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ISSN / EISSN : 1338-0230 / 1337-0960
Published by: HACCP Consulting (10.5219)
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Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 1082-1092; https://doi.org/10.5219/1692

The safety of plant-based food with an herbal origin is a priority for producers and final consumers these days. The interest in the high biological value of the final food products enriched with herbal ingredients is rising. We focused on the study of physico-chemical composition and antioxidant activity of two kinds of grape juice with medicinal plant addition in our study. We used 2 varieties of grapes - Welschriesling and Cabernet Sauvignon, six species of medicinal plants - Calendula officinalis L., Ginkgo biloba, Thymus serpyllum, Matricaria recutita, Salvia officinalis L., and Mentha aquatica var. citrata in our experiment. There were14 samples prepared, two of them were control samples and 12 samples were treated with medicinal plants. We tested each of the selected parameters triplicate with an interval of one week. We evaluated the results statistically in 4 levels of significance p <0,01, p <0,001, p <0,0001 and p <0,00001. The content of fructose, glucose, dry matter, density, malic acid, pH, potential alcohol, total acids, and total sugars in the treated samples was significantly lower compared to the control sample, which was probably due to the degree of dilution of grape juice with extracts gained from medicinal plants. The antioxidant effect was demonstrably higher in the samples enriched with medicinal plants than in the control samples. The highest antioxidant effect was measured in the second test in the samples with the addition of Thymus serpyllum (80.93 % - white grape must, 82.33 % - blue grape must), Calendula officinalis L. (79.29 % - white grape must, 80.49 % - blue grape must) and Ginkgo biloba (79.10 % - white grape must, 83.3 % - blue grape must). Generally, we found out that the selected medicinal plants increase the biological quality of grape juice.
Mária Angelovičová, Michal Angelovič, , , Klaudia Šaraková,
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 1069-1081; https://doi.org/10.5219/1691

The study aimed to investigate cholesterol content in chicken breast and thigh muscles by the influence of feed supplements of various content of essential oils. The experiment was carried out under practical conditions in a poultry farm with broiler chickens of the Cobb 500 hybrid combination according to the feed supplement used thyme essential oil, cinnamon essential oil, commercial citrus fruit essential oil, and their combination. The control group was without the use of experimental feed supplements and commercial coccidiostats were used in their feed mixtures. The experiment lasted 40 days in welfare conditions. Broiler chickens were used for sample preparation of breast and thigh muscles with the skin and their analysis for dry matter, fat and cholesterol contents. Samples were analyzed using a Nicolet 6700 FT-IR Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The results were processed by the SAS system program, version 8.2. The results, which were evaluated, indicated a tendency to reduce the cholesterol content in chicken breast muscle due to cinnamon essential oil and the combination of cinnamon essential oil with citrus fruit essential oil as well as thyme essential oil with citrus fruit essential. In the achieved results of dry matter, fat, and cholesterol content in breast and thigh muscles, the difference between the effects of the used feed supplements based on essential oils and concerning the control group were not statistically significant p >0.05. The correlation was a statistically significant strong linear relation only between dry matter content and fat content due to thyme and cinnamon essential oils. In conclusion, it was stated that the investigation of the feed supplement effect based on essential oils is an open question concerning the production of safe food of animal origin.
Mária Angelovičová, Michal Angelovič, , , Petra Folvarčíková,
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 1056-1068; https://doi.org/10.5219/1690

