Journal of Agricultural Science

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ISSN / EISSN : 1916-9752 / 1916-9760
Total articles ≅ 3,702
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Anne Brown
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/jas.v13n7p113

Abstract:
Reviewer acknowledgements for Journal of Agricultural Science, Vol. 13, No. 7, 2021.
Liaqat Ali Khan, Zoia Arshad Awan, Asad Ullah Imran, Muhammad Saleem, Fawad Sufyan, Muhammad Azmat
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/jas.v13n7p74

Abstract:
Better management practices (BMPs) as a sustainable approach made it attractive for growers to control the provision of pollutants from agricultural activities as well as enhance the financial return. The experiments of cotton production were conducted in four different regions of Punjab in cotton-growing years 2017-2019. The objective of the study was to evaluate the potential impact of BMPs among cotton farmers by rationalizing the use of input resources (viz., seed, fertilizers, pesticides and water). The data were collected from randomly selected adopters of BMPs (n = 400) and non-adopters of BMPs (n = 100) through a well-structured pretested questionnaire using a multistage sampling procedure from four different regions of Punjab province. Descriptive analysis was employing an independent two-sample t-test to evaluate the significant effect of BMPs on the utilization of input resources and profitability of cotton production between adopters and non-adopters of BMPs. The results indicated that adopters of BMPs were efficiently used input resources (at p ≤ 0.001 & p ≤ 0.01) and significantly enhanced the average cotton yield (855.09 kg acre-1) in Punjab, while non-adopters of BMPs had a significantly high cost of production by 11% (35,655 PKR acre-1) and output was lower by 15% (751.70 kg acre-1) under conventional farming for cotton cultivation. The economic analysis revealed that the average gross income gained by adopters of BMPs was significantly high by 11% (72,648 PKR acre-1 at p ≤ 0.001) with the maximum net return of 36% (40,785 PKR acre-1 at p ≤ 0.001) as well as a good B:C (1.28) as compared to non-adopters of BMPs. This study provides useful information about the potential impact of BMPs among cotton farmers even without the extra use of inputs. It is concluded that precision in inputs and management practices with lower input costs can significantly improve cotton productivity leading to uplift the farmers’ profit.
Thiago C. V. Stacciarini, Aurélio R. Neto, José M. Alves, Marina G. Marques
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/jas.v13n7p1

Abstract:
In Brazil, sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is considered one of the most economically important crops. Nitrogen (N) is one of the most required elements in sugarcane cultivation. Nevertheless, the information about the soil and foliar applications of this nutrient in crops are discrepant. Therefore, the importance of this study is evident. Given the above, this study aimed to evaluate the soil-applied and foliar N fertilization of sugarcane. The experiment was conducted at the Araporã Bioenergia S.A. power plant, located at Fazenda Santa Rita, in the municipality of Itumbiara-GO. The 5 × 5 factorial design was adopted, with four repetitions, including five doses of soil-applied ammonium nitrate and five doses of foliar Amidic N polymer. The nutrient extraction, the experiment’s initial and final total chlorophyll content, the biometric indexes and the industrial quality indexes were analyzed for sugarcane. The ammonium nitrate doses caused differences in fiber, sacarose content, total recoverable sugar, sugar cane Brix, magnesium, and zinc, which was statistically different for the foliar polymer doses. There was no increment of the production variables with the increase of the nitrogen supply in the soil. On the other hand, the levels of zinc and magnesium in the leaves increased 12% and 27%, respectively, reflecting the importance of this fertilization in sugarcane cultivation.
Bosco Chemayek, Arthur Wasukira, Robert Gidoi, Stephen Wobibi, Doreen Nampamya, Park Teason, Lawrence Owere
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/jas.v13n7p37

