Open Journal of Philosophy
ISSN / EISSN : 2163-9434 / 2163-9442
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 457
Latest articles in this journal
Open Journal of Philosophy, Volume 11, pp 28-34; doi:10.4236/ojpp.2021.111003
The article describing family marriage relations and their peculiarities between the ancient Kyrgyz people, the main focus was directed on the philosophical relation categories. Formation of the relationship proves the development of an organic type of communication in the form of a traditional family. According to the general philosophical concept, the Kyrgyz family is not only closely connected with its members, but also has formed a way of life and social norms that belong to the people as a whole.
Open Journal of Philosophy, Volume 11, pp 16-27; doi:10.4236/ojpp.2021.111002
This paper explores the proposition that the traditional belief-system and masquerade act of the Igbo of south-eastern Nigeria is a demonstration of Charles Peirce’s pragmatism. Pragmatism’s central theme is that only practice or action can validate the veracity or meaningfulness of any thought or concept. In like manner, masquerade act or practice in Igbo land is, in many respects, a manifestation of the traditional belief system of the Igbo (also known as Ndi-Igbo). In other words, masquerade act in Igbo land correlates with and validates a key concept communally shared by Ndi-Igbo, thus fulfilling the ultimate goal of Peirce’s pragmatism and the pragmatic maxim, namely, that the actual or potential consequence of a concept is the only true proof or validity of that concept.
Open Journal of Philosophy, Volume 11, pp 159-170; doi:10.4236/ojpp.2021.111012
This work will examine the hypothesis that the Essence of the Universe is a dimensionless zero-dimension using a combination of Eastern philosophical ideologies and theories in modern physics. The author proposes that all existence is energy-based, divided into yin and yang, and more specifically, he names them the Intelligent Energy and Fundamental Energy. These two types of energy are simultaneously the existence and existence’s dynamic, and when combined, these energies create the three-dimensional Universe. Under the action of information, they perform exchanges and circulation with all physical substances.
Open Journal of Philosophy, Volume 11, pp 211-214; doi:10.4236/ojpp.2021.111016
The social sciences in a wide sense and the Humanities share one major focus, namely the acting person. The greatest social scientist in modern times argued that human action had to modelled as purposeful, driven by means and ends (Weber, 2012). Is Max Weber now old fashioned?
Open Journal of Philosophy, Volume 11, pp 292-306; doi:10.4236/ojpp.2021.112020
The question of constructing an evolutionary picture of the world based on the results obtained by extending classical mechanics is considered. The expansion of mechanics arose as a result of taking into account the role of the structure of bodies in their dynamics. It is shown that such an extension leads to the possibility of combining branches of physics, in particular, to the substantiation of the laws of thermodynamics, statistical physics, kinetics within the framework of the laws of classical mechanics. It turned out that, according to the laws of classical mechanics, matter is infinitely divisible and can be represented by an infinite hierarchical structure from simple to complex. The expansion showed the existence of universal principles connecting the laws of the upper rung of the hierarchical ladder of matter with the laws of the lower rung. It is considered how they lead to the possibility of constructing a picture of the world based on the fundamental laws of nature.
Open Journal of Philosophy, Volume 11, pp 307-325; doi:10.4236/ojpp.2021.112021
The worldwide COVID-19 pandemic has shed more light on the difficulty of making health care decisions integrating scientific knowledge and values associated to life and death issues, human suffering, quality of life, economic losses, liberty of movement, etc. But the difficulties related to health care decisions and the use of innovative drugs or technologies are not new, and many countries have created agencies that have the mandate to evaluate new technologies in health care. Health Technological Assessment (HTA) reports’ aim is to guide the decision makers in these difficult matters. There are two ethical components in HTA. The first is the report’s presentation of an ethical evaluation of the technology. The second is the value-ladenness of the HTA decision-making process itself. When implicit value judgments are not elicited, the justification of the final decision cannot be transparent. The present paper aims to identify and elicit the implicit value-judgments related to each step of the HTA process. This research is grounded on an applied ethics decision-making paradigm based on the role of value judgments in the decision-making process. The first part discusses two different approaches to values and value judgments in HTA. In the second part, citations mentioning value judgments extracted from a systematic review on the integration of ethics into HTA were categorized to elicit the value judgments and their criteria for each different HTA decision-making steps. The results show that there are 18 decision-making steps in the HTA process where 23 implicit value-judgments can be recognized. The range of these value judgments encompasses the whole HTA process: from the initial request, the presenting of the principal issues, to the final report’s dissemination. Since stakeholders need to understand which value judgments the conclusion of a report relies on, eliciting the implicit value judgments in the HTA decision-making process should yield more transparency.
