Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine

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ISSN / EISSN : 2194-6329 / 1553-3840
Published by: Walter de Gruyter GmbH (10.1515)
Total articles ≅ 930
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Devendra Kumar Mishra, , Dipti Srivastava, Zeeshan Fatima
Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine; https://doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2020-0325

Abstract:
Heavy metals are known to be carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic. Some heavy metals are necessary while present in the growing medium in moderate concentrations known to be essential heavy metals as they required for the body functioning as a nutrient. But there are some unwanted metals and are also toxic to the environment and create a harmful impact on the body, which termed to be non-essential heavy metals. Upon exposure, the heavy metals decrease the major antioxidants of cells and enzymes with the thiol group and affect cell division, proliferation, and apoptosis. It interacts with the DNA repair mechanism and initiates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). It subsequently binds to the mitochondria and may inhibit respiratory and oxidative phosphorylation in even low concentrations. This mechanism leads to damage antioxidant repair mechanism of neuronal cells and turns into neurotoxicity. Now, phytochemicals have led to good practices in the health system. Phytochemicals that are present in the fruits and herbs can preserve upon free radical damage. Thus, this review paper summarized various phytochemicals which can be utilized as a treatment option to reverse the effect of the toxicity caused by the ingestion of heavy metals in our body through various environmental or lifestyles ways.
Bamidele Jonathan Kolawole, Rosemary Ijeoma Ogechi Nwoha, Juwon Pius Erin,
Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine; https://doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2020-0451

Abstract:
Objectives: This study demonstrated the enhancing actions of probiotic on the antitrypanosomal effects of diminazene aceturate in dogs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Methods: Twenty (20) apparently healthy adult local dogs of both sexes were randomly divided into five groups each containing four dogs. Group I were uninfected and untreated while groups III, IV and V were infected. Groups II, III, IV and V were administered multispecies probiotic (MSP) and/or diminazene aceturate (DA). Parasitaemia was determined, clinical signs recorded and blood collected for haematology. Results: Results revealed T. b. brucei prepatent periods of 4.75 ± 0.25, (4–5) days and significant decrease of parasitaemia, clinical signs and mortality in groups IV and V compared to group III. Mortalities of 100% (group III), 25% (group IV) and 0% (group V) were recorded. Mean packed cells volume, haemoglobin concentration and red blood cells count showed no significant difference in groups I, II, and V, but were significantly decreased in groups III and IV post-treatment. Conclusions: The administration of MSP to infected dogs enhanced the antitrypanosomal effects of diminazene aceturate.
Farzaneh Futuhi, Ahmad Naghibzadeh Tahami, Jalal Azmandian,
Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine; https://doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2022-0082

Abstract:
Objectives: An evaluation the effects of curcumin on inflammatory markers and lipid profiles among patients with chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Methods: The electronic databases such as PubMed, and Scopus were searched systematically up until 12 December 2021. To evaluate the quality of the included studies, the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials was utilized. Likewise, data pooling was performed using a random effects model, also called a variance components model. Also, the findings were calculated as weighted mean difference (WMD) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: In the end, this meta-analysis comprised a total number of nine studies. Curcumin intake significantly reduced total cholesterol (TC) (WMD=−13.77 mg/dL; 95% CI, −26.77, −0.77; p=0.04) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) (WMD=−18.87 pg/mL; 95% CI, −28.36, −9.38; p<0.001) compared with controls. The results did not confirm the significant effect of curcumin intake on triglyceride (TG) (WMD=−6.37 mg/dL; 95% CI, −26.59, 13.85; p=0.54), low-density lipoproteins (LDL-C) (WMD=−5.65 mg/dL; 95% CI, −20.81, 9.50; p=0.46), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) (WMD=0.16 mg/dL; 95% CI, −2.55, 2.88; p=0.91), and C-reactive protein (CRP) (WMD=−0.13 mg/L; 95% CI, −3.25, 3.30; p=0.93). Conclusions: Our study showed that curcumin significantly impacts TC and TNF levels in CKD patients.
Bui Thanh Tung, Ta Thi Thu Hang, Nguyen Bao Kim, Nguyen Hong Nhung, Vu Khanh Linh, Dang Kim Thu
Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine; https://doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2021-0462

