Psychology

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2152-7180 / 2152-7199
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 1,876
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Claudia Henschel De Lima
Published: 1 January 2021
Psychology, Volume 12, pp 1259-1276; https://doi.org/10.4236/psych.2021.128079

Abstract:
The article presents my research in psychoanalytic psychopathology on the psychic etiology of psychosis, carried out between 2012 and 2020 at Universidade Federal Fluminense (Volta Redonda, Brazil). In Brazil, patients with various mental disorders rely on the Brazilian Unified Health System which aimed at treatment and psychosocial rehabilitation services. These services are called Psychosocial Care Centers (CAPS). There is an innovation in mental health treatment because they replace the treatment model for mental disorders directed only at hospital admissions. The clinical treatment of mental disorders in CAPS is organized into unique therapeutic projects. It is characterized by a multidisciplinary team in an open, non-hospital environment, close to the patient’s place of residence. Since 1996, the SUS-Brazil diagnostic guidelines are used to conduct epidemiological studies, formulate public policies on mental health, and establish its funding for the mental health network. These manuals ignore the presence of etiological factors of a psychological nature and exclude the theoretical framework in the definition of disorders. The absence of consideration of etiological factors and the exclusion of theoretical frameworks is evident in the way the DSM-5 defines the spectrum of schizophrenia, resulting in the predominance of schizophrenia in the clarification of psychotic disorders and, consequently, in the weakening of the classic category of psychosis. My research aims to contribute to psychosis by examining the role of delusion in the onset of psychosis, triggering events, and stabilizing the psychotic structure. This article aims to present the hypothesis of the psychic etiology of psychosis from the contributions of Sigmund Freud. This theorizing is significant as it introduces the hypothesis of loss, restitution, and recovery into the psychiatric lexicon of the opposition between schizophrenia and paranoia. To this end, this article exhibits a survey of Freudian references to emphasize the construction of an original theory of psychosis, where: 1) The consideration of the functioning of drives is relevant in isolating psychic etiology from its triggers; 2) A redefinition of the concept of delusion signals the originality of the Freudian theory of the stabilization of psychoses: delusion is defined as a psychic effort of recovery, an attempt at reaching a cure.
Yaran Zhou
Published: 1 January 2021
Psychology, Volume 12, pp 554-566; https://doi.org/10.4236/psych.2021.124034

Abstract:
Objectives: To analyze the factors that affect the life satisfaction of employees and to explore the mechanism of recovery experience affecting life satisfaction. Methods: The study uses the questionnaire survey to conduct convenient sampling surveys. Sonnentag and Fritz’s Recovery Experience Scale, Work-Family Gain Scale developed by Carlson et al. and Life Satisfaction Scale developed by Diener et al. were used to survey 500 employees in Wuhan. Results: Regression analysis revealed that recovery experience positively influenced life satisfaction. Direct effect of recovery experience on life satisfaction is 0.646 (p 0.01). Mediation analysis found that recovery experience influenced life satisfaction through work-family enrichment. Indirect effect of recovery experience on life satisfaction is 0.213 (p 0.001). Conclusions: 1) Employees’ recovery experience positively predicted life satisfaction; 2) Work-family enrichment mediated the relationship between recovery experience and life satisfaction. Our results show both limitations and intriguing directions for future research.
Patrick Bickersteth, Samer J. Rudwan, Mahnaz Shojaee, Tahereh Firoozi
Published: 1 January 2021
Psychology, Volume 12, pp 1341-1363; https://doi.org/10.4236/psych.2021.129084

Abstract:
Our replication study embarked on in the Middle East, used an Arabic translation of the original research tool, the Safety-Oriented Personality Style or Phobicentric Psychopathology Individual Questionnaire (SOPS/PCPIQ) that was employed in the North American study, which could identify adults with more serious chronic anxiety. SOPS/PCP, described as dimensional and neurobiologically-based is the hypothesized construct from which SOPS/PCPIQ is derived. SOPS/PCP, a brand-new formulation, arose serendipitously from clinical observations and followed in the new tradition of attempting to avoid characterizing personality disorder in the categorical and non-theoretical style of the previously influential Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The present study is intended to produce results that confirm that SOPS/PCP may be experienced outside North America. The results supported the hypotheses that the Arabic version of the SOPS/PCPIQ would demonstrate adequate reliability and validity. They further showed that individuals with a history of trauma exposure scored significantly higher than the other subjects. As such, the similar results from this Arabic study to those from Canada and the United States showed that this cross-national study successfully replicated the original North American findings. Discussion addresses the potential role of this study’s psychopathology to provide meaningful contribution to the recognition and reduction of global anxiety disorder and help change the current direction of personality disorder research.
Apeksha Srivastava, Frederick L. Coolidge
Published: 1 January 2021
Psychology, Volume 12, pp 1217-1229; https://doi.org/10.4236/psych.2021.128076

