African Invertebrates

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ISSN / EISSN : 1681-5556 / 2305-2562
Published by: Pensoft Publishers (10.3897)
Total articles ≅ 314
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Latest articles in this journal

Published: 12 November 2021
African Invertebrates, Volume 62, pp 465-484; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.62.73911

Abstract:
A new genus of Baetidae, Megalabiopsgen. nov., and a new species, M. madagasikarasp. nov., are described from Madagascar based on nymphs. The new genus is characterized by having a strongly enlarged mentum; pedicelli with many long, stout, pointed setae; a brush of dense, short setae between prostheca and mola of both mandibles; an apically pointed maxillary palp with a stout seta at the tip; and a labium with many long, simple setae ventrally on glossae. The patellotibial suture is absent on the fore tibia and present on middle and hind tibiae. The claw is strongly elongated with two rows of denticles. The imago remains unknown and the relationships with other African genera of Baetidae are tentative. Despite being easily identifiable, only two nymphs were found in two highly sampled localities in Madagascar.
Published: 8 September 2021
African Invertebrates, Volume 62, pp 427-463; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.62.70632

Abstract:
Material collected in 1974 during the Austrian Hydrobiological Mission of F. Starmühlner to the Comoros and during recent years by one of the authors (NM) in the course of an ongoing freshwater monitoring program in Mayotte is the basis of this first larger study of the mayfly family Baetidae in the Comoros Archipelago (Comoros, Mayotte). We identified eight different species using morphological characters, four species on both the Comoros and Mayotte, three species on the Comoros only and one species on Mayotte only. Two species, Dabulamanzia mayottensis sp. nov. and Nigrobaetis richardi sp. nov., are new to science; they are described and illustrated based on their nymphs. The nymph of Afroptilum bicorne (Ulmer, 1909) is described for the first time and its assignment to this species is discussed. The description of the previously endemic Malagasy species Potamocloeon (Aquaediva) freitagae (Gattolliat, 2001), is complemented based on the additional material from the Comoros and re-examination of the type material. A key to the nymphs of all species of Baetidae in the Comoros and Mayotte is provided and the biogeography of the family in this region is discussed.
Thembeka C. Nxele, , Inam Yekwayo
Published: 12 August 2021
African Invertebrates, Volume 62, pp 411-425; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.62.67875

Abstract:
Little is known about the species composition of earthworms in agroecosystems in South Africa even though earthworms provide soil ecosystem services and are useful biological indicators of changes in the habitats. Given the land use and management impact biodiversity, the aim of this study was to document earthworm species that occur under cultivated land in the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands. A survey of nine farms that practise conservation agriculture was carried out between 2018 and 2020. Twelve earthworm species belonging to four introduced families: Acanthodrilidae (Dichogaster bolaui), Rhinodrilidae (Pontoscolex corenthrurus), Lumbricidae (Aporrectodea caliginosa, Aporrectodea rosea, Aporrectodea trapezoides, Lumbricus rubellus, Octolasion cyaneum, Octolasion lacteum), Megascolecidae (Amynthas aeruginosus, Amynthas corticis, Amynthas gracilis, Amynthas rodericensis) and juveniles from an indigenous family Tritogeniidae were recorded from cultivated fields. The type of crop (habitat) affected both species richness and abundance of earthworms significantly. However, post hoc results showed differences in species richness between the soya and the maize only, with greater species richness in the maize. Our results demonstrate that habitat type has a major influence on communities of earthworms in agroecosystems.
, Shelley Edwards
Published: 3 August 2021
African Invertebrates, Volume 62, pp 399-410; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.62.66891

Abstract:
The cicada genus Tugelana Distant, 1912 is monotypic and endemic to south-eastern Africa. Material was not available for a recent molecular phylogeny of its tribe, so its precise phylogenetic placement is unestablished. Consequently, a 627 bp sequence of the cytochrome oxidase gene was obtained and its candidate relatives identified as several species of Platypleura Amyot & Audinet-Serville, 1843 using the BOLD Identification System and NCBI Genbank’s BLAST. Bayesian inference analyses indicated that the type species, the Maputaland Orangewing Cicada Tugelana butleri Distant, 1912, is closely related to the Dune Koko Orangewing Cicada Platypleura zuluensis Villet, 1989, which has a geographical distribution that is parapatric with T. butleri and which has aberrant genitalia for a member of Platypleura. This pair of species is placed fairly deep within the African clade of Platypleura. We therefore formally recognized Platypleura Amyot & Audinet-Serville, 1843 as a senior synonym of Tugelana Distant, 1912, syn. nov., and assign T. butleri Distant, 1912 to Platypleura as Platypleura butleri (Distant 1912), comb. nov. The species occurs on the wooded grasslands of the Maputaland coastal plateau east of Lebombo Mountains and south of Maputo Bay. Its Extent of Occurrence is about 6360 km2, which would qualify it as Vulnerable under the IUCN’s classification criteria for conservation status.
Published: 15 July 2021
African Invertebrates, Volume 62, pp 383-397; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.62.68360