Abstract:
Objectives: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a lingering progressive neurodegenerative disorder that causes patients to lose cognitive function. The enzyme Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), Monoamine oxidase A (MAO A), Beta-secretase cleavage enzyme (BACE 1) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. Therefore, inhibiting enzymes is an effective method to treat Alzheimer disease. In this study, we evaluated in silico inhibitory effects of AChE, BuChE, MAO A, BACE 1 and NMDA enzyme of Huperzia squarrosa’s compounds Methods: The three-dimensional (3D) of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (PDB ID: 1PBQ), enzyme β-secretase 1 (PDB ID: 4X7I), enzyme monoamine oxidase A (PDB ID: 2Z5X), enzyme butyrylcholinesterase (PDB ID: 4BDS) and enzyme acetylcholinesterase (PDB ID: 1EVE) were retrieved from the Protein Data Bank RCSB. Molecular docking was done by Autodock vina software and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of the ligand-protein complex with the least binding energy pose was perfomed by MOE. Lipinski Rule of Five is used to compare compounds with drug-like and non-drug-like properties. Pharmacokinetic parameters of potential compounds were evaluated using the pkCSM tool. Results: Based on previous publication of Huperzia squarrosa, we have collected 15 compounds. In these compounds, huperzine B, huperzinine, lycoposerramine U N-oxide, 12-epilycodine N-oxide showed strongly inhibit the five AChE, BuChE, MAO A, BACE 1 and NMDA targets for Alzheimer’s treatment. Lipinski rule of five and ADMET predict have shown that four above compounds have drug-likeness properties, good absorption ability and cross the blood-brain barrier, which have the most potential to become drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer’s in the future. Furthermore, MD study showed that huperzine B and huperzinine have stability of the docking pose with NMDA target. Conclusions: In this study, we found two natural compounds in Huperzia squarrosa including Huperzine B and Huperzinine have drug-likeness properties, good absorption ability and cross the blood-brain barrier, which have potential to become drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer’s in the future.
, Livia Figueira Avezum Oliveira, Djalma Alexandre Alves da Silva, Jonatas Da Silva Catarino, Rodolfo Pessato Timóteo, Chamberttan Souza Desidério, Virmondes Rodrigues Junior, Maria De Fátima Borges
Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine; https://doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2020-0305

Abstract:
Objectives: This randomized controlled trial evaluated the stress, anxiety, and burnout of professionals exposed to complementary spiritist therapy (CST), which consists in therapeutic resources as prayer, Spiritist passe, fluidic water and spiritual education or control. Methods: Seventy-six professionals were randomized to CST or control: to maintain the routine for 5 weeks. The ISSL scale, anxiety and depression Beck’s indices, Maslach instrument, subjective well-being and WHOQOL-BREF were used at baseline and five-week. Blood count and cytokine dosage were collected at baseline, one-week and five-week. Analysis using the intention to treat approach. Results: The means of variation of stress (exhaustion phase) between baseline and five-week were −1.50 ± 3.31 in the CST and 0.72 ± 3.50 in the control (p=0.036), effect size for CST group was d=0.65, which is considered medium effect. CST showed decrease in emotional exhaustion and negative affects, and increase in lymphocytes, erythrocyte parameters and platelets between the baseline and five-week (p<0.05). Reduction in IL-1β and increase in total lymphocyte count were observed with 2–3 sessions per week, but that does not maintain when the number of sessions is decreased. Participants receiving ≥7 sessions reduced emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and stress, and improved hematological parameters throughout the study (p<0.05). Conclusions: CST may be effective in reducing stress (exhaustion phase) compared to control. Higher frequency of interventions promotes better psychic state, evidenced by large effect size for emotional exhaustion in burnout, and improves hematological parameters of professionals. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT03356691.
Melese Getachew, Yigardush Alimaw, Anteneh Belayneh, Bekalu Kebede, Getnet Tadege,
Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine; https://doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2022-0011

