Latest articles in this journal
Psychology, Volume 12, pp 59-67; doi:10.4236/psych.2021.121004
This study examined the impact of demographic factors on the psychosocial challenges of adolescents in Lagos state and putting into consideration their implications for counselling. Three research hypotheses were made to guide the study. The sample consisted of one hundred (100) senior secondary school students selected from Badagry local government area of Lagos state. A 40 item self-developed questionnaire was designed for data collection. The study adopted a descriptive design to seek information from the respondents. Analysis of data was achieved using the descriptive statistics and Analysis of Variance at the level of significance of 0.05. The result of the findings showed that there is a significant effect of demographic factors on the psychosocial challenges of adolescents. Based on the findings, conclusions were made and some implications for counselling were also made.
Psychology, Volume 12, pp 68-83; doi:10.4236/psych.2021.121005
Self-esteem (SE) is one of the most widely studied constructs within the social sciences. While a variety of instruments and methods have been developed to assess SE, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) remains the most extensively used scale worldwide to evaluate SE. Although the RSES has been validated and utilized in numerous settings around the world, and despite its brevity and general ease of administration, it has only been used in a remarkably few settings in Africa. Moreover, to date, it has not been used to explore SE in any country within Northeast Africa. The present study, focusing on Eritrea, a young, developing country, examines the psychometric properties of a translated version of the RSES. The translated RSES was administered to a sample of young Eritreans. Results from the self-report questionnaires show that the translated RSES has a single factor structure, as well as demonstrates high internal consistency and reliability. Additionally, findings suggest that Eritrean youth generally have high SE, while one-way ANOVA results reveal a statistically significant difference in SE between male and female respondents. Specifically, male respondents had higher scores, and higher SE compared to female respondents. The translated RSES is a reliable and valid scale that is suitable and appropriate for use with young Eritreans.
Psychology, Volume 12, pp 86-106; doi:10.4236/psych.2021.121006
Background: Occupational therapists (OT) practitioners are at risk of burnout given the complexity of the practice environment and the demands of the workload. Studies suggest that recognizing the symptoms of burnout and developing personal resilience as a preventive mechanism can help reduce the impact of or even prevent burnout. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate psychological resilience and burnout in OTs and determine if psychological resilience can affect occupational burnout levels. Methods: 345 Occupational therapists (practitioners) from all over Greece (and Cyprus) participated in this study, and the tools used were the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) for the measurement of psychological resilience and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) for the levels of Occupational Burnout. This survey was conducted in relation to specific demographic characteristics such as age, gender and years, location, work contexts, etc. Results: The results showed that 50% of the participants had no psychological resilience while 50% showed moderately high and high levels of burnout, and also showed that regardless of demographics, psychological resilience is not a statistically significant factor in dealing with Occupational Burnout. Conclusions: About one in two Occupational therapists (OTs), regardless of age, gender or professional experience, shows burnout, and measures need to be taken by the relevant health structures to prevent and treat the phenomenon before it leads to serious consequences. The study shows the multifactorial and complex nature of burnout and psychological resilience. More multidimensional approaches are needed so as to suggest the corresponding effective interventions. It is suggested that recognition of burnout symptoms and coping strategies be included in the core curriculum along with strategies for strengthening psychological resilience, although it does not seem to be statistically significant to burnout, as it constitutes a psychoprophylactic factor for overall mental health and a great percentage of OTs does not have it.
Psychology, Volume 12, pp 107-119; doi:10.4236/psych.2021.121007
Purpose: This article presents national survey data related to the mental health of participants (N = 13,824) from every province in the People’s Republic of China, in the period of early February, during the early days of the outbreak of the COVID-19 virus. The goal was to examine stress and anxiety levels, even as the virus was spreading across the country. This goal was facilitated by data collected specifically from Wuhan city, which was the geographical epicenter of the outbreak, Hubei, the province in which Wuhan is located, and the rest of China. Methods: The survey included a series of validated measures of mental health, as well as measured constructs such as stress and anxiety, depression, sleep, workplace wellness and social cohesion. To the extent possible, the measures had been previously validated in China and were available in Simplified Chinese, although some measures were created for the unique characteristics of the viral outbreak. The survey was distributed electronically through a network of researchers. Results: The measures were generally reliable, with expected inter-correlations. The factor structure of the Symptom Checklist-90 items was generally consistent with its conceptual dimensions. Mostly importantly, the study revealed a gradient of mental health outcomes, with participants from the city of Wuhan having the highest scores on most mental health measures, with the great Hubei province similar or slightly lower, and the rest of China having elevated, but lower scores on most outcomes. Sleep disturbance also revealed a similar gradient, with participants in the epicenter reporting the most sleep disturbance. Discussion: These results reveal the ability to capture the mental health of citizens during a viral outbreak, and the sensitivity of measures to the mental challenges such an outbreak brings. The gradient of responses revealed the spreading effect of the COVID-19 outbreak, and suggests that worse mental health is highly likely to be an outcome as a pandemic spreads. These results suggest that health officials need to attend to not only the physical and direct effects of a viral pandemic, but also to the importance of the mental health of their citizens.
