Advances in Biochips

Journal Information
EISSN : 2630-4511
Published by: Syncsci Publishing Pte., Ltd. (10.25082)
Total articles ≅ 6
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Articles in this journal

Mallory Bates, Svetlana Harbough,
Advances in Biochips, Volume 3, pp 35-49; https://doi.org/10.25082/ab.2022.01.001

Abstract:
Gene regulatory studies are of significant importance in many scenarios such as mental illness. 21% of U.S adults experience mental illnesses including 1 in 4 active-duty military personnel. Mental health can be identified in the body by different biomarkers. These biomarkers potentially controlled by riboswitches, which are located in mRNA and switch “ON” or “OFF” depending on the concentration of a biomarker. In this research, a known riboswitch reengineered and its response in the presence of a biomarker investigated. We changed computationally PreQ1, a known riboswitch that has the smallest aptamer, and then experimentally tested against biomarkers, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), Serotonin, Cortisol, Dopamine, Epinephrine, and Norepinephrine. A total of 7 variant riboswitches were tested in this research, 4 created computationally discussed here and 3 experimentally not covered in this paper. The results from these variants showed that variants 1 and 2 had different responses to DHEA-S then the expected PreQ1 response. A dose response showed downward trend as DHEA-S concentration increased. In conclusion of this research, riboswitches can be re-engineered to have a different response to biomarkers at the same time keeping the same structure.
Ekta Jagtiani
Advances in Biochips, Volume 3, pp 50-70; https://doi.org/10.25082/ab.2022.01.002

Abstract:
Cellulose fibres, cellulose nanofibers, cellulose nanocrystals and cellulose derivatives are all examples of cellulose-based materialsthat display superior characteristics with a number of desirable properties, including biodegradability, sustainability, biocompatibility, thermal properties , optical transparency, flexibility, high mechanical strength, high porosity,hydrophilicity, a large surface area and broad chemical modification capabilities. "Smart" materials based on cellulose created by the chemical changes and physical incorporation/blending techniques offer numerous advantages, most notably their intelligent responses to environmental stimuli. Conductive networks are formed in cellulose-based composite materials by combining or coating conductive materials with the cellulose components or by directly carbonising the cellulose materials. Numerous nanopaper-based optical sensing platforms are explained and how they can be tailored to exhibit plasmonic or photoluminescent features suitable for sensing applications using nanomaterials or as biomaterials. The responsiveness of these "smart" materials to pH, temperature, light, electricity, magnetic fields and mechanical forces, among other parameters, is also reviewed, as were their applications as drug delivery systems, hydrogels, electronic active papers, sensors, shape memory materials, smart membranes, etc.
, M. T. Uddin, Mohammed M. Rahman, Abdullah M. Asiri, M. A. Islam
Advances in Biochips, Volume 2, pp 24-34; https://doi.org/10.25082/ab.2021.01.002

Abstract:
The 4-NPHyd (4-nitrophenylhydrazine) electrochemical sensor assembled using wet-chemically prepared ZnO/SnO2 nanoparticle (NPs) decorated a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with conductive Nafion binder. The synthesized NPs characterized by XPS, ESEM, EDS, and XRD analysis. The calibration of the proposed sensor obtained from current versus concentration of 4-NPHyd found linear over a concentration (0.1 nM ~ 0.01 mM) of 4-NPHyd, which denoted as the dynamic range (LDR) for detection of 4-NPHyd. The 4-NPHyd sensor sensitivity calculated using the LDR slope considering the active surface of GCE (0.0316 cm2), which is equal to be 7.6930 µAµM/cm2, an appreciable value. The detection limit (LOD) at signal/noise (S/N = 3) estimated, and outstanding lower value at 94.63±4.73 pM perceived. The analytical parameters such as reproducibility, long-term performing ability and response time are found as appreciable. Finally, the projected sensor shows exceptional performances in the detection of 4-NPHyd in environmental samples.
Ajinkya Raut, Peter Renner, Rick Wang, Serge Kazadi, Siddhi Mehta, Yan Chen,
Advances in Biochips, Volume 2, pp 12-23; https://doi.org/10.25082/ab.2021.01.001

Abstract:
Polymer brushes are macromolecular structures with polymer chains tethered to a surface resembling a brush. They have shown variety of uses in biological applications. Because of the nature of crafted polymers, the functionalized surfaces exhibit unique functions such as low friction, altered adhesion, protein binding and selective adsorption. Functionalization can be controlled by changing parameters such as grafting densities, chemical configurations, shapes and thickness. In this review, a particular emphasis has been provided for studies related to biological applications of polymer brushes based on their ultra-low friction, hydrophilic elongated surfaces, and binding properties. It provides useful information for researches and labs working on finding better solutions for drug delivery, arthritis, artificial joints, antibiofouling coatings and protein immobilization and purification.
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