Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering

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ISSN / EISSN : 0899-1561 / 1943-5533
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Zhenpeng Yu, Rui Tang, Guoqing Liu, Zhaoyuan Guo, Qiao Huang
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Volume 33; https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)mt.1943-5533.0003846

Abstract:
To examine the uniaxial behaviors of plain concrete and lightweight aggregate concrete under dynamic loadings, the plain concrete specimens and lightweight aggregate concrete specimens prepared by shale ceramsite were designed and tested under the loading strain rate range of 10−5/s–10−2/s. The hydraulic servo machine and shear device were applied to conduct the uniaxial compression, splitting tensile, and shear tests of both types of concretes, and the failure modes and stress-strain curves of two concrete at varying loading conditions were obtained from the test results. By comparing and analyzing the test results, the following conclusions are obtained: the failure of cementing layer occurs in plain concrete at low strain rates, while some coarse aggregates are damaged at high strain rates, but the failure of lightweight aggregate concrete is caused by the fracture of shale ceramsite at all strain rates. As the loading strain rate increases, the uniaxial compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and shear strength of plain concrete and lightweight aggregate concrete are significantly increased, with the improved percentages of 35.63%, 43.75%, and 41.29% for plain concrete and 44.87%, 55.97%, and 49.44% for light aggregate concrete, respectively. For both types of concrete, the increase of strain rate has a more significant effect on the increase of splitting strength than compressive strength. In addition, the strain rate effect on the strength of lightweight aggregate concrete is significantly higher than that of plain concrete. The dynamic increase factor of peak stress of both concretes under uniaxial loadings is linearly related to the dimensionless logarithmic values of the strain rate. Based on the test results and analysis, two different relationship expressions between compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and shear strength of two types of concretes are proposed, and the dynamic effects of concrete are explored from the perspective of the damage mechanism. This study is meaningful to the engineering applications and development of plain concrete and lightweight aggregate concrete.
, Ziqi Wang, Zhanshuo Liang, Lei Xu
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Volume 33; https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)mt.1943-5533.0003889

Abstract:
The objective of this paper is to to ascertain the reliable mechanical properties of cold-formed Q345 steel at elevated temperatures while considerting the effects of tensile strain rate and specimen width. This paper presents an experimental study on the mechanical properties of cold-formed Q345 steel at temperatures ranging from 20°C to 800°C tested with two specimen widths and three tensile–strain rates, namely 0.06/min, 0.6/min, and 1.2/min. Tensile specimens were fabricated from a steel plate with a nominal thickness of 2.5 mm and tensile tests were carried out to determine the stress–strain relationship, yield strength, tensile strength, and elastic modulus. The test results showed that the tensile–strain rate has a maximum influence of 9% on yield and tensile strength at 600°C and the specimen width has a maximum influence of 14% on yield and tensile strength at 400°C. The maximum influence of the tensile–strain rate and specimen width on the elastic modulus is 18% and 12% respectively at 500°C. The necking phenomenon is less noticeable at temperatures below 300°C but is clearly observed at temperatures above 300°C. The comparison of the test results with predictions obtained from design standards (EC3, AISC, and AS4100) indicates a good agreement on the yield and tensile strength, but the magnitudes of elastic modulus obtained from the test are considerably higher than those obtained from the design standards. Based on averaged values of the test results associated with different tensile–strain rates and specimen widths, predictive equations were proposed to determine the mechanical properties of cold-formed Q345 steel at elevated temperatures.
, Wittakran Sudsaynate, , Avirut Chinkulkijniwat, , Jitwadee Horpibulsuk
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Volume 33; https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)mt.1943-5533.0003751

Abstract:
Research on the usage of industrial by-products to improve mechanical properties of low-quality materials in infrastructure applications is of global interest. Two industrial by-products, namely, fly ash (FA) and asphalt emulsion (AE), were used in this research to develop an FA-AE stabilized marginal crushed rock (CR) as a sustainable pavement base material. A liquid alkaline activator was used, comprised of a mixture of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium silicate hydrate (Na2SiO3) at Na2SiO3:NaOH=50∶50 and NaOH concentration = 5 M. In this research study, the mechanical properties of FA-AE stabilized CR were investigated via unconfined compressive strength (UCS), indirect tensile strength (ITS), flexural strength (FS), indirect tensile resilient modulus (IT Mr), and indirect tensile fatigue life (ITFL) tests. The UCS of FA geopolymer stabilized CR (without AE) was found to be dependent on the FA content and curing time. For all the curing times studied, the higher FA replacement ratio resulted in higher UCS values. Although the asphalt film enhances particle confinement, it was found to retard the geopolymerization reaction. According to the local road authority, which requires a UCS>1.75 MPa for a stabilized base course, the addition of AE reduced the UCS of FA-AE geopolymer stabilized CR. To meet the minimum 7-day strength requirement for both low and high-traffic roads, a geopolymer mix was suggested with an FA replacement ratio≥20% and an AE content≥1%. Compared with the cement stabilized CR at a similar UCS value, the FA-AE geopolymer stabilized CR had higher FS, ITS, IT Mr, and ITFL but lower carbon footprints.
, Abhishek Singh, Shashank Bishnoi
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Volume 33; https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)mt.1943-5533.0003861

