Journal of Agricultural Science

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1916-9752 / 1916-9760
Current Publisher: Canadian Center of Science and Education (10.5539)
Total articles ≅ 3,593
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Latest articles in this journal

M. U. Dimelu, A. M. Umoren, Jane M. Chah
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 12; doi:10.5539/jas.v12n12p201

Abstract:
A refocus on agriculture is considered a pertinent resort for the youths because it is generally believed to be a panacea for sustainable development in any nation. To help generate suitable policies to encourage youth farmers to be involved in agricultural activities, the study analysed factors that influence youth farmers’ participation in agricultural activities in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Through a list of farmers obtained with the assistance of Akwa Ibom State Agricultural Development Programme, 120 youth farmers were randomly selected for the study using simple random sampling technique. The study used descriptive and inferential tools to analyse information collected. The majority (59.2%) of youth farmers were male and 42.5% were between the ages of 36-39 years. Only 8.3% had access to credit. About 71% of the youth farmers were involved in on-farm activities and only 29.2% in both on- and off-farm activities. The major determinants of youth agricultural activities were household size and membership of social organizations. The state government and other relevant agencies and organizations should create platforms to educate youth farmers on the need for more involvement and diversification in their agricultural livelihood strategies.
Juliana L. Souza, Bruno A. L. De Freitas, Laura C. D. P. Lima, Valdinete V. Nunes, Maria F. O. Torres, Renata Silva-Mann
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 12; doi:10.5539/jas.v12n12p192

Abstract:
Abiotic stress caused by rigorous environmental conditions, such as drought, has negative effects on seeds. The species from arid and semiarid areas have mechanisms to maintain seed viability. In this study, the analyses of physical and physiological quality of the seeds of Erythrina velutina and their response to drought stress and RNA extraction methods were carried out. The seeds were collected from mother trees in two different provenances of natural occurrences of the species. The physical quality, viability, and vigor of the seeds were evaluated by morphometric parameters, germination, and electrical conductivity tests. The seeds were submitted to drought stress conditions for 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours on -0.8 MPa polyethylene glycol solution. To evaluate the viable RNA extraction method, the seed embryos were used for the extraction of this molecule and with an assessment of quantity and quality. The seeds from Pernambuco that were harvested in 2008 were bigger and presented lower vigor when in comparison to seeds that were harvested from Sergipe in 2012. The seeds under drought stress conditions presented null germination for all the treatments. After the drought stress, they were germinated on a paper substrate moistened with water, with better responses from the Lot Sergipe, 2012. The imbibition of seeds in the solution for 24 hours provides an increase in germination for less vigorous seeds, being indicated as a pre-germinative treatment. The RNA quality obtained by using a commercial extraction kit has better results, providing materials without contaminants when compared to the TRIzol method.
Onássis Deivis Schlösser, Emilso Damm Dos Santos, Tainan Vechietti, Rodrigo Ivaniski Della Flora, Felipe Tascheto Bolzan, Ivan Carlos Maldaner
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 12; doi:10.5539/jas.v12n12p170

Abstract:
The leaf area index (AFI) is an important variable when evaluating the growth, development and possible productivity of a crop. The objective of this article was to determine mathematical models that allow estimating the leaf area of tobacco from measurements of dimensions of length and width of tobacco leaves. The experimental design used was in blocks with four replications and two planting times. The treatments consisted of five commercial cultivars of Virginia type tobacco and Burley type. Of which the leaves were detached from the stem, and these leaves were fractionated in limbo and petiole. Its leaves were 10 models were obtained to estimate the leaf area of tobacco. All the models presented a significant test to estimate the leaf area. The power and quadratic models presented values of determination coefficients higher than linear models. It had the best results with the nonlinear power and quadratic model, using the squared width multiplied by length. Therefore, the measurements of the leaf area of tobacco can be estimated from potential, linear and quadratic equations with good precision. The models that use linear squared width measurements multiplied by leaf limbo length satisfactorily estimate the leaf area of tobacco.
Taghi Bararpour, Gurbir Singh, Ralph R. Hale, Gurpreet Kaur
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 12; doi:10.5539/jas.v12n12p1

