Journal of Agricultural Science

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1916-9752 / 1916-9760
Current Publisher: Canadian Center of Science and Education (10.5539)
Total articles ≅ 3,636
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Maria S. de Moraes, Rossana Maria Feitosa de Figueirêdo, Alexandre J. De M. Queiroz, Luís P. F. R da Silva, Mailson G. Gonçalves, Adolfo P. de Oliveira, Janaina A. D. Esmero, Nágela M. H. Mascarenhas, Joana D. P. de Matos, Semirames Do N. Silva, et al.
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/jas.v13n3p53

Abstract:
Pitaya and acerola are fruits rich in nutrients and can be used in blends formulation in order to improve the sensory characteristics of both pulps in isolation and complement each other in terms of nutritional aspects. Thus, the aim of this research was to develop different blends of pitaya pulp with acerola and choose the best formulation based on physical-chemical and colorimetric characteristics. Three blends formulations were prepared: F1-90% pitaya and 10% acerola; F2-70% pitaya and 30% acerola; and F3-50% pitaya and 50% acerola. The formulations were evaluated for physical-chemical parameters of water activity, water content, ash, total soluble solids (SST), pH, total titratable acidity (ATT), SST/ATT ratio, ascorbic acid, proteins, lipids, sugars totals, reducers and non-reducers and colorimetric analysis. The obtained data were subjected to variance analysis (ANOVA) and to comparison between means by the Tukey test at 5% probability. The formulation F1 stood out when compared to the others. The parameters pH, soluble solids, ratio SS/ATT, ash, water content, water activity, proteins, sugars, luminosity and hue angle were the ones that gave the formulation F1 the best results. However, it is noteworthy that the formulation F3 presented a greater amount of ascorbic acid and higher values of a, b and chroma in the colorimetric analysis. The use of these fruits allows to obtain an innovative product with excellent nutritional and functional characteristics. The blend is a viable alternative for the use of perishable and seasonal fruits, adding greater economic value to the very promising product to the market.
Alessandra Vieira da Silva, Jamerson Fabio Silva Filho, Dalcimar Regina Batista Wangen, Lara Bernardes Da Silva Ferreira, Brunna Rithielly Rezende, Marcos Fernandes-Sobrinho
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/jas.v13n3p61

Abstract:
Although the influence of lunar phase on plant growth and development has been disregarded by most researchers, there is still little data in the literature regarding the influence of lunar phase within a controlled environment. Objective evaluates the influence of lunar phase on the germination of creole corn and on seedling development in a controlled environment. The experimental design was completely randomized with the following treatments: four lunar phases (full, waxing, waning and new), with four replications totaling 50 seeds per treatment. The treatments started on the first day of the waxing phase and extended to the full phase within the same month, respecting the germination period (nine days) and the length of each moon phase (roughly seven days). The following parameters were evaluated: germination rate, seedling length, fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots. Seedlings germinated during the waning lunar phase were longer and had greater fresh root weight and greater fresh and dry shoot weights than did seedlings germinated during the other phases. However, some limiting factors (long term experiments and in different places in the world) must be considered in future research to determine whether moon phase affects germination. Thus, longer-term, controlled, and modeled studies are needed to analyze external factors, which may influence the germination of cultivar seeds.
Adebusoye O. Onanuga, Roy Weasel Fat
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/jas.v13n3p46

Abstract:
An experiment was performed in Standoff, Southern Alberta to investigate resource cheap rock phosphate organic fertilizer application to corn, carrot and onion plots. The objective of the study was to ascertain effectiveness of rock phosphate organic fertilizer to support growth and yield of corn, carrot and onion crops grown in Southern Alberta. The varying levels of rock phosphate at 50 P kg/ha for Low P, 100 P kg/ha for High P and control were applied to corn, carrot and onion plots. These treatments were replicated three times, resulting into nine plants per crop. Agronomical parameters collected were subjected to analysis of variance using Duncan Multiple Range Test for separation of means. Result of the experiment indicated that Low P and High P favoured corn height and number of leaves but did not support other parameters measured due to inadequate rock phosphate applied. It was observed that rock phosphate influenced residual level of P after harvest of corn, carrot and onion. Onion plots had the highest P left in the soil than corn and carrot plots. This studies showed potential of rock phosphate in crop production, if apply in adequate amount and availability of soil moisture, as well as high residual P in the soil after harvest.
Honoré Tekeu, M. E. L. Ngonkeu, Liliane N. Tandzi, Appolinaire Tagne, Pierre-Francois Djocgoué
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/jas.v13n3p32