Abstract:
Soluble alkalis play a vital role during early age hydration and strength development in cement. This study investigates the influence of alkali addition on the hydration, phase assemblage, and strength development in ordinary portland cement (OPC) and limestone–calcined clay cement (LC3) produced with 50% clinker replacement. The alkalinity (% Na2Oeq) of OPC and LC3 was increased using four different alkali salts: NaOH, Na2SO4, KOH, and K2SO4. An acceleration of the early age hydration and an increase in the early age compressive strength development was observed with increasing alkalinity in OPC and LC3 systems. The characteristic features of the calorimetry curves were seen to be significantly influenced by the presence of alkalis. The presence of additional sulfate ions was seen to modify the phase assemblage, with additional ettringite forming in these systems. However, increasing the alkalinity was also seen to reduce the later age clinker hydration and strength development.
, Zachary Grasley
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Volume 33; https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)mt.1943-5533.0003827

Abstract:
The influence of sand particles, aging, and water–cement (w/c) ratio on the viscoelastic relaxation modulus of cement paste and mortars was measured at early ages (1–28 days). Furthermore, the relaxation modulus obtained approximating the strain state as constant or obtained considering the real strain history observed during testing were compared; significant error was encountered when a constant strain was assumed. In contrast, little error was introduced when aging during the relaxation experiments was neglected, which is likely due to the relatively short duration of the experiments and the nonconstant strain history that led to rapid stress decay. In contrast to conventional wisdom, lower w/c samples loaded at very early ages exhibited similar relaxation to higher w/c samples; however, at later ages, lower w/c materials exhibit lower relaxation rate. For samples loaded at later ages, the similarity between the shape of the relaxation curves for samples containing differing sand content and w/c suggests a method to simply quantify the effects by shifting the spring constants in a Kelvin–Voigt or Maxwell-type model.
Seyed Hadi Sahlabadi, , Mohsen Mousivand, Mohsen Saadat
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Volume 33; https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)mt.1943-5533.0003905

Abstract:
Many studies have been carried out on the influence of freeze–thaw cycles on the mechanical behavior of cement- or lime-stabilized soils. However, very limited studies have considered the effects of freeze–thaw cycles on cement-stabilized soil reinforced with fibers. The main objective of this study is to determine the effects of polypropylene fiber (PPF) and basalt fiber (BF) content (0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, and 5%), cement content (0%, 3%, and 9%), number of freeze–thaw cycles (0, 2, 4, 8, and 10), and initial moisture content on the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of clay soil. The study reveals that adding cement, PPF, or BF to soil causes a remarkable increase in strength, where the strength of the PPF-reinforced specimens is significantly more than that of BF-reinforced ones. The UCS values of the specimens compacted at optimum moisture content (OMC) are almost more than those that were prepared at a molding moisture content of 0.8 OMC or 1.2 OMC. The strength of specimens increases with increases in cement content and curing time. However, the axial strain at failure for cement-stabilized specimens decreased with increasing cement content or curing time. Furthermore, it is concluded that the increase in the UCS of combined PPF or BF with cement inclusion is more than that caused by each fiber without cement. A regression model is developed to predict the UCS in terms of four effective agents for each case of stabilization by BF or PPF. Results indicate a satisfactory performance of the model where the Pearson correlation coefficient above 0.95 for UCS prediction is obtained.
Sujata Subedi, Gabriel A. Arce, Hassan Noorvand, , , Louay N. Mohammad
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Volume 33; https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)mt.1943-5533.0003892

Abstract:
This study investigates the effects of raw sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) used as a partial or complete replacement for silica sand in engineered cementitious composites (ECCs). ECC mixtures with five different replacement levels of sand with SCBA were produced (i.e., 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% by volume). The SCBA utilized in this study was comprehensively characterized. Furthermore, the fresh and hardened properties of the produced ECC materials were thoroughly evaluated. The characterization of SCBA revealed that raw SCBA consisted mainly of small (i.e., 256 μm average particle size), porous, and irregularly shaped particles with carbon and silica as the main constituents. Furthermore, the SCBA met the pozzolanic component requirement for Class C pozzolans; however, it did not meet the minimum strength activity index requirement to be classified as a pozzolan; however, it did not meet the minimum strength activity index requirement to be classified as a pozzolan. In terms of ECC fresh properties, the incorporation of SCBA produced an important loss in workability, which was mitigated with increasing dosages of high-range water reducer for increasing amounts of SCBA, which also resulted in a substantial increase in the air content. In the case of hardened material properties, the incorporation of SCBA as sand replacement produced a slight decrease (up to 11%) of the compressive strength of ECCs. However, the tensile strength and especially the tensile ductility of the composites were substantially enhanced (up to 22.3% and 311%, respectively). The tensile strength improvements were credited to the pozzolanic and/or filler effect of SCBA. On the other hand, enhancements in the tensile ductility were associated to the combined effect of the reduction of crack-tip matrix toughness (credited to the decrease in aggregate particle size), reduction in ECC cracking strength (due to increase in air content), and increase in the complementary energy (attributed to the potential decrease in the chemical bond of the fiber/matrix interface and an enhanced fiber dispersion). The surface resistivity of ECC materials was negatively affected by the addition of SCBA. Furthermore, the length change of all SCBA-ECC materials, at all ages of curing, was higher in comparison with that of the control mixture, except for the mixture with 25% replacement at 28 days of curing.
Hansong Wu, Aiqin Shen, Xiaolong Yang, Ziming He, Youhua Zhang
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Volume 33; https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)mt.1943-5533.0003899