Abstract:
Weed management in grain sorghum is limited by the number of herbicide options. A two-year (2017-2018) field study was conducted at the Mississippi State University Delta Research and Extension Center, in Stoneville, MS to evaluate the response of grain sorghum to mesotrione application alone or when tank-mixed with dicamba at the two-leaf and four-leaf growth stage of sorghum. Mesotrione was applied at 0.07 and 0.105 kg ai ha-1 alone or was tank-mixed with dicamba at 0.28 kg ae ha-1. Significant injury to grain sorghum from all herbicide treatments was observed compared with the untreated check. Increase in mesotrione application rate increased injury to grain sorghum from 14 to 19% at two-leaf and from 10 to 24% at the four-leaf stage by 4 weeks after application (WAA) in 2017. Adding dicamba to mesotrione reduced grain sorghum injury in both years. At 4-leaf sorghum application stage, mesotrione applied at 0.07 kg ha-1 resulted in greater grain yield than all other herbicide treatments, except mesotrione (0.105 kg ha-1) + NIS in 2017. Our results indicate that adding dicamba to mesotrione safes grain sorghum from injury caused by mesotrione alone.
Marcus N. A. Ramdwar, Wayne Ganpat, Leevun A. R. Solomon
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 12; doi:10.5539/jas.v12n12p49

Abstract:
The agricultural sector in Trinidad and Tobago is characterized by a labor shortage. A qualitative research design was used to investigate the impact of a national welfare employment program, on the agriculture labor sector. The study recruited n = 19 Community-Based Environmental Protection and Enhancement Program (CEPEP) employees, n = 10 farmers and n = 7 agricultural professionals for in-depth interviews and focus group sessions. A review was conducted of newspaper articles and national budget statements for content related to CEPEP and agriculture. A thematic analysis was conducted to establish themes from the data gathered from the participants and from the media review. The themes emerged were “CEPEP’s benefits to agriculture”, “Labor shortages in Agriculture”, “Convenience Employment” and “Challenges to CEPEP in Agriculture”. The study concludes that welfare employment can be incorporated into the development agenda for agriculture in Trinidad and Tobago once the issues of capacity building, retooling and mentorship, wage adjustments are factored into a structured program.
Richard Netshirovha Thivhilaheli, Mammikele Tsatsimpe, Thabo Muller, Fhulufhelo Vincent Ramukhithi, Masindi Lotus Mphaphathi, Gogamatsamang Makgothi, Ronald Sylvester Thomas
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 12; doi:10.5539/jas.v12n12p89

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to facilitate artificial insemination training to enhance sustainable pig production within the developing smallholder pig production sector in Gauteng Province, South Africa. Eighteen smallholder pig farmers with requisite structures (pig house, pens), pigs (large white, landrace duroc or South African indigenous) and management (feeding, cleaning and record keeping) capacity were trained on routine pig management and artificial insemination procedures in a “learning by doing” on-farm supervised programme administered by Agricultural Research Council, Animal Production pig training team. Following estrus detection, 96 sows were artificially inseminated and 31 naturally served (NS). Farrowing rates (FR), total born (TB) and born alive (BA) piglets were recorded. The occurrence ccurrence of mummified fetuses (0.019 vs. 0.022%) and weak piglets (0.038 vs. 0.049%) did not differ between artificially inseminated sows and naturally mated sows. Born alive, birth weight and weaning weight were higher for artificial inseminated sows. The average litter size was 15± and 13±, birth weight 1.98±0.79 kg and 1.48±0.58 kg and weaning weight 9.89±0.87 kg and 7.23±0.71 kg for the AI and NS litters, respectively. Farmer demographic factors (age, gender and educational level) had no effect on farrowing rate, total born and piglets born alive. Therefore, implementation of artificial insemination techniques and pig production training was feasible under a smallholder pig production system.
J. Yeboah, M. A. D. Segbefia, A. M. Dadzie, F. Padi, S. T. Lowor, V. N. Agene, F. Owusu-Ansah
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 12; doi:10.5539/jas.v12n12p213

Abstract:
The shea is a medium-sized fruit tree indigenous of Sudano-sahelian zone of Africa with great economic potential and ecological components. Planting by seed takes a long time to fruit because of its slow growth. Factors affecting its development among other things are physiological and biochemical. The 2 × 2 factorial experiment set up in the rainy season was arranged in a randomized complete block with three (3) replications. The selected period was characterized by moderate cloud cover and temperature with the following factors; type of cuttings (apical and rejuvenated) and hormone concentration (0 mg/L and 10,000 mg/L). The different types of cuttings dipped in different hormone concentration showed significant (p < 0.05) rooting performance. Rejuvenated cuttings dipped in 10,000 mg/L of IBA (auxin) rooted best and produced more and long roots. The presence of high (p < 0.05) levels of endogenous indole acetic acid, sugars and proteins contributed to the good rooting in the rejuvenated cuttings. Plant nutrients like endogenous zinc and nitrogen in the cuttings also enhanced rooting for the rejuvenated cuttings.
João Paulo Turmina, Flávio Gurgacz, Anderson Lenz, Doglas Bassegio
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 12; doi:10.5539/jas.v12n12p177