The study aimed to investigate and evaluate the oxidative stability of chicken thighs with skin stored in freezing conditions due to the effect of oregano essential oil for various times. The results were compared with a control group without the use of oregano essential oil. Samples of chicken thighs with skin were obtained from an experiment performed on a poultry farm in a deep litter breeding system. The results obtained from the application of oregano essential oil to chicken thighs with skin did not show a statistically significant difference (p >0.05) in the dry matter content, fat content and acid value compared to the control group, where coccidiostats were used in starter and growth feed mixtures. A statistically significant difference was found in the peroxide value by applying oregano essential oil to chicken thighs with skin compared to a control group containing coccidiostats in starter and growth feed mixtures when stored for 1 day at room temperature (p £0.01) and 12 months in freezing conditions at -18 °C (p £0.05) and a statistically non-significant difference (p >0.05) when thighs with skin were stored for 6 and 9 months in -18 °C freezing conditions. In the conclusion, it was stated that maintaining the oxidative stability of chicken meat means knowing the factors that affect it and prepare the conditions for its maintenance. Chicken meat is generally susceptible to oxidative damage because it is characterized by a high concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids. With a sufficient amount of effective antioxidants, chicken meat could be a homoeostatic system, but it remains limited or free of oxidized compounds and reactive components. These questions are the subject of further research in the field of oxidative stability of chicken meat.
Diah Pitaloka Putri, Aulia Putri Wahyuningtyas, , Nani Maharani
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 1049-1055; https://doi.org/10.5219/1667

Uric acid is the final product of purine metabolism and is categorized as hyperuricemia when it reaches >6.0 mg.dL-1 for women and >7.0 mg.dL-1 for men. The chayote leaves (Sechium edule) contain a high amount of flavonoid and might be used as an alternative to reduce hyperuricemia. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of chayote leaves (Sechium edule)’s flavonoid fraction on the level of uric acid and the activity of xanthine oxidase (XO) in Sprague Dawley Rats. The flavonoid fraction (FF) was obtained by extracting the chayote leaves, fractionating with n-hexane, hydrolyzing with HCl, and finally re-fractionating with ethyl acetate. Thirty male Sprague Dawley rats were induced for hyperuricemia by potassium oxonate and broth block for 21 days, and the interventions were given orally for 14 days. The rats were divided randomly into five groups: normal control (K-), hyperuricemia control (K+), hyperuricemia with FF dose 50 mg.200g-1 body weight (P1), hyperuricemia with FF dose 100 mg.200g-1 body weight (P2) and hyperuricemia with allopurinol 1.8 mg.200g-1 body weight. Xanthine oxidase activity was measured by CheKineTM Xanthine Oxidase Assay Kit, with simple colorimetry methods. The statistical analysis for XO activity was done using Kruskal-Wallis followed by Mann Whitney. The results showed that chayote leaves (Sechium edule)’s flavonoid fraction contains apigenin, apigenin o-glucoside, and luteolin. It also has antioxidant activity with 98.45% inhibition. There was a significant reduction in xanthine oxidase activity in groups treated with FF (p <0.005). The best dose of FF affecting XO activity was 100 mg.200g-1 body weight. The combination of FF and allopurinol can be more effective in decreasing uric acid levels by inhibiting XO activity.
, , , Mikhail Minaev, Elena Zvereva
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 1005-1017; https://doi.org/10.5219/1632

Because of the increased demand for processed meat, there is an urgent need to introduce specific identification methods. Strategies such as molecular genetics and the physical condition of meat are used to quickly explore multi-component products. However, a single methodology does not always unambiguously classify a product as counterfeit. In laboratory practice, as a rule, screening techniques are rarely used in the first stage, followed by arbitration. This work aimed to study individual methodologies using artificially falsified meat samples as examples and to identify their composition based on muscle tissue. For the experiments, the three most common types of raw meat were selected: pork, beef, and chicken. The calculation of the content of muscle tissue was carried out according to the BEFFE method. The study of muscle protein was carried out by ICA, ELISA, PCR, microstructural analysis, and mass spectrometric identification. In this connection, we proposed a multilevel control system for multicomponent meat products. Both classical methodologies, such as calculation by prescription bookmarks (BEFFE) and microstructural analysis, and approaches of highly sensitive methodologies, such as identification of muscle tissue by marker peptides (LC/MS-MRM) and semi-quantitative PCR analysis, were evaluated.
Sergiy Gunko, Olha Trynchuk, , Hryhorii Podpriatov, Liubomyr Khomichak, Anatoliy Bober, Volodymyr Zavhorodnii, Volodymyr Voitsekhivskyi, Oksana Zavadska, Lesia Bondareva
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 1018-1028; https://doi.org/10.5219/1634