Abstract:
The African endemic hover fly Meromacroides meromacriformis (Bezzi, 1915) (Syrphidae, Eristalinae) was described more than a century ago and its monotypic status established in 1927, but subsequent collections and publications are rare. Only the male has been described and nothing is known about its biology. We re-describe the male, including geographic variation, describe the female for the first time and provide the first DNA barcodes for the species. Despite the large range and observed variations, there is insufficient evidence to describe additional taxa in the genus. Biological observations are presented, which may shed some insight into this rare and enigmatic hover fly, whose known distribution now spans the Afrotropical Region.
Published: 27 April 2021
African Invertebrates, Volume 62, pp 355-382; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.62.64885

Abstract:
Material collected between 1984 and 1988 in Guinea and Mali and between 2003 and 2008 in the Ivory Coast substantially increased our knowledge of Labiobaetis Novikova & Kluge in West Africa. We identified eight different species using morphological characters. One species, L. ediai sp. nov., is new to science; it is described and illustrated, based on its nymphs. The status of L. boussoulius (Gillies, 1993) is discussed and the divergent morphology of L. elouardi (Gillies, 1993) is compared to other species of Labiobaetis. A key to the nymphs of all West African species is provided and the distribution of Labiobaetis species in the Afrotropical realm is discussed.
Axel Ssymank, Kurt Jordaens
Published: 23 April 2021
African Invertebrates, Volume 62, pp 339-353; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.62.61504

Abstract:
The taxonomy of Syrphidae is far from being complete in the Afrotropical Region and many species have been described from a single sex only. One of these is the enigmatic monotypic genus Syrittosyrphus Hull, 1944, of which, so far, only the male of Syrittosyrphus opacea Hull, 1944 was described from the Eastern Cape Province in South Africa. Here, we re-describe the male and describe the female. We summarise all known distribution records from South Africa (Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal and Limpopo Provinces) and Zimbabwe (Vumba), of which several are new. We also provide notes on the species’ ecology.
, Mattia Iannella, Elizabeth Grobbelaar, Maurizio Biondi
Published: 19 April 2021
African Invertebrates, Volume 62, pp 315-337; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.62.62426

Abstract:
Calotheca Heyden, 1887 is a flea beetle genus that occurs predominantly in sub-Saharan Africa, comprising 29 species. The examination of new material is revealing a significantly higher species richness and high intraspecific variability. A group of five species, occurring in the southernmost portion of the distribution range for the genus, is here attributed to the C. parvula species group: C. parvula (Weise, 1908), C. pallida (Bryant, 1945), C. danielssoni sp. nov., C. oberprieleri sp. nov., and C. prinslooi sp. nov. Species in the C. parvula group have strong similarities in body shape and sculpture on the integument, spermathecal shape, and for most species the morphology of the median lobe of the aedeagus. A key to species of the Calotheca parvula group is provided along with photographs of the habitus, main diagnostic characters, median lobe of the aedeagus and spermatheca. In addition to the geographic distribution, the available information on the habitat, host plants, and phenology are provided for the five species analysed.
, Rosali Smith, Julie A. Coetzee
Published: 9 March 2021
African Invertebrates, Volume 62, pp 287-314; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.62.62842

Abstract:
The Brazilian waterweed, Egeria densa Planchon, 1849 (Hydrocharitaceae), is an invasive species in South Africa where it is a host plant for the aquatic leaf-miner Hydrellia egeriae Rodrigues-Júnior, 2015 (Ephydridae, Diptera). Efficacy of the biocontrol agent can potentially be affected by parasitoids. Three species of braconid parasitoid wasps were reared from puparia of Hydrellia egeriae. By comparison with the type specimens, these species have been determined to be Ademon lagarosiphonae van Achterberg, 2012 (Braconidae: Opiinae), Chaenusa anervata van Achterberg, 2012 and Chaenusa seminervata van Achterberg, 2012 (Braconidae: Alysiinae: Dacnusini), all previously recorded as parasitoids of an ephydrid dipterous aquatic leaf-miner, Hydrellia lagarosiphon Deeming, 2012, on Lagarosiphon major (Ridley, 1886) Moss ex Wager (Hydrocharitaceae) in South Africa. The chalcidoid, Janicharis africanus Gumovsky & Delvare, 2006 (Eulophidae), was also reared from Hydrellia egeriae and is possibly a hyperparasitoid of the braconids. South Africa is a new country record for J. africanus. We provide comprehensive images of all species including the braconid types and illustrated identification keys to the Afrotropical species of the two braconid genera are also provided. All images and online keys are available on WaspWeb (http://www.waspweb.org).
Dancun A. Oketch, Esther N. Kioko,
Published: 26 February 2021
African Invertebrates, Volume 62, pp 273-286; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.62.62963

Abstract:
Three new species of the genus Toxoniella Warui & Jocqué, 2002 of the family Liocranidae Simon, 1897 are described from Kenya: T. tharaka Oketch & Li, sp. nov., T. waruii Oketch & Li, sp. nov., and T. nyeri Oketch & Li, sp. nov. Types are deposited in the National Museums of Kenya (NMK), Nairobi, Kenya.
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