Abstract:
Background: Respiratory diseases affect more than one billion people worldwide. Although medicinal animals have huge importance in primary health care, limited effort applied so far been in Ethiopia to properly identify, document, and conserve these animals and the related knowledge. This systematic review was aimed to identify the medicinal animals and document reports on the use of medicinal animals for the management of respiratory disorders. Methods: Both published and unpublished articles on the ethnozoological use of medicinal animals were searched using electronic database (Science Direct, Pub Med, Google Scholar, Scopus, hinari, and research gate) and institutional repositories. Different keywords were used separately and in combination using Boolean operators “OR” or “AND” as well as medical subject heading [MeSH] terms. Studies that did not address respiratory disorders were excluded. Data were extracted using Microsoft excel spread sheet. Results: Among 211 articles obtained from database searches, nine articles were eligible and included in the review. Thirty two medicinal animals were reported for treatment of respiratory disorders. Mammals were the most commonly (43.8%) used medicinal animals. Meat was reported as the most commonly (22.6%) used medicinal remedy. Conclusions: Most of the medicinal remedies were obtained from mammals and administered orally. As the majority of the medicinal animals were obtained from wild sources, due attention should be given to conserve them. Besides, this traditional medicinal knowledge should be integrated to modern medicine to investigate the acute and chronic toxicity profile and efficacy of these remedies to identify potential lead compounds to modern drugs.
, Henrietta A. Oboh
Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine; https://doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2020-0360

Abstract:
Objectives: The safety and potentials of beetroot juice as a nutraceutical was assessed. Methods: Beetroot obtained was identified by a taxonomist and washed thoroughly, chopped finely into small bits, and blended. The aqueous juice obtained was freeze dried. Six groups of five animals were distributed according to sex and body weight (average 135–185.0 g). The aqueous extract of beetroot was dissolved in distilled water and administered in a range of 200–3,000 mg/kg body weight/day/for 28 days using gastric gavage. Weight of animals, and feed consumption were determined weekly. On the 28th day the animals were fasted for 12 h and euthanized. Blood was collected for biochemical assays, while the kidney, liver, and pancreas were weighed and kept in buffered formalin for histopathological evaluation. Results: Serum ALT was unaltered in all the groups, while the level of AST was significantly (p<0.05) reduced at 500, 2,000, and 3,000 mg/kg. ALP was significantly reduced at 200 mg and 1,000 mg when compared to control. Total protein decreased significantly at 200 mg when compared to control and 2,000, 3,000 mg respectively. There were no significant changes in K+ and Cl in all the groups. Urea at 200 and 3000 mg were significantly reduced and increased respectively. Creatinine concentration was not altered. Histopathological examination, did not reveal any unusual findings in the organs examined. Conclusions: This study revealed that beetroot juice may not be toxic to the organs evaluated in the tested doses, therefore the extract can be said to be safe for the duration of study in an animal model.
Dindukurthi Harinathbabu Sushmitha, , Belladamadagu Appajappa Sowmya, Byrojai Rao Sushma Bai, Pinkey Rawal, Shafi Ulla Khan Shabana
Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine; https://doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2021-0515

Abstract:
Objective: The present study was performed to evaluate the protective effects of methanol extract of Cedrus deodara against cisplatin induced. Methods: Myelosuppression in albino wistar rats. All experimental animals were administered with cisplatin on 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th day to induce bone marrow toxicity and rats were treated with methanol extract of C. deodara for 21 days. Blood samples were collected from all the animals on day 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st after 1 h before the administration of the drugs and hematological parameters like RBC, WBC, Platelets, Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, Eosinophils, Basophils, Neutrophils, lymphocytes, bleeding time and clotting time were determined were determined. At 21st, all rats were sacrificed and bone marrow samples were collected. The part of bone marrow samples was used for the determination of antioxidant enzymes and remaining were subjected to histopathological examination. Results: The animals of therapeutic groups administered with extract of C. deodara have exhibited significant rise in hematological parameters and shorten bleeding time and clotting time when compare to toxic control animals on the day 14 and day 21. The histopathological examination revealed the regeneration of bone marrow cells in the extract treated animals. There was significant reduction in lipid peroxidation and increase in antioxidant enzymes was found in extract treated animals. Conclusions: The methanol extract of C. deodara of have shown significant protective effects against cisplatin induced myelosuppression in albino wistar rats.
, Namrita Lall, , Sangai P. Dhanabal
Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine; https://doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2020-0545