Mushrooms' quality may be significantly changing depending on their type, strain, growing cycle, packing, cooling, postharvest handling (PHH), and conditions of storage. This work aimed to define the influence of the type and mushrooms' strain, the regime of the PHH by carbon dioxide on their preservation (marketability, loss of weight (LW)), changes in the chemical substances, and physiological activity (intensity respiration (IR) and heat release (HR)). Mushrooms Agaricus bisporus (AB) (strains ІБК-25 and ІБК-15) and Pleurotus ostreatus (PO) (strains НК-35 and Amycel 3000) were used for testing. Three regimes of treatment by CO2 with a concentration of 20% were applied: 2 h; 12 h and 22 h. The control was the mushrooms without treatment by CO2. Changes in the chemical substances such as dry matters (DM), protein nitrogen (PN), and ascorbic acid (AA) in the researched mushrooms were observed. The best result of mushroom preservation was provided by the regime of CO2 treatment during 12 h. The yield of marketable AB was 94.9% (IBK-25) and 94.2% (IBK-15) comparison to control 93.5%, and 92.5%, respectively. The regime of PHH 2 h almost has no influence but 22 h harmed this indicator. PHH of mushrooms by carbon dioxide was promoted to preserve the DM and increasing concentration of CO2 was supplied better results. Thus, DM at the end of storage in the AB of strain IBK-25 depend on the regime were 8.5, 8.6, and 8.4%, against – 8.3% in the control variant. Significant quantitative changes in the PN and AA as a result of treatment by CO2 were not established. PHH also affected the IR and HR. The increased duration of treatment by CO2 inhibited the intensity of physiological processes in the mushrooms. But, as in previous cases, the best result was provided PHH by 20% CO2 during 12 h. Similar trends of treatments effect by carbon dioxide were observed in the mushrooms of PO.
Frederick Adzitey, Joseph Yaro, Joseph Kudadam Korese, Mohammad Halim Jeinie,
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 1039-1048; https://doi.org/10.5219/1658

This study investigated the sensory, nutritional, and physicochemical characteristics as well as formulation cost of beef sausages formulated with raw pearl millet flour (RaPMF) as an extender. Four treatments were formulated with 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% RaPMF. Ash, carbohydrate, fat, and protein contents of the beef sausages were not influenced (p <0.05) by the RaPMF. The calcium, magnesium, potassium, and pH contents were highest (p <0.05) in the 15% RaPMF beef sausages. Cooking loss was at least (p 0.05) the sensory properties (week 1), water holding capacity, peroxide value, lightness (week 1), and yellowness (week 1). The formulation cost was least for 15% RaPMF beef sausages and highest for 0% RaPMF beef sausages. As a general conclusion, RaPMF improved the mineral composition of the beef sausages and reduced production costs without compromising its physicochemical and sensory properties.
, Galina Upadysheva, Tatyana Tumaeva
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 1029-1038; https://doi.org/10.5219/1650

