Journal of Agricultural Science

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1916-9752 / 1916-9760
Current Publisher: Canadian Center of Science and Education (10.5539)
Total articles ≅ 3,673
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Jaomara Nascimento da Silva, Niraldo José Ponciano, Paulo Marcelo Souza, Claudio Luiz Melo de Souza, Leandro Hespanhol Viana, Marcelo Geraldo De Morais Silva, Marcela Brite Alfaiate, Carla Roberta Ferraz Carvalho Bila, Rogério Figueiredo Daher, Geraldo De Amaral Gravina
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/jas.v13n5p171

Viticulture has proved to be an alternative for farmers in the northen and northwestern Rio de Janeiro State; however, the activity is still very recent and requires the development of agronomic and managerial techniques. Therefore, the objective of this work was to diagnose the production areas and the characteristics inherent to the inner and outer environment of this farming enterprise. It was observed that the grape-growing farms predominate in an average area of 1 hectare, with productivity between 20 and 25 t/ha, with offer in the harvest and in the off-season. The inner points are stronger than the weak ones, and can be adjusted with the joint execution of the viticulturists allied to the opportunities, such as agrotourism and the diversification of available cultivars that allow a greater offer of the product and minimize the inherent threats observed, such as climatic variations and the shortage of skilled labor. These identified points may indicate competitiveness strategies for the wine market in the studied regions.
S. Sanjay Singh, Rocky Thokchom, Jenita Thokchom, Soumitra Sankar Das, Arvind S. Dhabe, P. Kumar Singh
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/jas.v13n5p153

Iris laevigata Fisch., is restricted geographically in Manipur, north eastern India. An experiment was planned with Factorial Randomized Block Design during 2018 to 2020 (3 seasons) in the study plots of ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Manipur Centre, Lamphelpat. The study encompasses on the growth and development of I. laevigata seedlings collected from Ipa Thoukok Complex: influenced by spacing, trimming and correlations amongst the growth parameters, so as to validate the most favourable conservation method for this endangered plant. Among the treatments, T6 = S2T3 (45 cm × trimming 40 DAT) was found the best treatment. T9 = S3T3 (60 cm × trimming 40 DAT) was second, T3 = S1T3 (30 cm × trimming 40 DAT) was the third and lowest was found in case of T1 = S1T1 (30 cm × 0 trimming, i.e., without trimming). Strong positive correlation between leaf surface area and plant height on the growth and development was found to be effective among other correlations.
Lorena S. Silva, Renata R. Simplício, Sendi R. Arruda, Derval G. Pereira, Milene Maria S. Castro, Ana Maria Waldschmidt
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/jas.v13n5p113

Caatinga is the third largest biome in Brazil but little is known about the species diversity from this biotic community, despite of its social, economic and environmental importance for the semiarid region. Among the several typical plant species from Caatinga, Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir. (black jurema) stands out because it plays a major role in the maintenance of this ecosystem, besides being widely used to recover degraded areas. Therefore, the goal of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity and structural analysis from 10 populations of M. tenuiflora from the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil, using 10 ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeat) markers. A total of 117 fragments were obtained from 218 individuals with a mean number of 11.8 bands per primer. The mean population polymorphism was 85.0%, while the values of genetic diversity (He) and the Shannon index (I) were equal to 0.295 and 0.442, respectively. Most of genetic variation was observed (87.0%) but high FST values were observed (0.132), indicating the populations are genetically differentiated. Bayesian inference using Structure divided the populations into two groups while Geneland indicated five clusters that could be related to the fragmentation of Caatinga and to constraints in the dispersal of pollen and seeds. In conclusion, M. tenuiflora presents high levels of genetic diversity and natural populations might serve as potential sources for management and reforestation of degraded areas in Caatinga.
Kabal S. Gill, Surinder K. Jalota
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/jas.v13n5p50

Understanding the root growth and changes in soil moisture content during the growing season for dryland agriculture crops can improve crop production. It was hypothesized that early-season root growth might be influenced by previous crop and current crops, and soil moisture content and depletion pattern during the growing season and residual soil moisture may be affected by the crop type. A study was conducted on the early-season root growth of canola (Brassica napus L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) in 2015; and changes in soil water content during the 2013, 2014, and 2015 growing seasons under canola, flax, wheat, barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and pea (Pisum sativum L.). Early-season root growth of the canola and flax crops was better on wheat than canola stubble, while for wheat it was similar on the stubbles of both wheat and canola. Soil moisture depletion started relatively earlier under the barley and wheat and later under the flax compared to the canola and pea crops. Flax continued to deplete soil moisture for a longer period than the other crops. With some exceptions, all crops could deplete soil moisture to a similar level (down to about 15% or somewhat lower) by the end of their growing seasons. Generally, almost equal amounts of residual soil moisture remained after the different crops.
Olamide S. Antonio Ajibona, Adedolapo Ajiboma Idowu, A. A. Hamama, Harbans L. Bhardwaj
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/jas.v13n5p76

