ISSN / EISSN : 21527180 / 21527199
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 1,736
Latest articles in this journal
Psychology, Volume 11, pp 87-104; doi:10.4236/psych.2020.111007
This study aims at describing what happiness, life satisfaction, and flourishing mean for the respondents and did the previously generated associations influence the self-reported levels of well-being. The design of the study is cross-sectional, qualitative and quantitative. The sample comprises 351 volunteers aged 20 - 55, divided into two groups. Both groups have been administered happiness and life satisfaction scales and PERMA profiler. One of the groups simply replied to the self-reported scales, while the volunteers from the second group have been asked to generate free associations of words/ expressions they relate to the happiness, life satisfaction, and flourishing prior to reply to the self-report scales. The results reveal that the free generated associations for happiness, life satisfaction, and flourishing, have common, however different meaning. Happiness turns out to be linked mostly with intrinsic predictors, e.g. love, balance and harmony, whereas life satisfaction comprises extrinsic (self-realization, success) and intrinsic factors (close people, positive emotions). Flourishing is most of all explained by similar concepts (happiness, life satisfaction) and also relates both to extrinsic and intrinsic domains (career, satisfaction; love, and joy). Previously generated associations have no effect on the reported experienced happiness and life satisfaction and have partial effect on the flourishing scales. The positive emotions and relations are not influenced; however self-reflection is related to the cognitive variables. When respondents have first thought about what flourishing means for them, they give lower scores for accomplishment, engagement and life meaning. This suggests that well-being is related to different intrinsic and extrinsic predictors that follow different pathways and this is one of the keys for promotion of flourishing.
Psychology, Volume 11, pp 1-12; doi:10.4236/psych.2020.111001
In this study, we examined the factor composition of negative impressions of city office staff among 104 male and female university and graduate students with previous experience dealing with city offices, and the personal traits associated with these negative impressions. The results suggested that negative impressions of city office staff were composed of four factors: “lack of reliability in emotional terms”, “lack of reliability in instrumental terms”, “lack of tangibles”, and “lack of empathy.” Among these, only “lack of reliability in instrumental terms” was associated with “extraversion” from the Big Five personality traits and “empathic concern” from the Interpersonal Reactivity Index.
Psychology, Volume 11, pp 13-29; doi:10.4236/psych.2020.111002
This pilot study aimed to design a Positive Psychology programme for depression, anxiety or stress and test its effectiveness among Greek Psychology students. Twenty-six participants with severe or very severe symptoms of depression, anxiety or stress were assigned to the intervention and control groups. Participants in the intervention group attended six weekly sessions of the Be Your Best You Programme. All participants completed self-report questionnaires (Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale) when the programme started and on the completion of the six-week intervention programme. The results indicated significant decreases in depression, anxiety, stress, and negative emotions, as well as increases in satisfaction with life among the people who attended the programme. Our findings suggest that a programme consisted of evidence-based Positive Psychology interventions could be offered to people suffering from depression, anxiety or stress to managing their difficulties. Further studies are required in this field to establish Positive Psychology intervention as a treatment of choice.
Psychology, Volume 11, pp 30-48; doi:10.4236/psych.2020.111003
This article aims to present a model of psycho-educational intervention which helps adolescents with physical, motor deficiencies (PMD)1 to inte-grate more effectively into the school and social group. It also analyses the results of a psychological experiment realized with adolescents with PMD, using role playing method, body techniques and cathartic methods (drawing) aiming for optimization, personal development and improvement of resilience and rehabilitation of these teens. The research approach is inte-grated in the general trend of positive psychology, which focuses on culti-vating individual skills and inclinations. It is also proposed a new method of working with teenagers with PMD: the intervention through art in school, which has proved to be beneficial in overcoming states of stress, nervousness or frustration. The experimental analysis is connected with a comprehensive project on teenagers with PMD, conducted by the Rusu, M. in previous years2.
Psychology, Volume 11, pp 49-53; doi:10.4236/psych.2020.111004
With the development of The Times, the changes that the objects, forms and contents of mental health education in universities have been witnessed each passing day. Keeping pace with The Times and improve working forms and methods to adapt to these changes is a must, which deals with the emerging problems of mental health that college students have been confronted. Meanwhile, we should renew our ideas and try to develop college students’ mental health education with various methods. Positive psychology focuses on people’s positive cognitive processing, positive emotional experience and positive attitudes towards society, and emphasizes the important role of positive psychological qualities such as optimism, hope, happiness, social responsibility and altruistic behavior. This paper mainly analyzes the problems in the mental health education of college students from the perspective of positive psychology, and puts forward scientific and effective suggestions on the adjustment of mental health education of college students.
