica rice variety, released by Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI). Two commercial GA3 formulations, namely ProGibb SG containing 40% GA3 and ProGibb silica Granule containing 0.1% GA3 were used for foliar and soil application, respectively. GA3 was applied at late tillering stage and at 10-30% panicle heading stage. Interestingly, GA3 application as foliar spray during the early reproductive stage, ie at 10-30% panicle heading stage enhanced the grain yield significantly, recording over 27% grain yield increase over the untreated control. Moreover, two applications of GA3 at 7 days’ interval has consistently given higher grain yield than single application. However, there is no significant difference in flag leaf characteristics, one thousand grain weight and milling qualities among different treatments. Our study has clearly illustrated that foliar application of GA3 at weekly interval at 10-30% panicle heading stage, can increase rice grain yield significantly.
Sandro C. L. Montalvão, Marcelo T. de Castro, Luiz E. B. Blum, Rose G. Monnerat
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.5539/jas.v14n6p103

Abstract:
Cotton meloidoginosis caused by Meloidogyne incognita races 3 and 4 is an important disease and can cause intense damage. The objective of this work was to test the effectiveness of commercial Bacillus-based products in the control of M. incognita races 3 and 4 of cotton in a greenhouse. Plants with and without nematode inoculation were used and subsequently evaluated for 200 days after the application of treatments. The products with Bacillus subtilis, B. amyloliquefasciens and B. subtilis + B. lincheniformis showed the best results in terms of shoot fresh matter weight. In relation to shoot dry weight, treatments with B. methylotrophicus (87 g, with nematode) and B. subtilis (80 g, with nematode) were superior, with emphasis on B. methylotrophicus. In the evaluation of root fresh weight, only the treatment with B. methylotrophicus (148.8 g, with nematode) provided statistically higher weight than the control. In item dry weight of root without nematode and nematode reproduction factor, the treatment with B. methylotrophicus stood out from the other treatments, making this the selected product to conduct the subsequent tests. With the acid fuchsin staining method, it was possible to verify that there was reduction in the penetration of J2 in the first days for plants treated with the bacteria. Upon adoption of the toluidine blue staining method, it was possible to observe abnormalities in giant cells with formation of vacuoles, thinner cell wall and females with large vacuoles inside. Thus, there is evidence that the use of biological products can be effective in controlling M. incognita.
Nader Soltani, Christy Shropshire, Peter H. Sikkema
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.5539/jas.v14n6p16

Abstract:
Three field experiments were completed over a three-year period (2019 to 2021) in Ontario, Canada to develop weed management programs in azuki bean with herbicides (pendimethalin, S-metolachlor, halosulfuron, and imazethapyr) applied alone and in combination, and metribuzin, applied preemergence (PRE). At 2 and 4 weeks after emergence (WAE), there was ≤ 8% azuki bean injury from the herbicide treatments evaluated, with the exception of the treatments that included S-metolachlor which caused up to 19% azuki bean injury. Pendimethalin (1080 g ai ha-1) and S-metolachlor (1600 g ai ha-1) controlled green foxtail 83-94% but provided poor control of common lambsquarters, wild mustard, redroot pigweed, common ragweed, and flower-of-an-hour. Imazethapyr (75 g ai ha-1) controlled common lambsquarters, wild mustard, redroot pigweed, and flower-of-an-hour 90-100% but provided 76-82% control of common ragweed and green foxtail. Halosulfuron (35 g ai ha-1) controlled wild mustard 100%, common ragweed 81-84%, common lambsquarters 77-83%, flower-of-an-hour 72-75%, redroot pigweed 59-72%, and green foxtail 19-23%. The tankmix of pendimethalin + S-metolachlor controlled green foxtail and common lambsquarters 87-97% but the control was only 23- 83% on wild mustard, redroot pigweed, common ragweed, and flower-of-an-hour. The tankmixes of pendimethalin + imazethapyr and pendimethalin + S-metolachlor + imazethapyr provided 90-100% control of common lambsquarters, wild mustard, redroot pigweed, flower-of-an-hour, and green foxtail, and 78-87% control of common ragweed. The tankmixes of pendimethalin + halosulfuron and pendimethalin + S-metolachlor + halosulfuron controlled common lambsquarters and wild mustard 91-100%, green foxtail 76-95%, flower-of-an-hour 70-94%, redroot pigweed 68-91%, and common ragweed 78-79%. Metribuzin (280 g ai ha-1) controlled common lambsquarters, wild mustard, redroot pigweed, common ragweed, flower-of-an-hour, and green foxtail up to 94, 98, 81, 58, 98, and 61% respectively; control improved to 99, 100, 97, 84, 99, and 83%, respectively when the rate was increased to 560 g ai ha-1. Generally, weed density and dry biomass reflected the level of weed control. Weed interference reduced azuki bean yield by 91% in this study. Generally, azuki bean yield reflected the level of weed control.
Anne Brown
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.5539/jas.v14n6p246

Abstract:
Reviewer acknowledgements for Journal of Agricultural Science, Vol. 14, No. 6, 2022.
Wéverson L. Fonseca, Augusto M. de Oliveira, Tiago De O. Sousa, Alan M. Zuffo, Fernandes A. de Almeida, Rosane L. Fonseca, Hingrid R. S. Teixeira, Adaniel S. dos Santos, Jean K. da S. Paz, Jorge G. Aguilera, et al.
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.5539/jas.v14n6p96

Abstract:
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the combination of a substrate formulated with decomposed buriti stem (Mauritia vinifera Mart.) and nitrogen doses in the production of Acácia mangium Willd seedlings. A completely randomized design was used in a 3 × 5 factorial scheme, being the factors constituted of substrates formulated from decomposed buriti stem (DBS) mixed with dystrophic yellow oxisol in three proportions (0; 25 and 50%) and nitrogen doses (0; 100; 200; 300 and 400 mg dm-3) applied in cover. After 60 days from the emergency, it was made the following evaluations: Plant Height (PH), stem diameter (SD), internodes number (IN), dry mass of the shoot part (DMA), length and dry mass of the roots, robustness quotient through stem height/diameter relation, roots/dry mass relation and Dickson Quality Index (DQI). The multivariate analysis of variance showed a significant difference (p < 0.01) among averages vectors of treatments. The grouping analysis for the evaluated treatments allowed the division into four distinct groups. In the bi-dimensional plane formed by the first two canonical variables (Can.1 and Can.2) that withheld 99,47% of the total variance contained in the nine original variables, it is observed that the group II of treatments, composed of substrates formulated with 50% of soil + 50% of DBS supplemented with the doses of 200, 300 and 400 mg dm-3 of nitrogen, has provided a greater initial growth of A. mangium plants, as stated by the highest averages in all evaluated variables.
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