Abstract:
Acidic soils cover 75 to 80% of the arable soils in the humid forest areas of Cameroon, causing maize yield losses of around 69%. Sixty-four accessions of maize hybrids were developped from “Line × Tester” crosses between twenty tropical inbred lines with three testers (Cam inbgp117, 88069 and 9450) and between testers themselves, and one acid tolerant open pollinated variety (ATP-SR-Y). Those inbred breeding lines were collected from CIMMYT, IITA and IRAD and the derived single hybrids were characterized using agro-morphological maize’s descriptors on a completely randomized block design in two contrasting environments (Nkoemvone and Nkolbisson). The data collected was subjected to multivariate analyses. The Principal Component Analysis showed the first two components being 73.60% and 78.99% of the total variation in Nkoemvone and Nkolbisson, respectively. Furthermore, grain yield showed a positive and highly significant correlation with the plant emergence rate in Nkoemvone (r = 0.61, P < 0.001) and Nkolbisson (r = 0.84, P < 0.001). Hierarchical Clustering Analysis indicated that these accessions forms four distinct groups, where each of the groups showed clear specific features for which the performance differs from that of the others in Nkoemvone and Nkolbisson. Characters such as plant emergence rate, prolificacy, ear appearance and grain yield have been found as important phenotypic markers for assessing agromorphological diversity of maize hybrids. These traits should necessarily be considered in maize breeding programs for varietal discrimination and formulation of cores collection of maize tolerant to aluminum and manganese toxicities in the soil.
C. N. Ngugi, P. M. Wachira, J. N. Mbaka, S. Okoth, S. Haukeland, H. M. Mburu, M. Adhiambo, D. K. Sirengo
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/jas.v13n3p93

Abstract:
Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are worldwide soil-dwelling insect parasitic nematodes. They are potential pest bio-control agents a key component of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs. This study aimed to characterize and evaluate the pathogenicity of an EPN isolate from Kenya. The nematode was isolated from soils using insect bait technique and both morphological and molecular identification was performed. Efficacy of the isolate was evaluated against Tomato leafminer larvae (Tuta absoluta Meyrick.) using dose-based treatments of 0-control, 100, 150, 200, and 250 infective juveniles (IJs/ml). Morphological analysis revealed body length (L) of 835(659-987) µm and 1781 (1297-2097) µm from fresh IJs and males respectively. Males lacked a mucron. The isolate was characterized by the partial sequence length of 877 bp of the ITS region. Blastn results indicated the EPN isolate had a similarity match of 81-92% with Afro-tropical Steinernema species. It matched with Steinernema sp. (AY230186.1) from Kenya at 92% and Sri Lanka (AY230184.1). Phylogenetic analysis placed the isolate together with Steinernema sp. (AY230186.1) and (AY230184.1) with a bootstrap value of 100%. Maximum mean larval mortality (80%; 96%) was achieved 24 and 48 h post-treatment at concentration 150 IJs/ml. All nematode concentrations achieved over 50% mean mortality after 24 h period. There was a significant difference (P = 0.001) between doses 150 and 200 IJs/ml. From the study, it was concluded that the nematode isolate was Steinernema sp now referred to as Steinernema sp. Kalro (Genebank Accession MW151701). The EPN has the potential for development as a biological control agent against T. absoluta.
Alexandre Gomes de Souza, Yure Pequeno de Souza, Rogério Figueiredo Daher, Verônica Brito da Silva, Geraldo De Amaral Gravina, Marcelo Vivas, Wanessa Francesconi Stida, Ana Kesia Faria Vidal, Bruna Rafaela Da Silva Menezes, Rafael Souza Freitas, et al.
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/jas.v13n3p68

Abstract:
In Brazil, elephant grass has been researched for energy generation, as it represents an alternative energy source by virtue of its biomass production. The present study was developed to examine the adaptability and energy-biomass production stability of 73 elephant-grass genotypes under a biannual-harvest regime, using the methodologies proposed by Eberhart and Russell and Cruz. The experiment was carried out at the northern region of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Nine harvests and subsequent evaluations were performed at six-month intervals. Each harvest was considered an environment of genotype evaluation. After the plants were harvested, their dry matter yield (DMY) was estimated in t ha-1 harvest. Combined analysis of variance revealed highly significant effects of genotypes, harvests, and genotype × harvest interaction, by the F test. In five of the nine evaluated harvests, the genotypes had an average dry matter yield greater than the overall mean. The method of Eberhart and Russel was effective in identifying highly adaptable elephant-grass genotypes with high dry matter production stability throughout the nine harvests. When the method of Cruz was used, no genotypes were found comprising high yielding ability, adaptability to unfavorable environments, responsiveness to environmental improvement, and high stability altogether.
Dwi Setyo Rini, Anni Nuraisyah
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/jas.v13n3p17