The influence of seedling and clonal rootstocks of different spreads on Prunus domestica L. plum fruits quality and productivity of Yaichnaya Sinyaya and Utro varieties was studied. The significant change of productivity and the fruit weight of the varieties under study was to determine under the influence of the rootstock. Depending on the scion-stock combination the plum tree's productivity varied from 7.5 kg/tr. (Utro/140-1) to 15.1 kg/tr. (Yаichnaya Sinyaya /Novinka) at the mean value of 11.5 kg/tr. Medium-growing rootstocks Novinka and OPA-15-2 provided the maximum value of the varieties productivity The significant productivity decrease relatively to seedling rootstock was stated for the combinations with low-growing rootstock 140-1. Soluble solids content in the fruits of Yаichnaya Sinyaya variety is higher than in the fruits of Utro variety, moreover, the highest values were determined on Novinka and OPA-15-2 rootstocks: on 4 – 4.5% higher in comparison with the fruits on the seeding rootstock at average. The rootstock causes less influence on titratable acids. The antioxidant activity of Yаichnaya Sinyaya variety fruits is 30% higher than that of Utro variety fruits on average. The maximum values of antioxidant activity in Yаichnaya Sinyaya variety fruits were fixed on OPA-15-2 rootstock (16.37%), the minimal ones – on Skorospelka Krasnaya rootstocks (14.68%). In the fruits of Utro variety the highest values were stated on OP-23-23 rootstock (13.16%), and the lowest ones – on the seedling rootstock (10.93%). The content of phenolic compounds sum is 60% higher in the fruits of Yаichnaya Sinyaya variety than in Utro variety ones on average. The decrease of the content of phenolic compounds sum was stated in the fruits of Utro variety on all the rootstocks in comparison with the combination Utro/seedling rootstock. The decreasing series of ash elements accumulation (K > P > Ca > Mg > Mo > S > Zn > Si) was determined. The strongest variety differences on total mineral element content were overvalued on medium-growing clonal rootstocks (Novinka, OP-23-23 and OPA-15-2). OPA-15-2 and OP-23-23 rootstocks provided the highest fruit quality on the combination of economic and biochemical parameters.
Aleš Vavřiník, , Adrian Alumbro, Methusela Perrocha, Lenka Sochorová, ,
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 995-1004; https://doi.org/10.5219/1604

The presented work aimed to study the inhibition using nanoparticles produced by the green synthesis in selected acetic acid and lactic acid bacteria, which are related to viticulture. The degree of ability to eliminate silver particles produced by green syntheses was determined using the plate method on Petri dishes. This is done using two different approaches - the method of direct application of the solution to the surface of the inoculated medium (determination of inhibition zones) and the method of application using nanoparticles to the inoculated medium. Gluconobacter oxydans (CCM 3618) and Acetobacter aceti (CCM 3620T) were studied from acet acetic bacteria. The lactic acid bacteria were Lactobacillus brevis (CCM 1815) and Pediococcus damnosus (CCM 2465). The application of silver nanoparticles was always in concentrations of 0, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 g.L-1. All applied concentrations of silver nanoparticles showed an inhibitory effect on the monitored microorganisms. Silver particles could be used in wine technology for their antibacterial effects, mainly to inhibit microorganisms during vinification, as a substitute for sulfur dioxide.
Ololade Abosede Olodude, Victoria Funmilayo Abioye, Yetunde Mary Iranloye
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 776-783; https://doi.org/10.5219/1677

The potentials of underutilized African yam bean (AYB) and pro-vitamin A cassava in the development of nutritious food products with acceptable sensory properties were studied. Grits were produced from freshly harvested yellow root pro-vitamin A cassava by peeling, washing, cutting, soaking, dewatering, roasting, sieving, and milling to obtain yellow root cassava grits while AYB flour was obtained by cleaning, roasting, dehulling, milling, and sieving (425 µm). A simple lattice design was used to obtain formulations of blends (100:0; 90:10; 80:20; 70:30; 60:40 and 0:100) of yellow root cassava grits and AYB flour. Gruels were prepared from these formulations using 4:5 w/v in boiling water while meals were prepared using 1:1 w/v of blend in boiling water for 5 min. Moisture, fat, ash, protein, crude fibre, carbohydrate, β-carotene and calorific content of the blends were in the ranges of 4.66 – 7.92%, 2.20 – 2.82%, 2.16 – 2.66%, 2.72 – 20.43%, 1.15 – 1.40%, 68.65 – 83.23%, 1.33 to 3.97 μg/g and 348.37 – 358.96 kcal/100 g, respectively. Saponin, tannin, trypsin inhibitor, hemagglutinin, starchyose, raffinose, phytate and Hydrogen Cyanide ranged from 0.039 – 0.087%, 0.11 – 0.15%, 1.24 – 3.15 mg/g, 1.47 – 3.49 mg/100 g, 1.51 – 1.81%, 0.38 – 0.45%, 0.82 – 2.69 mg/g, 0.07 – 4.47 mg/kg, respectively. The sensory evaluation revealed that the meal and the gruel samples had acceptable sensory attributes. The developed products have the potentials in alleviating the problem of protein malnutrition in developing countries.
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