Psychology, Volume 12, pp 181-204; doi:10.4236/psych.2021.122012
Preschool-age children with a low auditory-verbal cognitive profile may be predisposed to develop subsequent learning difficulties. This study, through the use of early diagnostic procedures and a special intervention program, attempts to “balance” these discrepancies. More specifically, aim of the present study is to implement an intervention programme in children being “at risk” for learning difficulties. For the purpose of the present study, the DTLA-2 test was used to assess 420 preschool children aged between 6.0 and 6.4 years. During pretesting, the 420 children were divided into 4 groups according to their cognitive profiles based on the DTLA-2 test assessment. Of the total sample, 40 children according to their low performances in all cognitive verbal and non-verbal sub-tests of DTLA-2 were selected for the final construction of the experimental group (11 boys and 9 girls) and its control group (10 boys and 10 girls). The intervention procedure lasted 3 months and the children attended approximately 20 sessions (20 - 25 minutes each), either individually or in a small group of two or three children. In the three-month follow-up (post-test), a better balance in their cognitive profile was achieved compared to the control group. In a one year follow-up, similar results were detected. More specifically, the differences between the verbal and non-verbal scales of the DTLA-2 test remained significant in the control group, whereas, in the experimental group, no significant differences were detected between the two scales, thus revealing the positive results of intervention, as regards preschool children’s “at risk” specific cognitive profile. These results underline the importance of early diagnosis and appropriate intervention in children with specific cognitive profiles, who are “at risk” for developing subsequent learning difficulties.
Psychology, Volume 12, pp 223-235; doi:10.4236/psych.2021.122014
This research paper aims to demonstrate the effect of the blue color on children with neurodevelopmental conditions in particular, in order to improve their specifications. We have shown from previous studies the positive effect of blue color on such participants. So, we tried to confirm this result in this paper. The study included 40 participants with different neurodevelopmental conditions. We exposed the participants to the blue color. Exposing ranged from 3 hours per week for six months to 25 hours per week for the same period. Intelligence tests were administered for each participant, before starting and six months after the first test. The study showed that exposure to blue color led to an increase in the average percentage of participants’ intelligence quotient (IQ). The increase doubled with increasing exposure time to blue color. It is expected that the difference in the effect will appear through the intelligence tests which were applied to different participants of children with neurodevelopmental conditions.
Psychology, Volume 12, pp 285-292; doi:10.4236/psych.2021.122018
Exposure to violence and aggression in the workplace in general and in school in particular has been associated with teacher attrition. However, the underlying processes accounting for this association have not been systematically investigated. This study proposed a mediation model accounting for the above association through the involvement of stress. One hundred and eighty-eight teachers from schools all over northern Israel (92% women; mean age = 43.64; sd = 9.58) filled out measures of exposure to aggression (physical and verbal), demographics, a stress questionnaire, and a brief questionnaire assessing intentions to leave the teaching profession. Path analysis supported a mediation model in which stress levels mediated the association between exposure to physical aggression, followed by exposure to verbal aggression and age and intentions to leave teaching. The results are discussed in light of the existing empirical evidence and theory.
Psychology, Volume 12, pp 304-319; doi:10.4236/psych.2021.122010
Teacher emotional mistreatment, which includes both verbal and nonverbal abusive behaviors, is a widespread and harmful experience for school students. However, its long-term emotional impacts remain relatively unexplored. This study explored the mediating role of emotional intelligence (EI) on the association between teacher’s emotional mistreatment towards school children and the long-term emotional impact on the students. A total of 377 Israeli Arab students in different stages of their university training completed the Psychological Maltreatment Subscale Questionnaire on teacher’s mistreatment while they were in school, and the Wong and Law EI Scale. The long-term emotional impact was measured using a tool developed especially for the study. Results revealed that 31% of the participants reported being mistreated by teachers at least once. The most reported long-term emotional impacts were feeling defensive, feeling a constant need to prove their worth, and fearing not to be perceived as lazy. Teacher mistreatment had significant long-term emotional impacts and was negatively correlated with EI. EI further acted as a significant mediator in the links between teacher mistreatment and its long-term emotional impact, with an indirect effect of .03. Raising awareness among teachers as to possible long-term emotional effects of abusive behaviors may help decrease mistreatment in the future. Determining the long-term impact of emotional mistreatment on social-emotional skills can help explain and prevent various types of negative outcomes in those students at a later stage in life.
Psychology, Volume 12, pp 161-180; doi:10.4236/psych.2021.122011
Objective: Deficits in memory and learning skills are frequently reported following traumatic brain injury (TBI). The goal of the present focused review is to present memory studies of moderate-to-severe TBI that found, within the same sample, that one memory component is preserved, while another is impaired, demonstrating a dissociation. By reviewing these studies, we would like to claim that the breakdown of memory processes following TBI could unmask underlying sub-processes and components that seem inseparable in intact memory. Methods: The search criterion for this focused review was studies of memory functions following TBI (mostly moderate-severe) that reported on dissociations of various memory processes within the same sample, so that one process was impaired while another was preserved. Results: We found studies that adhered to the search criterion in several domains of memory: Working memory, episodic memory, verbal learning, priming, contextual memory and visual search. Conclusions: Characterization of the memory breakdown following TBI could contribute not only to the assessment and rehabilitation of this population but also to our understanding of the composition of intact memory system. These studies, although presenting a single dissociation, can still contribute to the validation of several dissociations introduced in the memory literature.
Psychology, Volume 12, pp 321-326; doi:10.4236/psych.2021.123021
Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR) describes a tingly physical response triggered by specific visual and auditory stimuli such as whispering, personal attention, crisp sounds and slow movements. Some investigations find that ASMR is associated with specific personality traits such as openness. There also exist individual differences in functional neural connectivity across individuals who do and do not experience ASMR. The similarity and high correlation between ASMR and frisson and misophonia allow us to guess the possible formation mechanism of ASMR from the perspective of those two. The high correlation with mindfulness reveals the potential for assisting psychotherapy.