Open Journal of Philosophy

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 21639434 / 21639442
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc, (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 400
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Latest articles in this journal

Verena Xiwen Zhang, Xiwen Zhang Verena
Open Journal of Philosophy, Volume 10, pp 9-23; doi:10.4236/ojpp.2020.101002

Abstract:This paper aims at reflecting on our life in contemporary predicament of living in “iron cage” and with “value-fragmentation” proposed from Max Weber through exploiting Chinese philosophical thoughts to synthesize the contribution from different disciplinaries. It intends to explore the issue in the Italian Renaissance but not only limited in that golden age—how could the artistic, cultural achievement in an age be possible? To explore this, issues could easily fall into describing social phenomena by using social scientific terms. When using descriptive language to depict social phenomena, we may find out lots of reasons from a higgledy-piggledy collection of phenomena fragments and social scientists try their best to give reasonable explanations for those phenomena. They have given lots of significant contributions through their research approach. However, in this paper, it aims to discover this issue through interdisciplinary approach to combine the geopolitics, macro-history, and cultural history as well as finally synthesize those perspectives and give more comprehensive picture mapped up by means of Chinese pre-Qin Daoist philosophy and pre-Qin Confucianism. In terms of geopolitics and macro history, this paper firstly attempts to explore how natural environment conditioned and affected economic development and political stability in Renaissance Venice and Florentine. In addition, it discusses whether patronage in Renaissance and Chinese Song Dynasty was merely to show off wealth or not? Furthermore, it introduces pre-Qin Confucianism to enlarge the philosophical aspect on those two questions. In Conclusion, it concludes on how pre-Qin Confucianism maps together with pre-Qin Daoism and how we can benefit from the synthetic perspectives of macro history, geopolitics, social science, and that of traditional Chinese philosophy to be in face of nowadays dilemma.
Bin Wang
Open Journal of Philosophy, Volume 10, pp 1-8; doi:10.4236/ojpp.2020.101001

Abstract:The standard genetic code is nearly universal, and relates the sequence of a translated messenger RNA (mRNA) to the sequence of amino acids in the resultant protein. Previous studies have related the second position of the mRNA codon to the hydrophobicity of the encoded amino acid. The research aim of this study was to investigate any other relationships that might exist. The author explored the association between both the first and the second positions of the mRNA codon with the hydrophobicity of the encoded amino acid based on their characterization according to the eight trigrams of the I Ching. The author found that most hydrophilic amino acids are associated with mRNA codons whose first two bases are in the middle four trigrams and form intermediate or weak hydrogen bonds with tRNA anticodons, whereas most hydrophobic amino acids are associated with mRNA codons located at the Yang end (i.e., the first two bases of the codon are strong followed by strong) or the Yin end (i.e., the first two bases of the codon are weak followed by weak). The eight trigrams provide a new avenue for characterizing the association between mRNA codons and the hydrophobicity of the encoded amino acids.
Peter Bissonnet
Open Journal of Philosophy, Volume 10, pp 24-35; doi:10.4236/ojpp.2020.101003

Abstract:The author finds that it is necessary to post a generalized statement of scientific ethics intended to cover all forms of scientific endeavor as society, government, and Science change and evolve. The author’s method of research is based on 1) his own experiential interaction with publishers and universities, 2) what he sees happening politically around the world today, and 3) his own belief system, common sense, and logic on how to make Science better. Consequently, the author believes that a more stringent and specific statement of scientific ethics should be made. Plagiarism is one of the dirtiest activities in the world of Science today. It is practiced by desperate scientists and universities, both of whom desire personal aggrandizement and accolades to which they are not entitled. This practice seems to the author to be most prevalent by the larger scientific concerns against those of whom are referred to as “independent researchers”. There are two research aims in this paper: 1) the main aim is to protect and alert “independent researchers” to nefarious practices being carried out and 2) the secondary aim is to suggest strongly to all scientists that the independence of Science as an “institution” is critical, before it is irretrievably swallowed up by government and the military, collectively called the State.
Richard Startup
Open Journal of Philosophy, Volume 10, pp 45-65; doi:10.4236/ojpp.2020.101005

