Arctic Environmental Research
ISSN / EISSN : 2541-8416 / 2658-7173
Published by: Pensoft Publishers (10.3897)
Total articles ≅ 89
Latest articles in this journal
Arctic Environmental Research, Volume 20, pp 29-36; https://doi.org/10.3897/issn2541-8416.2020.20.1.29
Most species of woody plants indigenous to the Russian taiga are extremely sensitive to pollutants. However, many species of deciduous trees that grow in other geographical areas, including the genus Fraxinus, are fairly tolerant to progressive environmental pollution. For the introduction of cultivated plants into new environmental conditions, an impartial assessment of their introduction potential is required, which is possible only on the basis of comprehensive studies. The most important processes characterising the condition of plants are growth and development. The present study examined the introduction of three species of the Fraxinus L. genus to the middle taiga subzone. These were F. excelsior L., F. americana L. and F. pennsylvanica Marsh. The stems and leaves of the plants were measured once every 2–3 days over the course of two growth periods. Phenological observations were carried out between May and October over the course of 17 years. The introduction potential of the studied species was determined through visual assessment carried out in the autumn. The findings showed that the growth of shoots and leaves in the studied Fraxinus species began in late May-early June, varying between species by 1–5 days. The cessation of shoot and leaf growth in the studied Fraxinus species, which occurred in July, varied by up to ten days. The dates of onset and culmination of the growth of shoots and leaves appeared to be determined primarily by air temperature, with a year-by-year variability of 3–7 days. All the studied Fraxinus species showed a high degree of introduction potential and can be successfully used for gardening and landscaping purposes in the middle taiga subzone.
Arctic Environmental Research, Volume 20, pp 37-42; https://doi.org/10.3897/issn2541-8416.2020.20.1.37
The question of digital core modelling appears highly relevant due to the fact that there is not always a sufficient amount of core material available from studied wells: in some cases, it is not possible to select core material (in case of loose, weakly cemented rocks); in others, such material may be completely absent. In order to create a computer model of a digital core, it is necessary to have a correct understanding of the pore space microstructure and rock lithological composition and structure, among the most important features determining the quality of sedimentary reservoir rocks. Such information can be obtained by carrying out lithological-petrographic studies of thin sections of reference (standard) core samples. The aim of the present work is to study petrographic thin sections for their further use in creating a digital core model. The article discusses the methodology and results of laboratory lithological and petrographic studies of thin sections using the available core information. The paper presents the results of laboratory studies of thin sections of terrigenous sandstones obtained from the Berea Sandstone formation (USA). The choice of the Berea Sandstone is due to its wide recognition by specialists, as well as its homogeneity, both in terms of the grain size of constituent rocks and their filtration and reservoir properties. The work also presents the results of data analysis on lithological and petrographic studies of core material from the terrigenous deposits obtained in the Timan-Pechora province in northern Russia. The research results can be used for mathematical modelling of the pore space microstructure in a digital core model.
Arctic Environmental Research, Volume 20, pp 17-28; https://doi.org/10.3897/issn2541-8416.2020.20.1.17
Rare and endangered habitat types and vascular plant species were studied in the canyon associated with slope cirque “Gorodskaya shchel' (Town Crack)" in the southern part of Khibiny Mountains (Murmansk Region). Habitat types are interpreted based on a phytosociological approach (Braun-Blanquet classification). Habitat type “D4.2. Basic mountain flushes and streamsides, with a rich arctic-montane flora" of the Emerald Network (partly coincides with type 3220 “Alpine rivers and the herbaceous vegetation along their banks" of Council Directive 92/43/EEC) includes two associations: Mniobryo–Epilobietum hornemanniiNordhagen 1943 of alliance Mniobryo–Epilobion hornemanniiNordhagen 1943, сlass Montio–Cardaminetea Br.-Bl. et Tx. ex Klika et Hadač 1944, and Oxyrietum digynae Gjaerevoll 1956 of alliance Saxifrago stellaris–Oxyrion digynae Gjaerevoll 1956, class Salicetea herbaceae Br.-Bl. 1948. Habitat type “H2.6 Ultra-basic screes of warm exposures" of the Emerald Network is represented by community type Racomitrium spp.–Ranunculus glacialis (class Thlaspietea rotundifolii). These habitats harbor a number of Red Data Book species: 16 rare vascular plants including two species of the Red Data Book of Russia, four species of Red Data Book of Murmansk Region and ten species which need special attention to their state in the natural environment if the Murmansk Region occurred in the studied canyon, cirque and nearest surroundings. As the area is out of the borders of National Park “Khibiny" and has high conservation value, it is necessary to establish here the botanical nature monument.
