Cell Death & Disease
EISSN : 2041-4889
Current Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC (10.1038)Former Publisher:
Total articles ≅ 6,901
Latest articles in this journal
Cell Death & Disease, Volume 12, pp 1-15; doi:10.1038/s41419-021-03872-9
A chronic low-grade inflammation within adipose tissue (AT) seems to be the link between obesity and some of its associated diseases. One hallmark of this AT inflammation is the accumulation of AT macrophages (ATMs) around dead or dying adipocytes, forming so-called crown-like structures (CLS). To investigate the dynamics of CLS and their direct impact on the activation state of ATMs, we established a laser injury model to deplete individual adipocytes in living AT from double reporter mice (GFP-labeled ATMs and tdTomato-labeled adipocytes). Hence, we were able to detect early ATM-adipocyte interactions by live imaging and to determine a precise timeline for CLS formation after adipocyte death. Further, our data indicate metabolic activation and increased lipid metabolism in ATMs upon forming CLS. Most importantly, adipocyte death, even in lean animals under homeostatic conditions, leads to a locally confined inflammation, which is in sharp contrast to other tissues. We identified cell size as cause for the described pro-inflammatory response, as the size of adipocytes is above a critical threshold size for efferocytosis, a process for anti-inflammatory removal of dead cells during tissue homeostasis. Finally, experiments on parabiotic mice verified that adipocyte death leads to a pro-inflammatory response of resident ATMs in vivo, without significant recruitment of blood monocytes. Our data indicate that adipocyte death triggers a unique degradation process and locally induces a metabolically activated ATM phenotype that is globally observed with obesity.
Cell Death & Disease, Volume 12, pp 1-14; doi:10.1038/s41419-021-03871-w
The RING-finger protein Pirh2 is a p53 family-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase. Pirh2 also ubiquitinates several other important cellular factors and is involved in carcinogenesis. However, its functional role in other cellular processes is poorly understood. To address this question, we performed a proteomic search for novel interacting partners of Pirh2. Using the GST-pulldown approach combined with LC-MS/MS, we revealed 225 proteins that interacted with Pirh2. We found that, according to the GO description, a large group of Pirh2-associated proteins belonged to the RNA metabolism group. Importantly, one of the identified proteins from that group was an RNA-binding protein ELAVL1 (HuR), which is involved in the regulation of splicing and protein stability of several oncogenic proteins. We demonstrated that Pirh2 ubiquitinated the HuR protein facilitating its proteasome-mediated degradation in cells. Importantly, the Pirh2-mediated degradation of HuR occurred in response to heat shock, thereby affecting the survival rate of HeLa cells under elevated temperature. Functionally, Pirh2-mediated degradation of HuR augmented the level of c-Myc expression, whose RNA level is otherwise attenuated by HuR. Taken together, our data indicate that HuR is a new target of Pirh2 and this functional interaction contributes to the heat-shock response of cancer cells affecting their survival.
Cell Death & Disease, Volume 12, pp 1-12; doi:10.1038/s41419-021-03861-y
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and their crosstalks with other RNAs have been revealed to be closely related to tumorigenesis and development, but their role in invasive pituitary adenoma (IPA) remains largely unclear. In our study, LINC00473 was identified as the most upregulated lncRNA in IPA by whole transcriptome RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). Further, its related signaling pathway LINC00473/miR-502-3p/KMT5A was obtained by constructing a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) regulatory network. Their expression in IPA and non-invasive pituitary adenoma (NIPA) tissues was verified by qRT-PCR. Then the effects and mechanisms of LINC00473 and its ceRNA network on the proliferation of pituitary adenoma (PA) cells were confirmed by gene overexpression or silencing techniques combined with CCK-8 assay, EdU staining, flow cytometry assay, and double luciferase reporter gene assay in PA cell lines AtT-20 and GT1-1 in vitro and in a xenograft model in vivo. LINC00473 is overexpressed in IPA and can promote PA cells proliferation. Mechanistically, overexpression of LINC00473 restricts miR-502-3p through the ceRNA mechanism, upregulates KMT5A expression, and promotes the expression of cyclin D1 and CDK2, which is conducive to the cell cycle process, thereby promoting the proliferation of PA cells, involving IPA progression.