Abstract:Drawing mainly from the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus and his middle period writings, strategic issues and problems arising from Wittgenstein’s philosophy of mathematics are discussed. Topics have been so chosen as to assist mediation between the perspective of philosophers and that of mathematicians on their developing discipline. There is consideration of rules within arithmetic and geometry and Wittgenstein’s distinctive approach to number systems whether elementary or transfinite. Examples are presented to illuminate the relation between the meaning of an arithmetical generalisation or theorem and its proof. An attempt is made to meet directly some of Wittgenstein’s critical comments on the mathematical treatment of infinity and irrational numbers.
Marta Toraldo, Domenico Maurizio Toraldo
Open Journal of Philosophy, Volume 10, pp 36-44; doi:10.4236/ojpp.2020.101004

Abstract:With its cybernetic and optimistic vision of the future of mankind, characterised by the birth of a human-machine hybrid no longer subject to pain or chronic illness, the post-human theoretical perspective is flawed in both scientific and philosophical terms. To deny suffering is to deny human life itself, and yet, though the human dream of defeating pain and death has so far been systematically thwarted, it has not faded. The post-human approach proposes to go beyond human biological boundaries with the help of science and technology, reprogramming nature to resemble a human-robot hybrid. However, the artificial supports that this approach relies on (such as microchips) still cannot negate death and pain, which are constituent parts of biological life. The negation of pain would mean the negation of the human being in the philosophical sense. An alternative approach, which we shall refer to as Neo-Vitruvian or neo-humanist, emphasises the scientific and technical skills of human beings, who can improve human lives and defeat disease and pain by using their knowledge of the secrets of nature. Armed with this knowledge, today post-modern human beings are able to control nature with the same rules by which nature creates the world. In this way, today’s human beings, like Leonardo Da Vinci in the Renaissance, use science to assume the role of the Universal Creator, without however manipulating nature as proposed by the post-humanists.
Denis Larrivee
Open Journal of Philosophy, Volume 10, pp 66-87; doi:10.4236/ojpp.2020.101006

Abstract:In affective neuroscience, constructivist models are acutely influenced by the modern technological evolution, which underwrites an ongoing epistemological substitution of techne for episteme. Evidenced symptomatically in the influence of artificial intelligence (AI), affective artefacts, these models inform an ontological incursion of techne seen to coincide with posthumanist aspirations and anthropology. It is from the perspective of this neuroscientific techne that posthumanism views the human being as increasingly ill adapted to the modern technological civilization, which, conversely, is understood to require a technical governance of the sort envisioned through AI. Among the projects thought necessary for implementing this framework is a recasting of the human emotional spectrum. Revealed through its techne recasting, however, are explanatory commitments to a metaphysic of extrinsic and contiguous causes, where malleability is ontologically constitutive. Aligned with posthumanist assertions malleability is invoked to argue for a rapid advance of the human form, normatively driven by enlightenment ideals. The ontological claim, however, dispenses with the stability of an a priori, intersubjective and interrelational metaphysical form that undergirds the emotions, leading to the collapse of a definitional anthropos. This paper will argue that techne models of the emotions selectively endorse philosophy of science commitments, thereby introducing a normative inversion that deconstructs the notion of anthropology pursued in posthumanist aspirations.
Zamzuri Idris
Open Journal of Philosophy, Volume 9, pp 236-251; doi:10.4236/ojpp.2019.92016