Abstract:
Objectives: Liver illnesses are a major public health issue all over the world. Medicinal plants constituents a viable alternative for the development of phytopharmaceuticals with hepatoprotective activity in order to solve some of these health-related problems. The present study is focused on the phytochemical and biological investigation on Indian traditional medicinal plant extracts, for their cytotoxic and hepatoprotective activity. The isolated compounds showed the presence of phenolic constituents which lead to cytotoxicity and hepatoprotective activity of medicinal plant. Cancer causes about 13% of all human deaths in 2007 (7.6 million) (American Cancer Society and WHO December 2006–07). The American Cancer Society estimates that 12,990 new cases of cervical cancer will be diagnosed in the United States year 2016. Cancer-related deaths are expected to increase, with an estimated 11.4 million deaths in 2030. Methods: The ethanolic extracts of Centella asiatica, Myristica fragrans, Trichosanthes palmata, Woodfordia fruticosa, Curculigo orchioides were evaluated against HEP-G2 cell lines for hepatoprotective activity and Curculigo orchioides was further promoted for the isolation of secondary metabolites based on inhibitory concentration. Results: The ethanolic extracts of C. asiatica, M. fragrans, T. palmata, W. fruticosa, Curculigo orchioides shown significant cytotoxic activity (IC50≤100 μg/mL). The plant extracts also shown significant hepatoprotective activity in a dose dependent manner when tested against HEP-G2 cell lines and cytotoxicity studies against HeLa and HEP-G2 cells. Conclusions: The extract of Curculigo orchiodes rhizome showed significant cytotoxicity results. Hence the Curculigo orchiodes rhizome was selected for further phytochemical studies to isolate active compounds and their Characterization by GCMS.
Sirikorn Kongwattanakul, Nutjaree Petchann, Petcharat Petroch, Saengrawee Thanthong, Sunanta Tungfung, Sasikarn Chamchod, Supaporn Pitiporn,
Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine; https://doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2021-0457

Abstract:
Background and objectives: Radiation-induced mucositis (RIOM) is one of the most common side effects from head and neck radiotherapy. Several reagents have been introduced to manage the symptom; however, there is still a limited number of effective reagents. Herbal mouthwashes with payayor (Clinacanthus nutans Lindau) and fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotunda) were tested their efficacies in preventing and reducing severity of RIOM in comparison with normal saline with sodium bicarbonate. Methods: One hundred twenty patients with head and neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy participated in the study and were randomly assigned into three treatment groups using block randomization method. The participants were assigned one of the three mouthwashes for use throughout their radiotherapy course and were assessed for their mucositis scores from week one to six into their radiotherapy course as well as at one-month follow-up. Body mass index was also measured for comparison of nutritional status. Results: The two mouthwashes were similarly effective in prophylaxis of RIOM in term of severity. The averaged mucositis scores were less than two for all groups. For the onset of RIOM, both herbal mouthwashes could slightly delay the symptom but not statistically significant. Patients’ body mass index across the three treatment groups was also comparable. The patients were largely satisfied with all the mouthwashes with no clear preference on any of them. Conclusions: Prophylactic treatment of RIOM using herbal mouthwashes could substitute the current standard of normal saline with bicarbonate. A different formulation of the two herbs could potentially improve the prophylactic outcome. Trial Registration No: NCT03359187.
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