Cell Death & Disease, Volume 12, pp 1-16; doi:10.1038/s41419-021-03869-4
N 6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification is widespread in messenger RNAs and increasing evidence suggests the crucial roles of m6A in cell differentiation and tissue development. However, whether m6A modulates the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has not been fully elucidated. Here we show that conditional knockout of the demethylase Alkbh5 in bone marrow MSCs strengthened bone mass in mice. Loss- and gain-of-function studies demonstrated that ALKBH5 negatively regulates the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs in vitro. At a mechanistic level, meRIP-seq and RNA-seq in MSCs following knockdown of ALKBH5 revealed changes in transcripts of PRMT6 containing consensus m6A motifs required for demethylation by ALKBH5. Furthermore, we found that ALKBH5 accelerates the degradation rate of PRMT6 mRNA in an m6A-dependent manner, and that the ALKBH5-PRMT6 axis regulates the osteogenesis of MSCs, mainly through activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway. Thus, our work reveals a different facet of the novel ALKBH5-PRMT6 axis that modulates the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs, which can serve as a target to improve the clinical use of MSCs.
Cell Death & Disease, Volume 12, pp 1-9; doi:10.1038/s41419-021-03855-w
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) remains a deadly form of cancer, with a 5-year survival rate of less than 10 percent, necessitating novel therapies. Receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) is an oncofetal protein that is emerging as a therapeutic target and is co-expressed with BCL2 in multiple tumor types due to microRNA coregulation. We hypothesize that ROR1-targeted therapy is effective in small cell lung cancer and synergizes with therapeutic BCL2 inhibition. Tissue microarrays (TMAs) and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) SCLC patient samples were utilized to determine the prevalence of ROR1 and BCL2 expression in SCLC. Eight SCLC-derived cell lines were used to determine the antitumor activity of a small molecule ROR1 inhibitor (KAN0441571C) alone and in combination with the BCL2 inhibitor venetoclax. The Chou-Talalay method was utilized to determine synergy with the drug combination. ROR1 and BCL2 protein expression was identified in 93% (52/56) and 86% (48/56) of SCLC patient samples, respectively. Similarly, ROR1 and BCL2 were shown by qRT-PCR to have elevated expression in 79% (22/28) and 100% (28/28) of SCLC patient samples, respectively. KAN0441571C displayed efficacy in 8 SCLC cell lines, with an IC50 of 500 nM or less. Synergy as defined by a combination index of <1 via the Chou-Talalay method between KAN0441571C and venetoclax was demonstrated in 8 SCLC cell lines. We have shown that ROR1 inhibition is synergistic with BCL2 inhibition in SCLC models and shows promise as a novel therapeutic target in SCLC.
Cell Death & Disease, Volume 12, pp 1-14; doi:10.1038/s41419-021-03803-8
Cancer-secreted exosomes are critical mediators of cancer-host crosstalk. In the present study, we showed the delivery of miR-21-5p from colorectal cancer (CRC) cells to endothelial cells via exosomes increased the amount of miR-21-5p in recipient cells. MiR-21-5p suppressed Krev interaction trapped protein 1 (KRIT1) in recipient HUVECs and subsequently activated β-catenin signaling pathway and increased their downstream targets VEGFa and Ccnd1, which consequently promoted angiogenesis and vascular permeability in CRC. A strong inverse correlation between miR-21-5p and KRIT1 expression levels was observed in CRC-adjacent vessels. Furthermore, miR-21-5p expression in circulating exosomes was markedly higher in CRC patients than in healthy donors. Thus, our data suggest that exosomal miR-21-5p is involved in angiogenesis and vascular permeability in CRC and may be used as a potential new therapeutic target.
