International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2202-7998 / 2202-8005
Published by: Queensland University of Technology (10.5204)
Total articles ≅ 414
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Latest articles in this journal

Kazutaka Hirose
International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5204/ijcjsd.2016

Abstract:
Primatology was initiated in Japan in 1948 by Kinji Imanishi and his colleagues. A distinctive feature of Japanese primatology is adopting the technique of ‘anthropomorphising’ non-human primates and establishing friendly relationships with them through feeding and other means. Following the anthropomorphic stance of primatology in Japan, yielding many scientific findings, succeeding generations turned to ‘biocentrism’, which holds that all life, including humans, has equal value. While biocentric values emerged, researchers were also faced with the conflict of having to euthanise wild hybrids per legal mandates to maintain the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) ecosystem. This article analyses the ethical conflicts in Japanese primatology throughout history.
International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5204/ijcjsd.2036

Abstract:
The eight articles in this issue promise us a global journey around transformed borders, multiscalar bordering, and discretionary practices within these migration controls. In doing so, the authors guide us through the Global North and Global South with countries as varied as the US, Mexico, Mali, Poland, Norway, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom (UK), Spain, Italy, Germany, Greece, and Turkey. We also gain insights through these specific research settings from additional Asian and African countries of origin for the migrants involved. By situating their analyses in a specific locus, the authors provide us with a grounded, localized narrative, which they insightfully theorize on and interact with at the global level. Through these glocalized analyses, we not only learn about the importance of multiscalar forms of migration control and the discretion of these actors within these bordering practices, but also gain insights into the immediate and long-term effects of these control efforts on the divergent actors that transform our borders and give meaning to the multiscalar bordering practices.
, , Sara Miellet, , Elif Durmuş
International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy, Volume 10, pp 16-29; https://doi.org/10.5204/ijcjsd.2038

Abstract:
In recent years, local authorities in Europe have increasingly developed bordering practices that hinder or further migrant rights, such as the freedom of movement. They bypass national borders by facilitating refugee resettlement, they claim local space to welcome or shun certain migrants, and they develop or break down local impediments to migrant mobility. These local practices, we argue, can best be understood from a multiscalar perspective, which considers processes of placemaking as reproductive of power dynamics. Applying such a perspective to local bordering practices in Greece, Turkey, the Netherlands, Italy, and Germany, we point out the importance of the multitude of the actors involved; legal pluralism; and the contextual role of social, economic, and spatial factors. This offers a theoretical foothold for understanding the power dynamics at play when local authorities become bastions or bulwarks, in which some migrants are welcomed, and others are not.
International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy, Volume 10, pp 87-100; https://doi.org/10.5204/ijcjsd.2043

Abstract:
We draw on the concept of deportability to show how unauthorized migrants who (used to) live in the Netherlands perceive and experience Dutch internal-control mechanisms. We first conclude that these migrants’ deportability has serious legal, social, and existential effects on them, which they feel long after their return or deportation to their home country. Second, we state that unauthorized migrants evaluate the Dutch internal-control mechanisms as “one system” in which they distinguish three important, interlinked layers, consisting of (1) divergent actors, (2) laws and policies inside and outside the migration control domains located within (3) different geographies. This implies that individual nation-states, through their internal control mechanisms, also contribute to the externalization of migration control at a supranational level. We conclude that the state’s internal migration controls bring about immobility not only in the countries of settlement but also in the transit and home countries.
Helene O. I. Gundhus
International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy, Volume 10, pp 56-71; https://doi.org/10.5204/ijcjsd.2041