Abstract:
Photocatalytic pavements materials are being developed to purify toxic automobile exhaust gas, especially in tunnels where the pollution concentrations are high. This study investigated the photocatalytic efficiency and pavement performance of asphalt mixtures containing steel slag and different contents of CeO2 and TiO2 as photocatalyst materials. Photocatalytic testing equipment was developed to calculate the photodegradation efficiency for CO, CO2, NO, and HC. The pavement performance of the asphalt mixtures was evaluated using rutting tests and low-temperature bend tests. The texture depth was measured to evaluate the antislide performance. The excessive addition of the CeO2 and TiO2 nano photocatalysts had an adverse effect on the pavement performance of the steel slag asphalt mixture. The optimal contents of CeO2 and TiO2 were 7% and 0.6% by weight of the asphalt binder weight, respectively, as obtained by a gray target decision process based on principle component analysis. These findings are expected to contribute to the development of functional pavement materials that improve the surrounding air quality and have a lower environmental impact due to the use of waste slag.
Jianhua Yang, Ying Fang
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Volume 33; https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)mt.1943-5533.0003828

Abstract:
At present, the rationality and applicability of various high-temperature performance evaluation indexes for polymer-modified asphalts have not been comprehensively explored. This study aimed to fully explore their rationality and applicability. For this purpose, five asphalt binders including four representative polymer-modified asphalts and one neat asphalt (NA) were chosen, and many of their high-temperature performance indexes were first obtained by using a series of tests. Then the five corresponding asphalt mixtures were fabricated and their high-temperature performance indexes were also obtained by performing a wheel tracking test. On this basis, the high-temperature potential of asphalt binders was evaluated using the obtained indexes, and the correlation between the indexes of asphalt binders and their mixtures was analyzed via data processing software. Results show that the rankings of high-temperature performance of these five asphalt binders are not exactly consistent when all the high-temperature performance indexes—including penetration (P) at 25°C, penetration index (PI), equivalent softening point (T800), softening point (SP), dynamic viscosity (DV) at 60°C, rutting factor (G*/sinδ), improved rutting factor [G*/(sinδ)9], Shenoy’s nonrecoverable compliance (JShenoy), critical temperature of rutting factor (TG*/sinδ), nonrecoverable creep compliance (Jnr), creep modulus (GV), zero shear viscosity (ZSV), and generalized dynamic shear modulus (GDSM)—are utilized for evaluation. However, all the indexes can distinguish the polymer-modified asphalts from NA well. Among these indexes, the evaluation results of Jnr at different temperatures are consistent at the same stress level (0.1 or 3.2 kPa), and all the correlation coefficients between the Jnr and dynamic stability (DS) of asphalt mixtures exceed 0.9; thus, the Jnr is recommended as the dominant evaluation index. The G*/sinδ, TG*/sinδ, and GV correlate weakly with the DS, and the ZSV performs poor repeatability in the test; thus, their rationality needs to be further verified using more asphalt samples.
, , Markus S. Rebmann, Erol Tutumluer
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Volume 33; https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)mt.1943-5533.0003824

Abstract:
The standard method of using a caliper to determine aggregate particle dimensions is not sufficient to describe the shape, texture, angularity, and volume of particles, and there is not a reference method to determine aggregate surface area. A three-dimensional (3D) structured-light scanner seems to be a viable and economical alternative with enough speed to obtain 3D data from hundreds of particles. This work used a 3D scanner to evaluate morphological properties of coarse aggregates and compared results with those from conventional techniques. Two types of aggregates (around 60 particles of each type) were scanned and manually measured by a single operator with a digital caliper using two different methodologies: (1) the minimum bounding box (MBB), and (2) a conventional standard test method (STD). The 3D structured-light scanner proved to be accurate for assessing the morphology, surface area, and volume of coarse aggregates, and with a processing rate of 10 min/particle, it was faster than other techniques such as X-ray computed microtomography (micro-CT) or laser scanning. Compared with the manual method (caliper) or the most commonly used two-dimensional (2D) image analysis techniques, it also was more accurate. The MBB using a caliper overestimated volume by about 17% and underestimated surface area by 11%, which was estimated by assuming an ellipsoid with the dimensions obtained. The 2D circularity had a poor correlation with the 3D sphericity, especially for flat or elongated particles.
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