Arctic Environmental Research, Volume 20, pp 10-16; https://doi.org/10.3897/issn2541-8416.2020.20.1.10
Increased soil acidity remains one of the important problems in world agriculture, especially relevant for the Northern territories, Traditionally, it is solved using lime ameliorants. Searching for new ameliorants that are just as effective, but at the same time are more are more accessible to certain areas is a promising direction for the development of agricultural science. Saponite water suspension can become effective ameliorant to improve acidic properties of soil on the territory of the Arkhangelsk region (Russia). This is possible due to the unique properties of saponite, its availability and the presence of large reserves in the region. This article presents the results of an experiment conducted in the Kholmogorsky district of the Arkhangelsk region (Russia) on sod-weak podzolic loam tame soil to identify the effect of saponite water suspension on acidic properties of soil under a naked fallow condition. The experiment proves the dependence of the seasonality of application, the different proportions of saponite water suspension and changes in pH and hydrolytic acidity, as well as the estimation of the most effective proportions of saponite water suspension to improve acidic properties of soil and revealed differences in the influence of seasonal application on the manifestations of the deoxidizing ability of saponite water suspension.
Arctic Environmental Research, Volume 20, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.3897/issn2541-8416.2020.20.1.1
The fauna and ecology of bumblebees in the European North are quite well-studied. However, there is a scarcity of information about the distribution and ecology of certain species of bumblebees, especially for the territory of Northern Russia. In this study, we summarised materials concerning Bombus (Pyrobombus) jonellus (Kirby, 1802), which is typical bumblebee species for the north-western portion of the Russian Plain and surrounding areas. The studied territory includes the Arkhangelsk Region and the western part of the Nenets Autonomous District, i.e. a wide strip from taiga to tundra ecosystems. Due to the studies of materials that were collected over a period 17 years, we established thatB. jonellusis widely distributed and the northern border of its range within the studied region reaches the northern part of the Kanin Peninsula. In the north-western Russian Plain,B. jonellushas been found in various types of habitats, the most common being coniferous and birch forests, secondary meadows and ruderal patches. In the Solovetsky Islands, White Sea, Russia,B. jonellusis typical on coastal heathlands. In the northern part of the studied region,B. jonellushas a tendency to forage in open habitats and visits a wide range of entomophilous plants, mostly of the family Ericaceae. Our findings highlight that the territory of the north-western Russian Plain and surrounding areas is whereB. jonellusis widely distributed and abundant, being recorded in different types of habitats.
Arctic Environmental Research, Volume 19, pp 129-138; https://doi.org/10.3897/issn2541-8416.2019.19.4.129
The study was conducted at the Botanical Garden of Petrozavodsk State University (middle taiga sub-zone). The subjects of the study were an indigenous species (P. abies (L.) Karst.), and five introduced species (P. pungens Engelm. f. glauca Regel., P. pungens Engelm. f. viridis Regel., P. glauca (Mill.) Britt., P. omorica (Pane) Purk., P. mariana Britt., P. obovata Ledeb.). The study established high variability of the isoperoxidase spectrum in the Picea species needles during the circannual cycle. Molecular forms of peroxidase typical for growth and dormant periods were determined. Some Picea species were found to have isoenzymes appearing only during the deep dormant period. An increase in the heterogeneity of the needles isoperoxidase spectrum and appearance of molecular forms of the enzyme typical for the dormant period were observed in the indigenous and introduced Picea species in the course of adaptation to unfavorable winter conditions. The isoenzyme system rearrangement ensures plants tolerance to external factors and homeostasis regulation. The content of chlorophyll and carotenoids in the needles of the studied species undergoes significant seasonal changes and is largely determined by their biological characteristics. Pigments concentration naturally increases by the end of the vegetative period and decreases slightly in winter. The total number of pigments in the needles of the indigenous and introduced species is almost the same, indicating a similar rate of stock formation. By the dormant period, the ratio of chlorophylls to carotenoids increases and reaches approximately the same level in all Picea species. The Picea species introduced in Karelia adapt to low winter temperatures with the same physiological changes as the indigenous ones. These include changes in the isoenzyme composition of peroxidase, the dynamics of the pigments content in the needles, and the ratio of chlorophylls to carotenoids. Potential tolerance of the studied plant species to unfavorable environmental factors is affected by the extreme factor of tension that does not exceed the threshold value.