Seeds from greenhouse-grown plants of five food millet crops—[barnyard millet (Echinochloa frumentacea Link.), finger millet (Eleusine coracana Gaertn.), kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum L.), little millet (Panicum sumatrense Roth ex Roem. & Schult.), and proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.)] contained 10.4, 5.5, 7.2, 1.3, and 17.1 percent protein; 69, 29, 239, 105, and 32 Fe (mg/100 g); and 33, 22, 23, 31, and 37 (mg/100 g) Zn, respectively. Concentrations (g/100 g) of oil in seeds varied from 1.32 for finger millet to 3.58 for little millet. The oil concentrations for barnyard, kodo, and proso millets were 1.59, 1.64, and 3.36 g/100 g, respectively. Predominant fatty acid in the oil in the seed of these millets was C18:2 followed by C18:1, and C16:0. Concentration of omega-3 fatty acid (a heart-healthy oil) was 1.06, 0.62, 1.01, 0.91, and 3.11 g/100 g in barnyard, kodo, little, proso, and finger millet, respectively. Oils from seeds of these millet crops were essentially free from concentration of anti-nutritive fatty acid C22:1 (Erucic acid). Concentrations (g/100 g) of total sugars varied from 0.96 for barnyard millet to 2.09 for finger millet. The total sugar concentrations for kodo, little, and proso millets were 1.81, 1.95, and 1.99 g/100 g, respectively. Fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose, raffinose, and stachyose concentrations varied from 0.05 to 0.47, 0.44 to 0.85, 0.44 to 0.98, 0.02 to 0.33, 0.005 to 0.083, and 0.002 to 0.053, respectively for barnyard, kodo, little, proso, and finger millet, respectively. Results indicated that these millet crops have potential as sources of healthy food and it might be worthwhile to further study their production potential.
Daniele Cristina de Brito Lima Soares, Herdjania Veras Lima, Suzana Romeiro Araújo, Lorena Chagas Torres, Antônio Clementino dos Santos
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/jas.v13n5p179

For several decades, the Acai orchards (acaizais) have directly influenced the survival of the families in the Amazonian floodplains. In this period, the production of the Acai fruit for local consumption was ceased and became an export item produced in intensive management, resulting in an increase in orchards in the floodplains and the emergence of dryland plantations, no longer representing a typical extractive activity in the Amazon. The objective of this study was to map the classes of use and coverage, and the occurrences of the Acai orchards massifs, as well as to analyze the physical and chemical parameters of five islands in the municipality of Igarapé-Miri, State of Pará, Brazil, where there is a great occurrence of productive Acai orchards. This work evaluated the following islands: Jarimbu, Mamangal, Itaboca, Mutirão, and Buçu, where geolocalized collections were carried out in the areas with the highest occurrence of Acai orchards, both to assist in the classification of images and for soil sampling. August 2019 Planet images were processed using the unsupervised method, where seven classes of cover use were obtained: hydrography, exposed soil, urban, alluvial, lowland, arboreal, and agriculture areas. Therefore, occurrences of productive orchards were identified and correlated to the good attributes of soil fertility in the floodplains under continuous flooding and sedimentation. The correlation confirmed the higher productivity of Acai in the Alluvial and Lowland classes, which predominate in the evaluated area, presenting soils considered fertile with a loam-clay-silty and loam -silty texture, high base saturation (greater than 50%), high organic matter content, and significant presence of potassium and phosphorus.
Anne Brown
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/jas.v13n5p194

Reviewer acknowledgements for Journal of Agricultural Science, Vol. 13, No. 5, 2021.
Gunnar Bengtsson
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/jas.v13n5p1