Abstract:
Field pea is a key source of household income, food and nutrition in Uganda mainly produced in the high land areas of country including south western and Mt. Elgon. The crop fetches a high stable price across markets compared to other grain pulses and yet it has remained outside the mainstream of the research process. The status of this commodity is largely unknown yet such information would support its research agenda to improve productivity and marketing. A study was conducted in the Mt. Elgon sub-zone to determine the status of field pea production, understand its constraints and map out its production cycle. This was done through a survey covering 5 districts namely; Bulambuli, Kapchorwa, Kween, Namisindwa and Mbale. In each district two major field pea growing sub counties were purposively selected, in each sub-county 25 respondents were randomly sampled from a list of field pea producers. A structured questionnaire was then administered; data collated, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square test. The results revealed that the crop is grown by all gender categories with 60% grown for home consumption and 40% for income. In the districts of Kween and Mbale it is mostly grown for income since the Kween farmers have relatively larger pieces of land whereas Mbale being a commercial hub of the region there is relatively higher price throughout the year which attracts farmers to sell. Field pea is grown alongside other crops which varied by district but was largely grown as sole crop, along boundaries and intercrops depending on availability of land. It is also important to note that it forms a very important part of the rotation system because it plays a significant role in soil fertility restoration as well as serving as a break crop suitable for rotation to minimize the negative impact of cereal based mono-cropping.
Daniel Debona, Angela Pivotto, Alexsandro J. Tetzlaff, Darlan F. Sartori, Luiz A. Borelli, Murilo S. de Oliveira, Lilian Y. Yamamoto, Jociani Ascari
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/jas.v13n7p10

Abstract:
Alternaria rot, caused by Alternaria alternata, is one of the most destructive diseases of pitahaya (Hylocereus spp.). We investigated the effect of the essential oil of Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae) (EOB) in the control of A. alternata. Two studies were performed in Petri dishes containing potato dextrose agar medium amended with concentrations of the EOB ranging from 5 to 1,000 µg mL-1 (first study) and from 30 to 2,000 µg mL-1. The diameter of the fungal colony was recorded daily. These data were used to calculate the the area under the mycelial growth progress curve (AUMGPC) and mycelial growth index (MGI). In the third study, the control of Alternaria rot in pitahaya fruits by EOB was investigated by adding the EOB into an edible coat based on cassava starch and sorbitol which was prepared in Tween 20. Three treatments, containing EOB at 500, 1,000 or 2,000 µg mL-1, were assessed. Two additional treatments, one containing water and another containing only the edible coating served as controls. Pitahaya fruits were immersed in those solutions for 10 min, allowed to dry and inoculated with A. alternata 48 h later. The EOB was found to inhibit the mycelial growth and a negative and quadratic model best described the relationship of the EOB concentrations with MGI and AUMGPC. Results from the experiment performed with pitahaya fruits showed that Alternaria rot was decreased with increasing EOB concentrations. Therefore, EOB is a promising and ecofriendly method that may be included in the management of Alternaria rot in pitahya.
Roderick Bastian, Supeno Surija, Michelle Faustine
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/jas.v13n7p89

Abstract:
Basal stem rot caused by Ganoderma boninense causes fall and death of oil palm crops, and will drastically reduce plantation productivity by up to 50% and become one of the most serious problems in oil palm cultivation. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the Colonized System of Ganoderma Vaccine (CHIPS®), as a biocontrol agent against the suppression of Ganoderma disease that infects oil palm trees in-field conditions. This research was conducted from early 2016 to the end of 2020 in a plantation located in Langkat area, North Sumatra by using 216 trees on 1 block as a sample experiment. Plants that infected with Ganoderma is treated with T1 treatment (MOAF™ & CHIPS®) shows the value of Disease Severity Index (DSI) decreasing to 37.50%, compare to T2 treatment (NPK Granular Fertilizer 13-6-27 & Trichoderma bio fungicides) which has DSI value of 100% in week 232 (in 2020) and C1 treatment (control) with the highest DSI value of 100% in week 212 (in 2020). The conclusions of this study shows that the treatment of T1 (MOAF™ & CHIPS®) is more successful in eradicating Ganoderma and have the highest profit ratio than any other treatments. The results of this study are useful as references for in-field inspection and large-scale production.
Okongo Caroline, Ouma Evans, Gudu Samuel
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/jas.v13n7p63

Abstract:
Sorghum is an important food security crop for arid and semi-arid tropics but its production is hampered by many biotic and abiotic factors including covered kernel smut disease (CKSD) caused by fungus Sporosorium sorghi in the Ustilaginaceae family. The disease attacks susceptible sorghum genotypes causing yield losses estimated at 43% in Western Kenya. This study determined the response of selected sorghum genotypes to CKSD under field and greenhouse conditions. A total of 15 elite sorghum genotypes were screened under field conditions in Migori and Homa Bay sites and under greenhouse at the University of Eldoret. Data on disease incidence and severity were collected per genotype and analyzed using R-Studio software and means were separated at 1% using Tukey’s test. Results showed significant differences among genotypes for disease incidence and severity under fields and greenhouse conditions. Disease incidence varied significantly (p < 0.001) among the genotypes ranging from zero (for T53, T30, IS3092, N4 and N68) to 64% (for Nyadundo2) under field conditions but ranged from 0-69% under greenhouse conditions. Similarly, severity followed the same trend with C26 having the worst attack with a score of 5 while T53 recorded the least (score of 1). This study has identified potential sources of resistance for covered kernel smut disease that can be utilized to manage the disease and significantly improve sorghum yields in the target regions.
Cristiane G. L. Ruiz, Marilza S. Costa, Santino Seabra Jr, Mônica J. B. Pereira
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/jas.v13n7p47