Psychology, Volume 11, pp 204-216; doi:10.4236/psych.2020.111014
The aim of this study was to explore personality correlates of those who frequently change, as opposed to remain for longer periods, in their jobs. Over 6000 adult managers (Mean Age 43.83 years) attending an assessment centre completed a battery of tests including a normal, “bright side” personality trait measure (NEO-PI-R); a “dark side”, sub-clinical personality disorders measure (HDS). They also recorded how many jobs they had held over their life-time (Mean 7.01). Correlational analyses showed those who had more jobs were strongly associated with age as well as low Neuroticism, high Extraversion, and Conscientiousness, as well as being Cautious, Dutiful, Mischievous and Imaginative. Regressions showed the higher-order, “dark side” factor “Moving Against Others” was associated with more job changes. There appears to be no other studies in this area either by differential and social psychologists or sociologists. Limitations of this essentially pilot study are noted.
Psychology, Volume 11, pp 137-145; doi:10.4236/psych.2020.111009
Executive functions have been described as the “brain of the brain” and to include a variety of processes, including, but not limited to, abstraction, formulation of intentions, reasoning, formulation of strategies, monitoring their success, working memory, and the self-regulation of behavior. Executive functions have been determined to be associated with the integrity of the frontal lobes. On the other hand, intelligence has also been described in similar terms, and the concept of general intelligence, or the g factor has also been associated with the frontal lobes. As constructs, intelligence and executive functions have been also described as “overlapping” in many features, while maintaining a certain degree of conceptual independence. The purpose of this study was to compare the intellectual functioning of a sample of patients with mild traumatic brain injury, obtained by means of the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS), with their performance in a number of neuropsychological measures of executive functions, such as the Halstead Category Test (HCT), the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), the Stroop Word and Color Test (SWCT), and the Trail Making Test (TMT). Pearson Product Moment Correlations were obtained between the various measures of the RIAS and the measures of executive functions (HCT, WCST, SWCT, TMT). Whereas the magnitudes of the correlations were within the moderate range, intelligence, particularly non-verbal intelligence and working memory were noted to be significantly correlated with the measures of executive functions. The conclusion was reached that intelligence and executive functions are related to each other as constructs, but yet maintain a certain degree of independence.
Psychology, Volume 11, pp 146-156; doi:10.4236/psych.2020.111010
Recent history shows that conceptual issues can undertake potent mobilization in concrete actions of everyday life, as was the case of the debate in Brazil on “expanded concept of health” in the 1980s. It is possible to claim that discussion’s ethical-political aspects had implications for the process that led to the constitution, and implementation of the Sistema único de Saúde—SUS1 in 1990. Based on such assumptions, I develop a theoretical essay aiming to bring part of the rich conceptual discussions on health and disease accumulated in Brazilian Public Health. In the first two topics, I analyze two classic books, “A doença”2 by Berlinguer (1988) and “O que é saúde?”3 by Almeida-Filho (2011), trying to show the differentiated contribution that such works develop with respect to interpretations and contextualization that “health” and “disease” can be offer—in addittion to the biomedical paradigm. Featured categories are addressed in these works, which allow further dialogue with relevant issues of everyday life. Lastly, I argue that the incorporation of conceptual problematizations can bring important contributions related to practices health care, especially in terms of physical education integration’s in the spheres of public health services.
Psychology, Volume 11, pp 955-965; doi:10.4236/psych.2020.116061
Background: Whereas the majority of studies on temperament are variable-centered, temperament structure has rarely been challenged from a person-centered perspective (i.e., typology of temperament). The purpose of our study is to identify temperamental typology of Japanese toddlers using the EASI survey and a two-step cluster analysis. Methods: Net-survey collected data from 531 mothers and 369 fathers of a 3- or 4-year-old child in Japan. They were distributed the EASI with 4 subscales (Emotionality (E), Activity (A), Sociability (S), and Impulsivity (I)) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Results: A two-step cluster analysis yielded 4 clusters: The first cluster (n = 288) was characterized the highest S and mildly high A and I, and thus interpreted as Average-Active. The second cluster (n = 179) was low in E, A, and I, but mildly high in S, and thus interpreted as Regulated. The third cluster (n = 288) was almost the same level in I and E as the first cluster, but mildly low in A and S, and thus interpreted as Average-Quiet. The fourth cluster (n = 145) was high in E, A, and I, but low in S, and thus interpreted as Sensitive/Hyperreactive. Regulated children scored the lowest in internalizing and externalizing behaviors on the CBCL subscales whereas Sensitive/Hyperreactive children scored the highest on these subscales. Conclusion: We identified four typologies of children’s temperament patterns interpretable as Average-Active, Regulated, Average-Quiet, and Sensitive/Hyper-reactive.
Psychology, Volume 11, pp 936-954; doi:10.4236/psych.2020.116060