Arctic Environmental Research, Volume 19, pp 139-145; https://doi.org/10.3897/issn2541-8416.2019.19.4.139
At present, a relevant task consists in understanding the seismicity of the European Arctic sector in general and the Barents-Kara region in particular. Due to the small number of seismic stations installed in the Arctic region our understanding of the seismicity of the Arctic is still not properly investigated. However, as a consequence of the operationalisation of the seismic station SVZ Severnaya Zemlya on the Severnaya Zemlya archipelago since 2016, it has become possible to record and process an increased number of seismic events. Data from the Arkhangelsk seismic network were compared with a map of the spatial distribution of earthquake epicentres in the Barents-Kara region and adjacent waters for 2017–2018 created by various seismological agencies. The distribution of the number of earthquakes by magnitude and location registered by the Arkhangelsk seismic network for 2012–2018 are presented. The greatest number of earthquakes is associated with the Gakkel, Knipovich and Mohn Ridges, while the lowest number is associated with the St. Anne trough We compared the number of earthquakes recorded by the Arkhangelsk seismic network in 2017–2018 with those recorded by the Severnaya Zemlya station in the same period. The increased number of recorded earthquakes indicates the importance of opening the Severnaya Zemlya station in Arctic region. The microseismic background level was considered and charts drawn up comparing the daily power spectra of SVZ for the “best” and the “worst” months in terms of seismogram quality. Using an earthquake recorded in the eastern part of the Gakkel ridge as an example, the effective processing of the earthquake record in the WSG software package including the operation of the new SVZ station is demonstrated.
Arctic Environmental Research, Volume 19, pp 146-152; https://doi.org/10.3897/issn2541-8416.2019.19.4.146
The bumblebee fauna of the Southern Taymyr region, northern Siberia, is represented by 10 species, i.e., Bombus consobrinus, B. flavidus, B. lapponicus, B. hypnorum, B. jonellus, B. cingulatus, B. balteatus, B. pyrrhopygus, B. hyperboreus, and B. cryptarum. During the field research for this study, 7 species of bumblebee on the Putorana Plateau (or the Putorana Mountains, on the northwestern edge of the Central Siberian Plateau) and 6 species near Dudinka Town were observed and B. consobrinus was found for the first time on the Putorana Plateau. To date, B. consobrinus was known only in the southern and central parts of the Krasnoyarsk Krai. Regarding the regional fauna, Transpalaearctic and Holarctic species are presented. According to the latitudinal aspect, in this region there are arcto-boreal, arcto-temperate, boreal and temperate species. An analysis of the community was carried out regarding bumblebees that live on the Putorana Plateau. It was found that species of the subgenus Pyrobombus and Alpinobombus, that are typical for the tundra and forest-tundra zones in the Northern Palaearctic, are dominant within the bumblebee community.
Arctic Environmental Research, Volume 19, pp 159-165; https://doi.org/10.3897/issn2541-8416.2019.19.4.159
Blood chemistry values are reported for the bearded seal species (Erignathus barbatus barbatus Erxleben, 1777) from the White Sea. 27 blood plasma indices are used to describe the state of the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, minerals (total protein, albumin, α-, β-, γ-globulins, urea, creatinine, uric acid, glucose, lactic acid, total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, copper, chlorides, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transferase, creatine kinase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase) in 3-, 5- and 10-year-old seals. The values of the studied parameters are similar to published data for bearded seal populations in other Arctic regions, as well as being in close agreement with indicators of other pinniped species of the same age. The plasma content of total protein, albumin, α-, β-, γ-globulins, urea, uric acid, total lipids, calcium, magnesium, sodium, and chlorides is invariable in animals of the studied ages. In common with other pinnipeds and land-based mammals, age-related changes in metabolic rates in the studied animal groups are most pronounced in the activity level of key metabolism enzymes. While aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase activity is higher in adult seals than in immature animals, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activity is lower. Changes in biochemical parameters of bearded seal blood at the ages of 3, 5 and 10 years indicate a catabolic orientation in metabolism at all studied development stages. Although more research is needed to investigate the biological significance of a number of blood indices, the data presented in this study provide initial baseline blood chemistry parameters for use in assessing the condition of individual seals, as well as informing monitoring and management efforts for wild seal populations.
Arctic Environmental Research, Volume 19, pp 153-158; https://doi.org/10.3897/issn2541-8416.2019.19.4.153
A recently published book authored by six botanists (Rak NS, Goncharova OA, Poloskova EY, Litvinova SV, Zotova OE, Lipponen IN. 2018. Bioecological analysis of introducents of the family Rosaceae Juss. Kola Science Centre, Apatity, 87 pp.) reports information on 19 species of insects that are declared to damage woody Rosaceae plants in the central part of the Murmansk oblast of Russia. Examination of photographs published in this book revealed that 15 of these 19 species were identified incorrectly and that several of the illustrated species are unlikely to damage woody Rosaceae plants. The most striking examples are errors in determination at the order level: a syrphid fly (Diptera) identified as a leafcutter bee (Hymenoptera), and a sawfly (Hymenoptera) identified as a psyllid (Hemiptera). I provide correct identifications of the insects illustrated in the cited book in order to prevent the spread of erroneous information across future publications and databases.