Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2327-4336 / 2327-4344
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 1,256
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Ningabo Aurélien, Sanoh Ousmane, Regean Pumulo Pitiya
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, Volume 10, pp 67-75; https://doi.org/10.4236/gep.2022.103005

Abstract:
Zambia’s economy is fueled by copper production, which is one of the country’s most important industries. In terms of copper output, Zambia has around five large open-pit mines and eight significant underground mines. Zambia’s Government owns a stake in some of these businesses. This article examines the economic, social, technological, and environmental ramifications of copper mining in the Copperbelt area of Zambia.
Juan Du
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, Volume 10, pp 47-54; https://doi.org/10.4236/gep.2022.102004

Abstract:
With the production of strong bottom water reservoir, it will soon enter the ultra-high water cut stage. After entering the ultra-high water cut period, the main means of stable production is liquid extraction. Large liquid volume has a certain impact on the physical property distribution and fluid seepage law of the oilfield. The relative permeability curve measured according to the industry standard is not used for the prediction of development indicators and the understanding of the dynamic law of the oilfield. In order to understand the characteristics of water drive law in high water cut stage of water drive oilfield, starting from the water drive characteristic curve in high water cut stage, the method for calculating the relative permeability curve is deduced. Through numerical simulation verification and fitting the actual production data, it is confirmed that the obtained relative permeability curve is in line with the reality of the oilfield, It can provide some guiding significance for understanding the production law and water drive law of strong bottom water reservoir in ultra-high water cut stage.
Si Wang, Guangxia Wang
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, Volume 10, pp 162-170; https://doi.org/10.4236/gep.2022.102010

Abstract:
In the era of information and communication technology (ICT) and big data, the map gradually shows a new qualitative feature of “spatiotemporal ubiquitous” with the extension of its object space, expression space and information source, which challenges the theory of cartographic visualization. This paper discusses the ubiquitous map visualization from the object content and expression form. Oriented to the ternary space, it divides the object dimension of ubiquitous map visualization and analyzes the expression characteristics of ubiquitous map visualization. Based on that, it constructs the variable system, symbol system and method system of ubiquitous map visualization. With three cases of the metro roadmap, the tag map, and the three-dimensional (3D) city map, the application of the proposed content is explained to illustrate its effectiveness. The research in this paper is expected to further enrich the theoretical basis of cartographic visualization and provide theoretical support for the expression and application of ubiquitous map visualization.
Shirley Thompson
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, Volume 10, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.4236/gep.2022.103001

Abstract:
A just and sustainable future requires green renewable power. Net-zero by 2050 is the international goal to limit global warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius and sustain the biosphere. Green renewable energy, including wind, solar, biomass and small hydro is abundant in Canada, with potential to satisfy demand with 100% green renewables. This paper compares the renewable power landscape across Canada’s provinces considering four factors—electricity energy mix, renewable energy targets (RETs), renewable energy standard offer programs (RESOPs), feed-in tariff (FITs) or community FITs (comFITs). The provinces with green renewable energy sources typically have enabling policies of RESOP, RETs and FITS, as Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, Ontario and New Brunswick do. In contrast, provinces with abundant oil and gas or large-scale hydro are without pro-renewable energy policies, nor community power options, excepting green renewables in Indigenous communities due to federal funding programs. Community green renewable power projects, such as the “Indigenous off-diesel initiative”, are creating jobs, community revenue and energy sovereignty, towards just and inclusive energy in off-grid Indigenous communities. To reduce climate change, fast-tracking net-zero electricity by 2035 is recommended with the prioritization of community renewable energy by RESOPs, FITs and comFITs. For the transportation and other sectors, banning of all fossil fuels before 2040 is needed. Finally, a long-term plan to reduce the negative impacts of hydroelectricity water fluctuation is needed, considering decommissioning some dams.
Dan Vuntade, Maureen Kapute Mzuza
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, Volume 10, pp 96-110; https://doi.org/10.4236/gep.2022.103008

Abstract:
Conservation agriculture (CA) emerged as an alternative innovation to conventional agriculture due to losses in soil productivity as a result of soil degradation. This study investigated factors affecting the adoption of Conservation Agriculture in the Mpatsa Extension Planning Area in a southern district of Malawi, Nsanje. A quantitative method approach was followed where were collected from a sample of 110 targeted smallholder farmers in the study area using a semi-structured questionnaire where the majority (63.6%) were women. Focused Group Discussions (FGDs) were also done to triangulate data on questionnaires. Data were entered into a Microsoft Excel database and analyzed in SPSS version 20. Socio-economic, environmental factors and household income have a greater impact on the adoption of conservation agricultural innovations. Animals were found to cause permanent soil cover disturbance while feeding on crop residues leaving the soil bare. The study concluded that climatic factors and CA training have negatively affected the adoption of new agricultural innovations, therefore, recommending further training and extension support for CA adoption as well as more access to credit opportunities for increased households’ adoption of CA.
Félicité Obono Mba, Loic Foka Deffo, Augustin Goudoum
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, Volume 10, pp 76-83; https://doi.org/10.4236/gep.2022.103006

Abstract:
The study was carried out in Baham district in the West Cameroon region, as part of the recovery of organic waste with other biological components for the manufacture of an organic fertilizer (improved biochar). Through observations and a survey questionnairy submitted to 100 farmers, it appears that the majority use synthetic chemical fertilizers. Farmers using chemical fertilizers find them dangerous to their health. In addition, 58.57% of these farmers said they felt unwell after spreading these fertilizers. However, 64.28% of these farmers do not acquire PPE for reasons of financial means on the one hand and ignorance on the other hand. 54.28% of respondents using only chemical fertilizers noted declining agricultural production. The surveys also reveal that biochar (of plant origin) as a solution proposed by CIPCRE is used by a minority of farmers (21%) in the said locality on the one hand and on the other hand has limits in terms of intake nutrients for crops; this was confirmed by analyzes of the physico-chemical parameters.
Charles M. Mugambi, Mugwima Njuguna, Dennis Karanja
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, Volume 10, pp 144-158; https://doi.org/10.4236/gep.2022.103011