Abstract:
Background: We examined the presence of five maladaptive personality trait domains and 14 personality disorder traits from DSM-5 with regard to attitudes towards the COVID-19 virus, i.e., whether viewed as a serious threat (COVID-19 Group) or not (Denier/Minimizer Group). Method: 146 undergraduate and graduate students in India participated online to answer the questionnaire. Ages ranged from 18 to 33 years old (100 men, 46 women). Results: Consistent with hypotheses, the COVID-19 Group (n = 66) scored significantly higher on the negative affectivity and detachment trait domains and higher on the avoidant and depressive personality disorder traits than the Denier/Minimizer Group (n = 77). Contrary to hypotheses, the COVID-19 Group scored significantly higher on the disinhibition trait domain and Borderline personality disorder scale. Importantly, 20.3% of the COVID-19 Group endorsed the current suicidal ideation item compared to only 11.7% of the Denier/Minimizer Group. While a greater percentage of the COVID-19 Group adhered to the pandemic precautions, a majority of participants in both groups were compliant with social distancing, handwashing/sanitizing, and face-masking. Conclusion: Gaining an understanding of these personality variations might assist in establishing efficient public health actions to mitigate health threats.
Stefania Mihaela Hagiescu
Published: 1 January 2021
Psychology, Volume 12, pp 1287-1305; https://doi.org/10.4236/psych.2021.128081

Abstract:
A Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is an injury to the brain caused by an external force (vehicle, accidents, violence, sports injuries, industrial accidents, falls). Brain trauma can occur either from an object penetrating the skull or from rapid acceleration (speeding up), or deceleration (slowing down or stopping suddenly) of the brain. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a major cause of mortality and disability, especially in children and young adults. Based on the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), the neurological scale used to measure a person’s level of consciousness after a brain injury, traumatic brain injury is classified as: mild (GCS 13 - 15), moderate (GCS 9 - 12), severe (GCS 8 or less), and evaluates the following functions: Eye Opening (E), Motor Response (M), and Verbal Response (V), to determine a patient’s overall GCS, add together the scores from eye opening, motor response and verbal response. Scores range from 3 to 15. A score of 8 or less signifies coma. Symptoms can vary depending on the severity of the head injury. An individual with a mild traumatic brain injury can remain conscious, or may experience a loss of consciousness for a few seconds or minutes. Other symptoms may include headache, confusion, dizziness, vision changes, ringing in the ears or changes in hearing, fatigue or lethargy, a change in sleep patterns, behavioral or mood changes, and cognitive and/or executive functioning problems. People with a moderate or severe traumatic brain injury may show the same symptoms, but may also have a headache that gets worse, repeated vomiting or nausea, convulsions or seizures, an inability to awaken from sleep, dilation of one or both pupils of the eyes, slurred speech, weakness or numbness in the extremities, loss of coordination, and increased confusion, restlessness, or agitation. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder secondary to Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is one of the most common neurobehavioral consequences of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), occurring in 20% to 50% of individual’s post-injury (Irastorza, 2011). Some of the most persistent problems include impairment in memory, attention and concentration, language, executive skills, social judgment, social behavior, and impulsiveness. Previous studies have shown that Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a major cause of mental health problems and increases the risk of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (Schachar et al., 2015). According to studies (Ilie et al., 2015), physical brain injury contributes to the development of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Because the risk of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder development after Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) remains high over an extended period, and some of the most persistent problems include impairment in memory, attention and concentration, language, executive skills, social judgment, social behavior, and impulsiveness; this master thesis shows the importance of an early prompt intervention after brain injury, and the need to establish a therapeutic plan in order to treat the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder development and evolution. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the association between Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and also to show the importance of prompt intervention and preventive therapy in order to stop the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder development and evolution.
Charlotte Harding, Ameera Iqbal, Miranda Budd, Heidi Tranter, Sophie Francis, Andra Chiscop, Clare Baguley, Umesh Chauhan, Mark Spencer, Gita Bhutani, et al.
Published: 1 January 2021
Psychology, Volume 12, pp 1306-1324; https://doi.org/10.4236/psych.2021.128082

Abstract:
The Covid-19 pandemic has had a negative impact upon individual’s psychological wellbeing. This case study series aimed to use a mental health prevention and promotion approach to promote positive emotional wellbeing and prevent deterioration of mental health difficulties in individuals who have had Covid-19. 573 individuals, who had recently tested positive for Covid-19, registered across two General Practices (GP), were initially screened, and 409 were contacted and offered psychological support. 9.1% accepted the offer at first but only 3.2% started the sessions. Psychometrics was used within the first and last session but also at a 6-week follow up to measure wellbeing, resiliency, low mood and anxiety. Experience of service questionnaires was also taken. Scores for wellbeing and resiliency increased at a statistically significant level. Scores for anxiety and low mood decreased at a statistically significant level, this was maintained at follow up. Qualitative feedback was positive. This service supports previous findings that mental health prevention and promotion interventions are effective. However, it is important to be mindful that given only 12 individuals finalized the sessions, the power of statistical findings are reduced. Nonetheless, this service is reasonably effective for people with a recent, positive Covid-19 test. Service scope should widen to include those who have struggled with the effects of the pandemic and not just those who received a positive diagnosis.
Ioannis D. Morres, Evlalia Touloudi, Antonis Hatzigeorgiadis, Athanasios Z. Jamurtas, Odysseas Androutsos, Yannis Theodorakis
Published: 1 January 2021
Psychology, Volume 12, pp 1277-1286; https://doi.org/10.4236/psych.2021.128080