Open Journal of Philosophy, Volume 11, pp 215-228; doi:10.4236/ojpp.2021.112017
The Ministry of Education of China put forward the concept of “core literacy system” for the first time in the “Opinions on Comprehensively Deepening Curriculum Reform and Implementing the Fundamental Tasks of Moral Education” issued in 2014. This is a new educational reform policy put forward by China based on fully combining China’s national conditions and the new requirements for human development in the 21st century, which has important guiding significance for China’s educational reform. After discussing the background, content, and meaning of core literacy, this study points out the current situation and development trend of core literacy in primary and secondary schools in China and then puts forward guiding opinions on the development of core literacy in rural primary and secondary schools. With the widening gap between urban and rural education, rural people are in urgent need of high-quality educational resources. To narrow the gap between urban and rural education and promote the democratization of education in China, we must unswervingly implement the education reform with the core element system as the key field and main link. This is also the significance of this study.
Open Journal of Philosophy, Volume 11, pp 355-357; doi:10.4236/ojpp.2021.113024
We examine a series of developments in mathematics used in quantum physics. These include Hilbert space. We then examine how several developments in mathematics can be used in application to Quantum physics.
Open Journal of Philosophy, Volume 11, pp 43-58; doi:10.4236/ojpp.2021.111005
The current “narrow” or “weak” form of artificial intelligence is, by itself, fundamentally a data analysis tool that does nothing more or less than its programming instructs it to do. It has no values or goals of its own, it simply follows the values and pursues the goals provided to it by its programmers. Artificial wisdom has the potential to make artificial intelligence a better tool and eventually perhaps more than a tool, but at least for now artificial wisdom must also be programmed and therefore similarly reflects only the wisdom of its programmers. Artificial intelligence, with its reductionistic ontology of data and its contrived epistemology of algorithms, is the quintessential product of the Western scientific worldview, and the development and application of artificial intelligence and discussions of artificial wisdom still largely reflect that one, narrow worldview. Artificial wisdom would greatly benefit from incorporating elements of non-Western worldviews, particularly the metaphysically inclusive Indigenous worldview. For example, the Navajo concept of hozho involves the normative values and goals of harmony, balance, interrelatedness, and connectedness. Hozho and other Indigenous concepts are potentially paradigm-shifting additions to artificial wisdom and could greatly enhance the usefulness of and overall benefit from applications of artificial intelligence.
Open Journal of Philosophy, Volume 11, pp 75-84; doi:10.4236/ojpp.2021.111007
This work tends to examine capital punishment in Jeremy Bentham’s utilitarianism and its application to Nigeria situation. Capital punishment is a controversial issue in many parts of the globe. The high incidence of crime in Nigeria, Africa and other parts of the world calls for a stringent measure to curb this menace in society. The proponents of capital punishment are of the view that capital punishment helps to deter or prevent crimes. But, in what sense can capital punishment serve as an effective deterrent? On the other hand, the opponents of capital punishment conceive that capital punishment promotes the culture of violence in society, which violates human dignity and right to life. This study made use of textual analysis. Data collected from books and journals were analysed using analytical, expository and critical methods. Jeremy Bentham seeks to resolve this dilemma by positing that capital punishment can be justified only if it can contribute to a significant increase in the happiness of others.