Abstract:
This research aims to analyze the degradation of urea in its storage process, observing the environmental conditions of the storage building and also the storage time. In order to carry out such analysis, a field experiment with a completely randomized design (CRD), 3 × 4, was set up, with eight 50 kg bags divided in four different locations, being a shed, an underground basement, and two reduced models built in wood, where one received thermal input minimization treatments and the other with simplified coverage and closings. Within the four environments, temperature (DBT) and temperature (WBT) were measured, where it was possible to obtain the relative humidity values enabling thus crossing the internal climatic data with the process of urea degradation in storage for a period of three months. To analyze urea degradation, the analytical manual of fertilizers of the Ministry of Agriculture (MAPA) was used. The analyses of the physicochemical parameters of nitrogen content, density, humidity, total bag weight, and also granulometry were carried out monthly. The data were validated by one (ANOVA) and Tukey test with 5% probability of error. The results show that the environments with higher temperatures had a higher volatilization of nitrogen, the losses reached about 13% during the evaluated period. Losses of up to 5.3% of the density of the analyzed samples were also observed. In relation to the initial weight of the bags, losses totaled a reduction of 1.5%. It was also possible to conclude that the lowest losses were recorded in places where there was greater ventilation during the day, where the thermal inertia of the building dissipated.
L. F. G. Fuentes, S. C. J. Gualtieri, M. Imatomi, R. B. Accarini
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 12; doi:10.5539/jas.v12n12p9

Abstract:
The growing number of invasive species in agricultural areas reduces productivity and results in production losses. The need to discover new compounds with herbicidal activity increases as cases of resistance of invasive plants to herbicides rise. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytotoxic potential of benzyl salicylate and benzyl benzoate upon the growth of Triticum aestivum coleoptiles and on the initial growth of Lactuca sativa, Lycopersicon esculentum, Allium cepa, T. aestivum, Euphorbia heterophylla, and Megathyrsus maximus. For the T. aestivum coleoptile bioassays, the treatments used the concentrations of 10-3 M, 3 × 10-4 M, 10-4 M, 3 × 10-5 M, and 10-5 M; while for the initial growth bioassays the concentrations of 10-3 M, 10-4 M, and 10-5 M were used. Both compounds presented a minimum of 89% growth inhibition on T. aestivum coleoptiles in all concentrations. Both compounds inhibited the growth of the root system and shoot of A. cepa and E. heterophylla at all concentrations. The species most affected by both compounds in all evaluated parameters was E. heterophylla. For the benzyl benzoate, the inhibition of the roots of E. heterophylla were statistically equivalent to those obtained with the herbicide. Regarding benzyl salicylate, the root inhibition in this species in the 10-4 M and 10-5 M treatments did not differ statistically from the herbicide in the same concentrations. Benzyl salicylate and benzyl benzoate are compounds that presented phytotoxic activity on E. heterophylla and for the first time the phytotoxic effect of these compounds on invasive species is reported.
Muhammad Abubakar, Muhammad Naveed, Zulfiqar Ahmad, Sardar Alam Cheema, Ali Sultan Khan, Ha Young Park, Chan Ho Kwon
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 12; doi:10.5539/jas.v12n12p39

Abstract:
Inoculation of bacteria increase the growth of maize by facilitating the nutrients uptake and improving the immunity of plants and ability against pathogens, harmful substances such as heavy metals and other diseases. Likewise, organic amendments also increase the growth of plants by providing ample amount of readily available nutrients and improving soil physical conditions and ameliorating heavy metals toxicity. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the interactive effect of bacteria and organic amendments on Cr uptake and growth of maize irrigated with tannery effluent. Biochar and processed animal manure were applied at the rate of 1% (w/w). The experiment was conducted as Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications. During the experiment various growth, physiological and biochemical parameters were measured by using standard procedures. Combination of Bacillus sp. MN-54 and low pH animal manure increased the plant height by 72%, chlorophyll content by 56%, water use efficiency by 68%, electrolyte leakage decreased by 51%, transpiration rate increased by 45%, RWC 57%, stomatal conductance 62%, photosynthetic rate 57% whereas Cr decreased the shoot growth by 45% over their control treatment. Overall the bacterial species evaluated in this study along with biochar and animal manure imparted heavy metal tolerance to maize plants evidenced by improved growth and physiology.
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