Abstract:
This study was performed to reveal the morpho-agronomic characters under drought and genetic diversity using SRAP (Sequence-related amplified polymorphism) marker on local landraces of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L). Walp) collected from East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. Data on drought response indexes according to the dry matter production of cowpea plants classified Carolina and Pinu Pahar as drought-sensitive and drought-tolerant cowpea genotypes, respectively. The assessment of the genetic diversity of cowpea genotypes was performed by using 25 SRAP combination primers. A total of 250 bands were produced by which 245 bands (98%) were polymorphic. The value of PIC (Polymorphic Information Content) of SRAP primers in this study varied from the highest value (0.97) to the lowest value (0.71) generated by primer pairs Me4-Em1 and Me3-Em4, respectively, with an average of PIC 0.87. An unweighted pair group method based on arithmetic averages (UPGMA) in this study was performed according to Nei and Li’s similarity index. The analysis of UPGMA and PCoA successfully separated Carolina and Pinu Pahar genotypes into different clusters. The result of the Mantel test showed that there was no significant correlation between the independent morpho-agronomic analysis and SRAP molecular matrix data.
P. G. Soti, Bulent Toprak, Nina De La Rosa, Krish Jayachandran
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/jas.v13n3p10

Abstract:
This study was done to assess the effect of soil disturbance on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spore abundance and root colonization in avocado (Persea americana Mill.). Rhizosphere soil and root samples of avocado were collected from different farms in south Florida and analyzed for degree of mycorrhizal colonization in roots, spore density and diversity in soil along with soil characteristics. There was significant difference in the soil characteristics among the different farms. Similarly, there was a significant difference in the degree of mycorrhizal colonization in the roots and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spore morphotypes among different land use and management practices. However, there was no significant difference in the total number of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spores among these sites. There was no correlation between the number of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spores and soil characteristics. However, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonization in roots were strongly influenced by soil characteristics such as soil moisture, carbon, nitrogen, and organic matter. Further research is necessary to identify these AMF species and determine the role of in avocado growth tolerance to anthropogenic disturbance in highly disturbed urban soils.
Alhassan Abukari, Tan Cunfeng
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/jas.v13n3p80

Abstract:
Ghana in the year 1911 became the world’s largest exporter of cocoa. However, cocoa export in Ghana nearly came to standstill in the 1970s as a result of the outbreak of swollen shoot disease of cocoa. Ghana since then has not been able to rejuvenate its cocoa export as expected. The years 1999 to 2018 have witnessed a downward trend in the export of cocoa in Ghana. This raises questions of whether the phrase “Ghana is cocoa, and cocoa is Ghana” is still valid. The study attempts to analyze the competitiveness of Ghana’s cocoa sector vis-à-vis its neighbors. In doing so, the authors calculate the Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) and Revealed Symmetric Comparative Advantage (RSCA) for Ghana to compare with other West African exporters of cocoa and assess the determinants of Ghana’s cocoa exports. The authors adopt a regression framework to explore the determinants of cocoa exports. The results revealed that Ghana is highly competitive in the export of cocoa beans. The study attributed this advantage to the quality of the cocoa beans Ghana exports. The results further showed that Ghana’s cocoa production volumes and the World consumer price of cocoa beans were the major determinants of the volume of cocoa beans exported in Ghana. The study concluded that although Ghana enjoys a comparative advantage in the export of cocoa beans, Ghana’s cocoa production volumes fluctuate thus affecting the volume of cocoa exported. Ghana, therefore, needs to invest in new hybrid climate-smart cocoa cultivation to boost production and export.
Nicole Berkmortel, Matthew Curtis, Colin Johnson, Alicia Schmidt, Elyse Hill, S. Andrew Gadsden
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/jas.v13n3p1

Abstract:
In this paper, an electro-mechanical integrated weed management system was designed, constructed, and tested. This laboratory-scale solution integrated elements of machine vision, controls, and mechanical actuation to selectively remove weeds from within a crop row. The device was validated in a controlled environment using corn crops. Various crop conditions were considered to ensure the robustness of the design. Though some design aspects should be reworked for improved results, the device can effectively be used to facilitate small-scale research for automated weeding strategies.
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