Abstract:
Purpose: Many diabetic patients experience depression/anxiety and poor Quality of Life (QoL). Daily life Physical Activity (PA) is linked to improved depression/anxiety and QoL across various patients, but relevant studies in diabetic patients are scarce. This preliminary study examined if daily life PA is linked to better depression/anxiety and QoL in patients with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). Methods: A total of 51 adult T2D outpatients (Mean age = 63.31 years; Standard Deviation = 13.88) completed questionnaires for PA, QoL and depression/anxiety. Descriptive and correlation statistics were computed for all variables of interest. Hierarchical regression analysis examined if days of PA at light, moderate or vigorous intensity predict improved depression/anxiety and QoL. Results: The sample was insufficiently active; also, 32% showed poor QoL, and 22% and 30%, respectively, had at least moderate depression or anxiety symptoms. Days of PA at light and moderate but not at vigorous intensity demonstrated small-to-moderate inverse correlations with improved depression/anxiety and QoL. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that, after controlling for age and body mass index, days of PA at light and moderate intensities predicted lower depression and explained 39% of the variance, whereas only days of PA at light intensity predicted lower anxiety and better QoL, explaining, respectively, 30% and 40% of the variance. Discussion: This preliminary study for adults with T2D found that days of light and moderate intensity PA were linked to improved depression, but days of only light intensity PA were linked to improved anxiety and QoL. Findings are encouraging, especially since our sample was insufficiently active. However, larger samples with T2D adults are needed for firmer conclusions.
Leehu Zysberg, Enav Sabbag
Published: 1 January 2021
Psychology, Volume 12, pp 285-292; https://doi.org/10.4236/psych.2021.122018

Abstract:
Exposure to violence and aggression in the workplace in general and in school in particular has been associated with teacher attrition. However, the underlying processes accounting for this association have not been systematically investigated. This study proposed a mediation model accounting for the above association through the involvement of stress. One hundred and eighty-eight teachers from schools all over northern Israel (92% women; mean age = 43.64; sd = 9.58) filled out measures of exposure to aggression (physical and verbal), demographics, a stress questionnaire, and a brief questionnaire assessing intentions to leave the teaching profession. Path analysis supported a mediation model in which stress levels mediated the association between exposure to physical aggression, followed by exposure to verbal aggression and age and intentions to leave teaching. The results are discussed in light of the existing empirical evidence and theory.
Bat Katzman, Niva Dolev, Meni Koslowsky
Published: 1 January 2021
Psychology, Volume 12, pp 304-319; https://doi.org/10.4236/psych.2021.122010

Abstract:
Teacher emotional mistreatment, which includes both verbal and nonverbal abusive behaviors, is a widespread and harmful experience for school students. However, its long-term emotional impacts remain relatively unexplored. This study explored the mediating role of emotional intelligence (EI) on the association between teacher’s emotional mistreatment towards school children and the long-term emotional impact on the students. A total of 377 Israeli Arab students in different stages of their university training completed the Psychological Maltreatment Subscale Questionnaire on teacher’s mistreatment while they were in school, and the Wong and Law EI Scale. The long-term emotional impact was measured using a tool developed especially for the study. Results revealed that 31% of the participants reported being mistreated by teachers at least once. The most reported long-term emotional impacts were feeling defensive, feeling a constant need to prove their worth, and fearing not to be perceived as lazy. Teacher mistreatment had significant long-term emotional impacts and was negatively correlated with EI. EI further acted as a significant mediator in the links between teacher mistreatment and its long-term emotional impact, with an indirect effect of .03. Raising awareness among teachers as to possible long-term emotional effects of abusive behaviors may help decrease mistreatment in the future. Determining the long-term impact of emotional mistreatment on social-emotional skills can help explain and prevent various types of negative outcomes in those students at a later stage in life.
Qiurong Liang
Published: 1 January 2021
Psychology, Volume 12, pp 580-594; https://doi.org/10.4236/psych.2021.124036

Abstract:
In the era of the Internet, telecommuting, virtual office and other work modes are increasingly popular. Telecommuting and other working modes give employees more freedom and flexibility in work, which reduces the direct monitoring from the outside. The complex network information will also bring interference and task interruption. At this time, how to maintain the focus on the task and self-motivation becomes particularly important. Grit refers to the perseverance and passion for long-term goals. As a variable of self-driven orientation and future perspective, it is a psychological resource to boost the realization of goals. Firstly this paper analyzes the concept, variable differentiation and measurement of grit. Secondly, the positive influence of grit on the realization of goals is discussed. Finally, this paper discusses the practical significance and future research prospects.
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