Abstract:
Collard greens are commonly grown in family farming systems; however, damage caused by the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) reduces yields, leading to successive applications of insecticides and consequently, environmental and toxicological problems. Therefore, it is essential to search for alternatives that reduce the use of pesticides and are economically viable and accessible to small farmers. This study was aimed at evaluating the insecticidal activity of aqueous extracts of neem and tobacco on P. xylostella. First instar caterpillars were offered collard leaf discs treated with different concentrations (30 caterpillars per treatment) and after the third day, mortality was evaluated. To evaluate ovicidal properties, collard leaves with 30 eggs were immersed in extracts and after 48 h, viability was measured. Oviposition deterrent activity was assessed with 23 couples of P. xylostella released in cages (repetitions) containing treated collard plants and after 48 h, the number of eggs per plant was recorded. Neem and tobacco extracts exhibited larvicidal, ovicidal, and oviposition deterrent properties against P. xylostella, indicating that the use of these extracts may be promising alternatives in family farming systems.
Christian Willemse, Nader Soltani, Lauren Benoit, Amit J. Jhala, David C. Hooker, Darren E. Robinson, Peter H. Sikkema
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/jas.v13n7p21

Abstract:
The evolution of multiple-herbicide-resistant (MHR) waterhemp (resistant to Groups 2, 5, 9, and 14) in Ontario, Canada is challenging for growers. The complementary activity of the co-application of hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)-inhibiting herbicides with atrazine has been well documented. The objective of this research was to determine if the addition of atrazine to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)-inhibiting herbicides applied postemergence improves their consistency of MHR waterhemp (including Group 5 resistance) in corn. Five field trials were conducted over a two-year period (2018, 2019) in Ontario, Canada. Five HPPD-inhibiting herbicides [isoxaflutole (105 g ha-1), mesotrione (100 g ha-1), topramezone (12.5 g ha-1), tembotrione (90 g ha-1), and tolpyralate (30 g ha-1)] were applied postemergence with and without atrazine to 10-cm-tall waterhemp. Corn injury (≤ 10%) was observed at specific sites where the application of tembotrione, isoxaflutole and isoxaflutole + atrazine resulted in characteristic white bleaching of corn foliage; however, yield was not affected. Averaged across field sites, the addition of atrazine to isoxaflutole, mesotrione, topramezone, or tembotrione improved MHR waterhemp control 15%, 11%, 7%, and 7%, respectively at 4 weeks after application (WAA). Averaged across herbicide treatments and sites, the addition of atrazine reduced the standard error of MHR waterhemp control by 13% to 100%. This study concludes that the co-application of atrazine with HPPD-inhibitors applied postemergence reduced the risk of herbicide failure and resulted in greater and more consistent control of MHR waterhemp.
Thunwa Wiyabot, Piyalap Manakit
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/jas.v13n7p101

Abstract:
The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility and reasonable production costs for small cattle farmers in Nakhon Sawan Province of Thailand. Small-scale beef cattle are naturally reared by farmers without planning. Studying the primary data of beef cattle farming models and comparing the economic return costs of each form of beef cattle farming among smallholder farmers in Nakhon Sawan Province of Thailand shows that the yields are not worthwhile. By applying the specific method to 25% of the area of all farms in Nakhon Sawan Province and comparing the descriptive statistical yields, the results showed that two types of cattle with 4 characteristics predominate. The first is rearing pregnant mother cows for sale and buying mother cows. The second category is feeder cattle, release cattle and fattening cattle. A study of the costs and economic compensation of suitable small-scale beef cattle farmers in Nakhon Sawan Province of Thailand found that cattle farms should raise cattle because the yield from farming is valued and because of the economic returns and the time spent. The payback for this form is faster than other forms of investment.
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