Open Journal of Philosophy

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 21639434 / 21639442
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 416
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Latest articles in this journal

Felix Okechukwu Ugwuozor
Open Journal of Philosophy, Volume 10, pp 277-299; doi:10.4236/ojpp.2020.103019

This paper assesses teachers’ and students’ self-perception as global citizens in the context of Alfred North Whitehead Process Philosophy. The aim of the paper is to identify the potential for global citizenship within pedagogy and learning. One hundred students and 50 teachers from Peaceland College of Education, Enugu, in Nigeria, were selected systematically and examined on their belief that an action in situ could pose global consequences or benefits. Respondents were also assessed on other dimensions of globalization. Results showed that although more teachers believed themselves to be global citizens, there was little tendency to stimulate students in this regard. Students conversely exhibited their potential for global citizenship by listening more to foreign media than their teachers. For students, however, knowledge of current affairs and interaction with foreigners were significant determinants of self-perception as global citizens; for teachers, it was the motivation to teach and the level of education. The study concludes that adopting process philosophy in schools has much promise for skills, values, attitudes and dispositions needed to live in a global society.
Charis Stampoulis
Open Journal of Philosophy, Volume 10, pp 300-315; doi:10.4236/ojpp.2020.103020

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Richard Startup
Open Journal of Philosophy, Volume 10, pp 45-65; doi:10.4236/ojpp.2020.101005

Drawing mainly from the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus and his middle period writings, strategic issues and problems arising from Wittgenstein’s philosophy of mathematics are discussed. Topics have been so chosen as to assist mediation between the perspective of philosophers and that of mathematicians on their developing discipline. There is consideration of rules within arithmetic and geometry and Wittgenstein’s distinctive approach to number systems whether elementary or transfinite. Examples are presented to illuminate the relation between the meaning of an arithmetical generalisation or theorem and its proof. An attempt is made to meet directly some of Wittgenstein’s critical comments on the mathematical treatment of infinity and irrational numbers.
Denis Larrivee
Open Journal of Philosophy, Volume 10, pp 66-87; doi:10.4236/ojpp.2020.101006

In affective neuroscience, constructivist models are acutely influenced by the modern technological evolution, which underwrites an ongoing epistemological substitution of techne for episteme. Evidenced symptomatically in the influence of artificial intelligence (AI), affective artefacts, these models inform an ontological incursion of techne seen to coincide with posthumanist aspirations and anthropology. It is from the perspective of this neuroscientific techne that posthumanism views the human being as increasingly ill adapted to the modern technological civilization, which, conversely, is understood to require a technical governance of the sort envisioned through AI. Among the projects thought necessary for implementing this framework is a recasting of the human emotional spectrum. Revealed through its techne recasting, however, are explanatory commitments to a metaphysic of extrinsic and contiguous causes, where malleability is ontologically constitutive. Aligned with posthumanist assertions malleability is invoked to argue for a rapid advance of the human form, normatively driven by enlightenment ideals. The ontological claim, however, dispenses with the stability of an a priori, intersubjective and interrelational metaphysical form that undergirds the emotions, leading to the collapse of a definitional anthropos. This paper will argue that techne models of the emotions selectively endorse philosophy of science commitments, thereby introducing a normative inversion that deconstructs the notion of anthropology pursued in posthumanist aspirations.
Gary R. Epler
Open Journal of Philosophy, Volume 10, pp 187-191; doi:10.4236/ojpp.2020.102013

Too many people throughout the world are unhealthy, stressed, and disconnected from the community because they spend too much time being angry or in fear, and too much time having self-centered thoughts and judging others. People are not being their true selves. The Eplerian Philosophy based on brain science is defined as “know who you are moment by moment.” This means know the brain region at any given moment and learn to quickly leave the unhealthy brain regions. The less time people think about themselves, the more they become their true selves.
Marinos Papadopoulos, Maria Botti, M. A. Paraskevi (Vicky) Ganatsiou, Christos Zampakolas
Open Journal of Philosophy, Volume 10, pp 88-112; doi:10.4236/ojpp.2020.101007

Almost two decades of experience on web harvesting and archiving are counted; the subject of web harvesting and web archiving have been top in the interest of researchers, technologists and librarians-information scientists. Web harvesting projects and pilot programs on archiving content traced on the Web are becoming priorities for national libraries and cultural heritage organizations in the EU. This paper pertains to web harvesting as a process for data mining from web and only through web (“pull” function); this paper elaborates upon research implemented in the framework of the funded research project titled “Web Archiving in Public Libraries and IP Law” that focused on the processes of web-harvesting and archiving as well as Text and Data Mining (TDM) operations in the national libraries of EU Member States. Web archiving as an official operation in national libraries of EU Member States creates web collections and preserves them for the purpose of being accessible and usable in perpetuity. This paper pertains to research on various components of web harvesting and archiving through an online survey (qualitative research) which targeted the national libraries of EU Member States. The research team of authors posed seventeen questions to EU national libraries. The survey output comes from answers delivered by 22 national libraries of EU Member States. The questionnaire was created through the use of Google forms. The researchers reached the EU national libraries via email and follow up telephone calls seeking libraries’ participation in the research. The aim of the research was to delve on participant libraries’ Text and Data Mining operation leveraging on Web harvesting and Web archiving technologies and operations. Results analysis reveals that web harvesting is considered among national libraries’ top priorities; the relevant projects increase in number, the web collections become more and more and the technological infrastructures and tools for web harvesting improve. Yet, there are many issues that remain unresolved. A significant number of surveyed libraries consider that legal and technical issues remain the most important to resolve. Access to harvested material is still under legal restrictions. The Directive 2019/790/EU on Copyright in the Digital Single Market (DSM) creates a favorable legal foundation for the deployment of web harvesting operations in national libraries of the EU Member States. TDM technologies make possible new areas of research. Web harvesting that was initially aimed for preservation purposes now expands to unprecedented research of national heritage through state-of-the-art automated TDM processes.
Randall S. Firestone
Open Journal of Philosophy, Volume 10, pp 155-186; doi:10.4236/ojpp.2020.101012