Abstract:
This article examines Operation Migrant, initiated by the Norwegian police following the so-called migration crises in Europe in 2015. One of its central aims was, by predicting challenges related to increased migration, to improve resource allocation and prevent crime. By drawing on research on risk and threat assessment as a form of power, this article aims to analyze how risk categories are distributed and translated into a multilayered institutional arrangement where migration is policed as a potential crime. The article examines the indicators that the risk assessments are based on and the measures applied and investigates how discretionary practices make immigrants objects for law enforcement and policing. The article contributes to research on migration control in an ordinary police context, where immigration identity checks become part of the crime reduction strategy. Applying the concept of interpretive flexibility (Collins 1981), I will identify the steps in this chain of translation to explore the leap from targeting potentially criminal asylum seekers to targeting broader groups with temporary residency in Norway. The article analyzes the conditions determining how policing, technologies, and migrants are “co-constructed” in a chain of mediation and translation, which reinforces the view of migrants as risky and criminal. The final section discusses how risk and threat analysis is affected by the notion of the “crimmigrant other” (Franko 2020). In Norway, selectively targeting unwanted migrants as criminals has become dominant in police decision-making at a policy level and everyday practices affecting not only third country nationals but also unwanted eastern Europeans.
Piers Beirne
International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5204/ijcjsd.2093

Abstract:
This paper examines a potentially fatal type of pathogen transmission, namely, the spillover of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from COVID-19-positive humans to nonhuman animals. This neglected direction of pathogen transmission (“anthroponosis”) was first publicized in March 2020, when eight large felids at a zoo in New York City were infected with SARS-CoV-2 by a COVID-19-positive employee. The paper gathers and problematizes the as-yet sparse evidence of anthroponotic transmissions of SARS-CoV-2 at sites in the animal–industrial complex where animals are held captive in zoos; appointed as human companions; used in scientific experiments; and raised and slaughtered in industrialized agriculture. The great fear is that animals infected with SARS-CoV-2 by COVID-19-positive humans will develop mutant strains of the virus, that these variants will be transmitted back to humans, and that the variants will be immune to the vaccines currently in use or in development. When we harm animals, we harm ourselves. Never has the need for a nonspeciesist approach to public health and safety been more urgent.
International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy, Volume 10, pp 30-40; https://doi.org/10.5204/ijcjsd.2039

Abstract:
This paper examines Mexico’s governmentality of extracontinental migration in transit to the United States. It argues that, in the context of transit control regimes, exemption is instrumentalised as a bordering mechanism and practice in which transit states assume, react and utilise their role as a ‘transit’ country. By drawing on statistical information about migrant populations from Asia and Africa intercepted by Mexican authorities from 2010 to 2019, four arrangements are identified: (1) sporadic expulsion, (2) regularisation façade, (3) guardianship and (4) self-deportation. The analysis sheds light on the transformative and adaptive dimension of the Mexican Transit Control Regime and how this is geared towards maintaining its focus on intercepting and deterring Central American migrants in transit to the United States.
International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy, Volume 10, pp 207-209; https://doi.org/10.5204/ijcjsd.2035

Abstract:
Kajsa Lundberg reviews From Social Harm to Zemiology: A Critical Introduction
Vincenzo Ruggiero
International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5204/ijcjsd.2019

Abstract:
The collapse of Greensill Capital, a company whose self-styled owner experimented with innovative supply-chain finance, led to parliamentary inquiries in the UK during the course of 2021. This paper tells the story of the collapse and analyses the justifications mobilised by the company’s owner, Lex Greensill, in defence of his acts. His exculpatory narratives contain classical components that characterise white-collar and financial crime, but also some innovative aspects that may prefigure the future development of these types of crimes.
Alpa Parmar
International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy, Volume 10, pp 41-55; https://doi.org/10.5204/ijcjsd.2040

Abstract:
Discretionary practices have often been put forward to explain the racially disproportionate patterns we see in policing. The focus on discretion rather than racism neatly shifts attention away from race and instead towards discretionary practices, which are notoriously amorphous and inscrutable. The attention towards discretion (rather than race) further allows race to operate without being explicitly named and, therefore, to operate as an absent present. In this article, I discuss how race and discretion work together when ordinary police officers are tasked with migration control duties to identify foreign national offenders. Drawing on empirical research conducted in England, I propose the concept of racialised discretion and argue that it holds merit because it recognises that certain discretionary practices and decisions are animated because of race, through race and with the effect (intentional or not) of racially disproportionate outcomes. The article argues for the need for racialised discretion to be seen as distinct from other forms of discretion both in policing and the criminal justice process more widely.
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