Objectives: Anthropogenic exposures to rare earth elements are poorly known and there is limited information on their toxicity and ecotoxicity. At the same time, world production of rare earth elements has doubled every 15 years over the last half-century, and high environmental concentrations of gadolinium and lanthanum have already been found. The current review aims to give some estimates of overall exposures and an initial in-depth appraisal of thresholds for effects on agricultural soil. The results are envisaged to be used in initial assessments of agricultural soil where the natural concentrations have been anthropogenically enhanced. Methods: An extensive review has been made of available scientific literature. Criteria have been established for the selection and analysis of eligible research. For instance, only effects on soils with vegetation have been included in the assessment of biological effects. A species sensitivity distribution based on 25% inhibition of organism functions has been used to establish thresholds for effects on soil organisms. Results: Around the year 2000, mean anthropogenic contributions of lanthanides in European soil regions were at most a few per cent of the total soil content. Since then, they should have increased considerably. The proposed hypothetical threshold for agricultural soils is 1125 mg total rare earth element per kg of soil. This threshold is about 8 times the natural soil concentration. Conclusions: If this result holds up to scrutiny, it implies that general anthropogenic pollution by rare earth elements will not be a threat to agricultural sustainability for the coming generation. A preliminary assessment suggests that this threshold would also protect humans from adverse effects due to secondary exposure.
Leyza Paloschi de Oliveira, Simone Silmara Werner, Mari Inês Carissimi Boff, Pedro Boff
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/jas.v13n5p69

The production of medicinal plants which have an association with biotrophic fungi requires non-residual and favorable methods to the host with tolerance to the presence of phytopathogens. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of homeopathic preparations on the rust severity and the growth of Malva sylvestris plants. M. sylvestris seedlings were prepared in 600 ml containers with commercial substrate. The seedlings were arranged in pots at 26 days of age and outlined in two experiments. The treatments consisted of Amonnium carbonicum (Am. carb.), Atropa belladonna (Bell.), Calcarea carbonica (Calc. carb.), Silicea terra (Sil.) and Sulfur (Sulf.), all at 30CH (centesimal Hahnemannian dilution order). The last two dynamizations (29 and 30CH) were prepared in distilled water for all treatments. Control plants were treated with water. Natural inoculation of the plants with Puccinia malvacearum occurred in the first experiment, and the applications of homeopathic preparations were carried out every seven days for five weeks. Four evaluations of rust severity, diameter, height and number of leaves were conducted. Next, M. sylvestris seedlings were transplanted into pots with 5 liters of substrate in the second experiment and the growth curve of the plant was observed in relation to the diameter and height variables. Am. Carb. reduced 18.29% of the rust severity in relation to the control plants. Sil. 30CH contributed to an increase in stem diameter. There was no interference in the plants’ height by homeopathic preparations. The application of homeopathies in M. sylvestris can contribute to their production, reducing the rust intensity considered in the crop cycle and can assist in the plant growth without leaving residues which can harm pollinators and hyperparasites.
Fortunate Makore, Cosmos Magorokosho, Shorai Dari, Edmore Gasura, Upenyu Mazarura, Casper N. Kamutando, Xavier Mhike
Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/jas.v13n5p104

Genetic variation abundance, high genetic advance coupled with high heritability estimates presents the most suitable condition for selection. Ninety-five hybrids generated from elite and new inbred lines crossed using half diallel mating design were evaluated under diverse environments. The objectives were to estimate genetic variances, heritability of traits and genetic advance and to determine correlations of grain yield and its component characters in maize hybrids. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among genotypes for all traits studied except for ear rots. Estimates of phenotypic coefficient of variation were slightly higher than genotypic coefficient of variation for all traits suggesting low influence of environment in the expression of these traits. High heritability and genetic estimates were recorded for grain yield (79%; 30.27%), plant height (85%; 102.42%) and ear height (86%; 117.15%) whilst high heritability and low genetic advance were observed for anthesis date (87%; 5.8%), texture (75%; 8%) and ear position (71%; 0.23%). Correlation between environments using grain yield data revealed existence of a very strong positive correlation between CIMMYT2 and RARS2 suggesting that the sites have the same discriminating effect. Correlation among traits revealed that grain yield had significant (P < 0.05) positive correlation with plant height and ear height. Similarly, plant height had significant and positive correlation with ear height while ear position was positively correlated to ear height. Path analysis showed that plant height, ears per plant and ear position had positive direct effects on grain, while anthesis date, ear height, ear position, grain moisture content at harvest and texture indirectly influenced grain yield. These characters’ contribution to grain yield is important and the strong association with grain yield implied that these can be used as secondary traits to indirectly select for grain yield performance in this set of germplasm across all the environments.
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