William Paley’s classic version of the Teleological Argument contends that just as a watch is ordered for a purpose and we rightfully conclude that it had a creator who ordered it, the universe is also ordered in many ways and for a variety of purposes, so we should similarly conclude that it had a creator, God, who ordered it. This paper contends that Paley committed the fallacy of equivocation when he lumped various types of order together as if they had no differences. The watch’s operations are an example of Intentional Order—order created intentionally by a conscious agent for a specific purpose. The universe, on the other hand, until it had conscious and purposeful beings such as human beings, had exhibited only Ramseyian Order, Purposeless Order, and Functional Order. These three types of order can be explained by science in naturalistic terms, and therefore it is superfluous to appeal to a conscious Creator-God, let alone a supernatural one. Additionally, the paper asserts that the best scientific evidence indicates that the universe has always been and still is primarily disordered, and further argues that the natural laws, contrary to popular belief, are not ordered. Moreover, the order that is present is riddled with design flaws. As such, our universe is inconsistent with what one would expect from an Intelligent Designer/God. Therefore both Paley’s analogical argument and all standard versions of the Teleological Argument, which rely on the order present in the universe to argue for the existence of God, fail.
Peter Bissonnet
Open Journal of Philosophy, Volume 10, pp 24-35; doi:10.4236/ojpp.2020.101003

The author finds that it is necessary to post a generalized statement of scientific ethics intended to cover all forms of scientific endeavor as society, government, and Science change and evolve. The author’s method of research is based on 1) his own experiential interaction with publishers and universities, 2) what he sees happening politically around the world today, and 3) his own belief system, common sense, and logic on how to make Science better. Consequently, the author believes that a more stringent and specific statement of scientific ethics should be made. Plagiarism is one of the dirtiest activities in the world of Science today. It is practiced by desperate scientists and universities, both of whom desire personal aggrandizement and accolades to which they are not entitled. This practice seems to the author to be most prevalent by the larger scientific concerns against those of whom are referred to as “independent researchers”. There are two research aims in this paper: 1) the main aim is to protect and alert “independent researchers” to nefarious practices being carried out and 2) the secondary aim is to suggest strongly to all scientists that the independence of Science as an “institution” is critical, before it is irretrievably swallowed up by government and the military, collectively called the State.
Marta Toraldo, Domenico Maurizio Toraldo
Open Journal of Philosophy, Volume 10, pp 36-44; doi:10.4236/ojpp.2020.101004

With its cybernetic and optimistic vision of the future of mankind, characterised by the birth of a human-machine hybrid no longer subject to pain or chronic illness, the post-human theoretical perspective is flawed in both scientific and philosophical terms. To deny suffering is to deny human life itself, and yet, though the human dream of defeating pain and death has so far been systematically thwarted, it has not faded. The post-human approach proposes to go beyond human biological boundaries with the help of science and technology, reprogramming nature to resemble a human-robot hybrid. However, the artificial supports that this approach relies on (such as microchips) still cannot negate death and pain, which are constituent parts of biological life. The negation of pain would mean the negation of the human being in the philosophical sense. An alternative approach, which we shall refer to as Neo-Vitruvian or neo-humanist, emphasises the scientific and technical skills of human beings, who can improve human lives and defeat disease and pain by using their knowledge of the secrets of nature. Armed with this knowledge, today post-modern human beings are able to control nature with the same rules by which nature creates the world. In this way, today’s human beings, like Leonardo Da Vinci in the Renaissance, use science to assume the role of the Universal Creator, without however manipulating nature as proposed by the post-humanists.
Verena Xiwen Zhang, Xiwen Zhang Verena
Open Journal of Philosophy, Volume 10, pp 9-23; doi:10.4236/ojpp.2020.101002

This paper aims at reflecting on our life in contemporary predicament of living in “iron cage” and with “value-fragmentation” proposed from Max Weber through exploiting Chinese philosophical thoughts to synthesize the contribution from different disciplinaries. It intends to explore the issue in the Italian Renaissance but not only limited in that golden age—how could the artistic, cultural achievement in an age be possible? To explore this, issues could easily fall into describing social phenomena by using social scientific terms. When using descriptive language to depict social phenomena, we may find out lots of reasons from a higgledy-piggledy collection of phenomena fragments and social scientists try their best to give reasonable explanations for those phenomena. They have given lots of significant contributions through their research approach. However, in this paper, it aims to discover this issue through interdisciplinary approach to combine the geopolitics, macro-history, and cultural history as well as finally synthesize those perspectives and give more comprehensive picture mapped up by means of Chinese pre-Qin Daoist philosophy and pre-Qin Confucianism. In terms of geopolitics and macro history, this paper firstly attempts to explore how natural environment conditioned and affected economic development and political stability in Renaissance Venice and Florentine. In addition, it discusses whether patronage in Renaissance and Chinese Song Dynasty was merely to show off wealth or not? Furthermore, it introduces pre-Qin Confucianism to enlarge the philosophical aspect on those two questions. In Conclusion, it concludes on how pre-Qin Confucianism maps together with pre-Qin Daoism and how we can benefit from the synthetic perspectives of macro history, geopolitics, social science, and that of traditional Chinese philosophy to be in face of nowadays dilemma.
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