Abstract:
Urban river riparian spaces and their natural systems are valuable to urban dwellers; but are increasingly affected and ruined by human activities and in particular, urbanization processes. In this research, land sat and sentinel satellite imagery apt for change detection in vegetation cover, both landsat and sentinel imagery, covering the period between 1970 and 2021 in epochs of 1973, 1984, 1993, 2003, 2015 and 2021 years were used to establish the correlation between vegetation cover and built-up area along River Riara river reserve. The images were analysed to extract the built-up areas along the river reserve, including the buildings, and the rate of human settlements, which influenced vegetation cover. Normalized Difference Built-Up Index (NDBI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) were computed using the Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR) and the Near Infra-Red (NIR) bands to show the rate of change over the years. Results indicate NDVI values were high, compared to NDBI values along river Riara in the years 1973 and 1993 implying that there was more vegetation cover then. However, in the year 2021, the NDVI indicated the highest value at 0.88, with the complementary NDBI indicating the highest NDBI value at 0.47. This represents a significant increase in built-up areas since 2015 more than in previous epochs. Either, there was a significant increase in NDBI values, from 0.24 in 1993 to 0.47 in 2021. More so, the R-squared value at 0.80 informed 80% relationship between NDBI and NDVI values indicating a negative correlation.
Abimnui Norine Wendi, Njilah Isaac Konfor, Yongue Fouateu Rose, Mosere Felicia Nanje, Nfor Bruno Ndicho
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, Volume 10, pp 111-126; https://doi.org/10.4236/gep.2022.104008

Abstract:
The discovery of patches of a coal deposit and other associated sedimentary and volcanic rocks in Tabenken North West Cameroon has raised the question of the geology and palaeoenvironment of that area. This Region, which is predominantly characterized by a granitoid basement of Precambrian age is in most parts overlain by Cenozoic basalts, hawaite, mugearite, trachyte and rhyolites. Volcanic outpours modified the geomorphology of the area into a series of hills and valleys. We investigated the geological setting in view of reconstituting the palaeodepositional environment of the Tabenken Coal Seam. Field studies show that the coal occurs in form of inclusions within sandstones, high grade coal bed, massive beds exposed by landslides and in alkali rhyolites. The results of Ultimate analyses of the coal indicate bituminous coal with 58% Carbon, sulfur content as low as 0.12% and ash content of 17%. The occurrence of a well stratified dark volcanic ash bed in the area is interpreted to be an interactive product of the explosive volcanic activity and weathering. Field examination of the area suggests that it was a micro-continental sedimentary palaeo-basin which was later infilled with Cenozoic volcanic outpours which probably modified the chemistry of the coal to meta-anthracites. The actual ages of the coal as well as the associated sedimentary units have not been established, meanwhile, the volcanism started some 31 ma ago.
Nurainshafika Sahak, Arnis Asmat, Noor Zaitun Yahaya
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, Volume 10, pp 218-237; https://doi.org/10.4236/gep.2022.101015

Abstract:
Urban pollution has now become increasingly recognized as an important determinant of air pollution in developed countries. The effect of urban air pollution in developing countries, on the other hand, has not been adequately addressed in the data Spatio-temporal time series. Thus, this study was intended to characterize the effect of urbanization on air pollution for an urbanized Klang Valley, Malaysia using Spatio-temporal data from 2008 to 2017. The Air Pollution Index (API) data and local pollutant concentration were employed to establish the links between urban air pollution. The analysis will be supported by determining the source of pollutants during the study period using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The study identified that Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), and Ozone (O3) are the major air pollution that has contributed to degrading air quality in the Klang Valley due to the vehicles, combustion process, and industries.
Leonardo Bertini, Elisabete De Santis Braga
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, Volume 10, pp 135-161; https://doi.org/10.4236/gep.2022.102009

Abstract:
Tropical waters show different regional aspects due to specificities in their nutrient biogeochemical cycles, which can affect the carbon system and influence their regional role as sinks or sources of CO2. This study was performed on particular tropical areas that present a different seasonal behaviour related to the carbon cycle observed in the late rainy season (July 2013). Understanding the CO2 drawdown and outgassing potential in these areas is needed to call attention to more long-term monitoring efforts and protect understudied tropical coastal systems more efficiently. This study is focused on nutrient values, hydrological data, biogeochemical carbon behaviour linked to the carbonate system and includes estimates of CO2 fluxes in three contrasting areas off the northeastern Brazilian shelf: 1) an urbanised estuary (Recife-REC), 2) a coastal Island (Itamaracá-ITA) and 3) an oceanic archipelago (Fernando de Noronha-FN). In general, REC acted as a source, while ITA and FN as carbon sinks. In ITA, despite the high DIC and Total Alkalinity observed (mean ~2360 μmol·kg-1), the sink is associated with an effective cascading of atmospheric CO2 associated with turbulent shallow waters coupled with biogenic removal of and precipitation of CaCO3 by coralline algae. FN acted as a sink, linked to minor decreases in Total Alkalinity (mean~2295 μmol·kg-1) influenced by ammonium-based primary production, nitrogen fixation and sporadic entrainment of nutrient rich waters in the upper thermocline. More studies in different western tropical Atlantic coastal systems can improve the knowledge of tropical shelf seas and their contribution to the ocean carbon budget under specific regional trophic regimes.
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