Cell Death & Disease, Volume 12, pp 1-16; doi:10.1038/s41419-021-03738-0
Epigenomic dysregulation is a common pathological feature in human hematological malignancies. H3K9me3 emerges as an important epigenomic marker in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Its associated methyltransferases, such as SETDB1, suppress AML leukemogenesis, whilst H3K9me3 demethylases KDM4C is required for mixed-lineage leukemia rearranged AML. However, the specific role and molecular mechanism of action of another member of the KDM4 family, KDM4A has not previously been clearly defined. In this study, we delineated and functionally validated the epigenomic network regulated by KDM4A. We show that selective loss of KDM4A is sufficient to induce apoptosis in a broad spectrum of human AML cells. This detrimental phenotype results from a global accumulation of H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 at KDM4A targeted genomic loci thereby causing downregulation of a KDM4A-PAF1 controlled transcriptional program essential for leukemogenesis, distinct from that of KDM4C. From this regulatory network, we further extracted a KDM4A-9 gene signature enriched with leukemia stem cell activity; the KDM4A-9 score alone or in combination with the known LSC17 score, effectively stratifies high-risk AML patients. Together, these results establish the essential and unique role of KDM4A for AML self-renewal and survival, supporting further investigation of KDM4A and its targets as a potential therapeutic vulnerability in AML.
Cell Death & Disease, Volume 12, pp 1-15; doi:10.1038/s41419-021-03848-9
Sphingosine phosphate lyase 1 (SGPL1) is a highly conserved enzyme that irreversibly degrades sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). Sgpl1-knockout mice fail to develop germ cells, resulting in infertility. However, the molecular mechanism remains unclear. The results of the present study showed that SGPL1 was expressed mainly in granulosa cells, Leydig cells, spermatocytes, and round spermatids. Sgpl1 deletion led to S1P accumulation in the gonads. In the ovary, S1P decreased natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (NPR2) activity in granulosa cells and inhibited early follicle growth. In the testis, S1P increased the levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21) and apoptosis in Leydig cells, thus resulting in spermatogenesis arrest. These results indicate that Sgpl1 deletion increases intracellular S1P levels, resulting in the arrest of female and male germ cell development via different signaling pathways.
Cell Death & Disease, Volume 12, pp 1-14; doi:10.1038/s41419-021-03852-z
Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute vasculitis of pediatric populations that may develop coronary artery aneurysms if untreated. It has been regarded as the principal cause of acquired heart disease in children of the developed countries. Interleukin (IL)-37, as one of the IL-1 family members, is a natural suppressor of inflammation that is caused by activation of innate and adaptive immunity. However, detailed roles of IL-37 in KD are largely unclear. Sera from patients with KD displayed that IL-37 level was significantly decreased compared with healthy controls (HCs). QRT-PCR and western blot analyses showed that the expression level of IL-37 variant, IL-37b, was remarkably downregulated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to KD sera-treated THP1 cells. Therefore, we researched the role of IL-37b in the context of KD and hypothesized that IL-37b may have a powerful protective effect in KD patients. We first observed and substantiated the protective role of IL-37b in a mouse model of KD induced by Candida albicans cell wall extracts (CAWS). In vitro experiments demonstrated that IL-37b alleviated endothelial cell apoptosis and inflammation via IL-1R8 receptor by inhibiting ERK and NFκB activation, which were also recapitulated in the KD mouse model. Together, our findings suggest that IL-37b play an effective protective role in coronary endothelial damage in KD, providing new evidence that IL-37b is a potential candidate drug to treat KD.
Cell Death & Disease, Volume 12, pp 1-14; doi:10.1038/s41419-021-03850-1
Kidney fibrosis is a hallmark of chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression that is caused by tubular injury and dysregulated lipid metabolism. Genetic abolition fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), a key lipid transporter, has been reported to suppress kidney interstitial fibrosis. However, the role and underlying mechanism of chemical inhibition of FABP4 in fibrotic kidney have not been well-documented. Here, we examined preemptive the effect of a FABP4 inhibitor, BMS309403, on lipid metabolism of tubular epithelial cells (TECs) and progression of kidney fibrosis. The expression of FABP4 was significantly elevated, concomitated with the accumulation of lipid droplets in TECs during kidney fibrosis. Treatment with BMS309403 alleviated lipid deposition of TECs, as well as interstitial fibrotic responses both in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-engaged mice and TGF-β-induced TECs. Moreover, BMS309403 administration enhanced fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in TECs by regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and restoring FAO-related enzyme activities; In addition, BMS309403 markedly reduced cell lipotoxicity, such as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis in fibrotic kidney. Taken together, our results suggest that preemptive pharmacological inhibition of FABP4 by BMS309403 rebalances abnormal lipid metabolism in TECs and attenuates the progression of kidney fibrosis, thus may hold therapeutic potential for the treatment of fibrotic kidney diseases.