ISSN / EISSN : 2152-7180 / 2152-7199
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 1,964
Latest articles in this journal
Psychology, Volume 13, pp 566-573; https://doi.org/10.4236/psych.2022.134038
Background: Self-harm behavior cases increase which involved young adults population. Emotional lability and inability to cope with stressors lead to feeling hopeless and induce self-harm behavior. Emotion expression and spirituality aspects can evaluate as part of mental health concerns. Purpose: To analyze self-harm behavior, emotional expression, and aspects of spirituality towards mental health in undergraduate students which represent young adults population. Methods: This research was conducted at Psychiatric Unit of Universitas Brawijaya Hospital during March-August 2020. Subject study was from undergraduate students (18 - 24 years old). Evaluation with anamnesis technique was followed by psychometric evaluation using MCMI-IV, NSSI-AT, PANAS, and Spirituality. Statistical analysis was with JASP version 0.14.1. Results: Psychiatric examination of 150 participants revealed that most diagnoses were depressive disorders, 31% and 69% had borderline personality disorder. This research had significance of self-harmed behavior (p = 0.015); suicidal behavior (p p = 0.003); emotional expression (p = 0.007) to psychiatric diagnosis. There was no significance about spiritual towards psychiatric condition p = 0.062. Conclusions: Self-harm behavior leads to psychiatric problem and or personality disorders which can disturb mental health conditions that arise from young adult age. Focus on therapeutic effort no longer leads to curative aspects but emphasizes prevention, so starting from recognizing sign symptoms and education became urgent.
Psychology, Volume 13, pp 233-253; https://doi.org/10.4236/psych.2022.132013
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is one of the major tragedies for humanity since World War II because of its global threat both to global health and to the socio-economic basis of the entire world. There are investigations about protective and straining factors as well as about coping mechanisms, but little was investigated about changes in attitudes or value-based behaviour. Objective: The aim of this investigation was to assess the impact of lockdown expressing the new threat due to pandemics on life attitudes and on reflecting dimensions about the real finiteness of life. Method: This prospective, naturalistic, and comparative study began in November 2019 with the aim to examine the life attitudes and the pattern of confrontation with the death of young and middle-aged adults in the general population. At the time point of lockdown in Germany (March 23, 2020), participants were in addition assessed about the impact by pandemics on value-based responses. Participants (N = 302, n1 = 116 before, n2 = 186 during lockdown) were compared by means of Life Attitude Profile (LAP-R) and Anticipatory Farewell to Existence Questionnaire (AFEQT). Comparisons were computed by means of bivariate, multivariate and multinomial models. Results: Subsample during lockdown is older, besides no differences in socio-demographic, health and personality profiles. During lockdown, sample shows higher scores in LAP-R for the dimensions “death acceptance” and “goal-seeking”; in AFEQT for “metaphysical rise” and “altruistic preoccupation”. The higher “death acceptance” “charity” “fulfilment of existence” and “self-efficacy”, the less likely a person is to report that a pandemic influences her or his appraisal of value-based questions. Conclusions: These results indicate that lockdown conditions following the COVID pandemic have led to more intensive awareness about the mortal condition and the focus on relevant others. The question that arises is whether pandemics could urge people to reappraise the existential purposes and priorities, and independently of personality traits.
Psychology, Volume 13, pp 27-40; https://doi.org/10.4236/psych.2022.131002
The study aims to evaluate PEACE’s effectiveness, a program that teaches positive emotions in patients after open-heart surgery. The sample consists of 15 patients (9 in the intervention group, 6 in the control group) aged 45 to 75. The results indicated a statistically significant improvement in anxiety, depression, negative affect and life satisfaction in the intervention group. However, there were no differences for stress and positive emotions in post measures. The control group had no statistically significant changes. Also, the intervention group was superior to the control group in the post-measurements on all the variables, except for the positive emotions. Health and mental health professionals should attend PEACE (Positive Emotions after Acute Cardiac Events) training in order to offer overall caring to patients suffering from cardiac problems.
Psychology, Volume 13, pp 254-263; https://doi.org/10.4236/psych.2022.132014
The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between the concept of creativity and its practical application in relation to the historical figure of Ludwig II of Bavaria. The analysis took into consideration the monarch’s construction of Bavarian castles in terms of both their building and their landscaping. This work demonstrates that the construction of the castles was a product of the monarch’s imagination and creative genius. It also shows that Ludwig’s historical events anticipate the fragilities, weaknesses, obsessions and anxieties of the modern man. In order to make the article complete and exhaustive, it was decided to make a comparison between the historical figure of Ludwig and the artistic and cinematographic interpretation proposed by Visconti in the film of the same title. Our objective is to make some psychological considerations about the historical Ludwig as well as Visconti’s Ludwig.
Psychology, Volume 13, pp 404-412; https://doi.org/10.4236/psych.2022.133026
This study explores the concept of the optimal psychological state as a field of positive psychology. It aimed to demonstrate the influence of a mental preparation program to optimize mental state during competition. Statistic suggests that relaxation help athletes in controlling the cardiac frequency and, therefore, better control competitive anxiety. Results indicate that the placement of athletes in optimal conditions before the competition favors the appearance of an optimal psychological state. This research confirms that the study of optimal psychological conditions for performance stays an essential orientation for sports psychology.
Psychology, Volume 13, pp 388-403; https://doi.org/10.4236/psych.2022.133025
There is a multiplicity of difficulties when faced with decisions about ways to support children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (Baker, 2008). This article highlights the use of the Griffiths Scales of Child Development, 3rd Edition (Griffiths III), a normed developmental measure, as well as the Conners 3: Parent and Teacher Survey—Long Form, to assist with the decision of whether to use medication to assist a 5-year-old girl with ADHD. The Griffiths III indicated a developmental delay on all five domains measured, warranting the need for therapeutic interventions. The information gleaned from the measures was used to assist with the decision to use stimulant medication to support this young child. This case illustrates the use of the Planning, Arousal, Simultaneous and Successive (PASS) model of cognitive processing and showed how this model might assist in understanding the difficulties experienced to guide interventions in her specific context.
Psychology, Volume 13, pp 482-513; https://doi.org/10.4236/psych.2022.134033
Empathy is essential in story comprehension as it requires understanding of the emotions and intentions of the characters. We evaluated the sensitivity of an emotional perspective-taking task using Aesop’s Fables in relation to empathy. Participants (N = 301) were presented with 15 short fables and were asked to rate the intensity of the emotions they would feel (anger, sadness, disgust, fear, surprise, joy, trust, and anticipation) by adopting the perspective of one of the characters (offender, victim) or the observer’s perspective. A data-driven approach revealed that participants’ responses were aligned with the characters’ intentions, suggesting successful emotional perspective-taking. Participants sympathized with the victim rather than the offender, demonstrating affective sharing processes. Further, participants with higher empathy scores exhibited stronger negative emotions from the victim’s perspective, independently of their level of distress. Our task was not influenced by gender effects. We suggest that the Aesop’s Fables task could provide an indirect instrument to study empathy.
Psychology, Volume 13, pp 413-419; https://doi.org/10.4236/psych.2022.133027
The purpose of the systematic review at hand is to study the connection between the personality traits of the Big Five personality theory, in correlation to organizational commitment. As a first step, we will focus on the theoretical background of the notion providing specific information from the literature. We will then, continue with describing the methodology that researchers have followed to study the analogies, and finally we will discuss our findings and we will try to interpret by posing recommendations for applications and further future research.
Psychology, Volume 13, pp 454-467; https://doi.org/10.4236/psych.2022.133031
Background: In Nigeria, alexithymia, “no words for feelings” is understudied and under-assessed despite its significance in physical and psychological health outcomes. This study attempts the development of a standardised alexithymia scale. Methodology: The development of this scale is in two phases: the first phase is the development and refinement of screening tool items and the second phase establishes the scale’s psychometric properties. Results: The observed KMO measure of sampling adequacy is .59 with a significant Bartlett’s test of sphericity (X2 = 1022.608, df = 561, p = .000). The test of the principal components indicated twelve components extracted. Based on Principal Component Analysis, only 12 items in one component were found significant and retained as part of the final scale. The item-total statistics and Cronbach coefficient (α) of .79, a Spearman-Brown coefficient of .80, and Guttman Split-Half coefficient of .79 of the tool indicate that all items have good discrimination and should be retained. The internal consistency of RUN-PDST among the Nigerian sample revealed that the screening tool is reliable. Paired with TAS-20, RUNAS has good concurrent validity. Conclusion: RUNAS has appropriate psychometric properties for assessing alexithymia in Nigeria and similar cultural contexts.
Psychology, Volume 13, pp 361-374; https://doi.org/10.4236/psych.2022.133023
A cross-sectional survey design was adopted to validate the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) on Nigerian university undergraduates. A multistage sampling technique was used to purposively select 1338 (mean age ± SD 19.86 ± 2.95) participants made up of 512 (38.3%) male, and 826 (61.7%) were female. Participants were drawn from four selected universities in Osun state, southwestern Nigeria. Participants responded to the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, and the Structured Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress (SIDES) Affect Dysregulation Scale. Observed internal consistency of DERS showed a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of .90, a Spearman-Brown coefficient of .80 and Guttman Split-Half coefficient of .80. The items that measure awareness of emotion had a weak corrected item-total correlation and did not discriminate well. A significant positive correlation was observed between DERS and SIDES, revealing a correlation coefficient validity score of (r = .622, p = .000). The DERS has acceptable psychometric properties for the Nigerian population. Observed gender-based norms were ≥113.15 and ≥114.07 for male and female respectively. DERS is found to be gender-sensitive. A re-work or expunging of the items measuring awareness to fit with the construct of emotional regulation was recommended.