Abstract:The aim of this paper is to introduce the new concept of an infinite-light and infinite-frequency. Research methodology includes literature review, new hypotheses and scientific explanations to support it are stated and clarified, and finally, suggestions are proposed on how to study it. In brief, this paper discusses a widely accepted big bang theory on creation of our universe which mentions formation of glowing or light before particle-formation phase, and concept of duality for an atom and light in relation to an infinite-light. These two notions clearly brought out light as a fundamental subject to discuss. In this manuscript, I hypothesize an existence of an infinite-light which has several peculiar features: 1) infinite-energy, 2) infinite frequency (waveless energy), 3) infinite time (timeless), and 4) infinite-space (infinite-universe). In connection with these features, an infinite-light can be theorized to exist either immediately after the big bang or prior to big bang. Interestingly, its existence can explain creation of the universe in further details. It might be able to unravel what has already existed before the big bang, what drives the isotropic and homogenous universe expansion, why there is cosmological constant and finally it may clarify matters related to consciousness, invisibility, black hole and dark energy. Nonetheless, one must bear in mind that most written in this manuscript are hypothetical and remain to be proven.
Richard Startup
Open Journal of Philosophy, Volume 9, pp 452-469; doi:10.4236/ojpp.2019.94028

Abstract:A framework is developed for understanding what is “taken for granted” both in philosophy and in life generally, which may serve to orient philosophical inquiry and make it more effective. The framework takes in language and its development, as well as mathematics, logic, and the empirical sphere with particular reference to the exigencies of life. It is evaluated through consideration of seven philosophical issues concerned with such topics as solipsism, sense data as the route to knowledge, the possible reduction of geometry to logic, and the existence and status of human rights. Various dichotomies and the notion of continuity are evidently highly strategic.
Μaria Bottis, Marinos Papadopoulos, Christos Zampakolas, Paraskevi Ganatsiou
Open Journal of Philosophy, Volume 9, pp 369-395; doi:10.4236/ojpp.2019.93024

Abstract:Text and Data Mining (hereinafter, TDM) issue for the purpose of scientific research or for any other purpose which is included in the provisions of the new EU Directive on Copyright in the Digital Single Market (hereinafter, DSM). TDM is a term that includes Web harvesting and Web Archiving activities. Web harvesting and archiving pertains to the processes of collecting from the web and archiving of works that reside on the Web. Web harvesting and archiving is one of the most attractive applications for libraries which plan ahead for their future operation. When works retrieved from the Web are turned into archived and documented material to be found in a library, the amount of works that can be found in said library can be far greater than the number of works harvested from the Web. This paper aims at presenting certain issues related to the existing legal framework as well as technical/librarianship issues that apply to TDM which includes Web harvesting and archiving activities. This paper elaborates upon the applicable new provisions of Directive 2019/ 790/EU on Copyright in the DSM with the aim to shed light upon issues such as the notion of “lawful access”, the beneficiary of the mandatory exception for TDM, the purpose-specific TDM described in art.3 of the new Directive on Copyright in the DSM, and the application of the “three-step test” in TDM.
Halvor Nordby
Open Journal of Philosophy, Volume 9, pp 470-492; doi:10.4236/ojpp.2019.94029

Abstract:The article uses a producer-consumer theory from philosophy of mind and language to analyse the meaning of basic health concepts like disease, illness and sickness. The core idea of the producer-consumer perspective is that a person who has an incomplete understanding of a term can associate it with the same concept as a linguistic expert, if both of them are willing to defer to the same contextual or general norms of meaning. Using “disease” as an example, the article argues that the producer-consumer theory implies that if patients were normally willing to defer to a standard expert concept of disease, it would be reasonable to assume that the concept of disease is this concept. However, it is empirically well documented that many patients are not willing to defer to health workers’ understanding of lay health concepts like “disease”. This means that the overall conceptual analysis of disease and other lay health concepts should be pluralistic—the concepts belong within what Wittgenstein calls different language-games. This conceptual pluralism is inconsistent with assumptions many theorists have made when attempting to develop general definitions of basic concepts of ill health. Furthermore, the pluralistic analysis has striking implications for how conceptions of meaning should be accepted as sound; participants in health discourses are entitled to use basic health terms like “health” and “illness” in accordance with their own language-games, and health workers should therefore acknowledge a diversity of meaning in patient communication. Nevertheless, health professionals can often secure a communicative platform of shared concepts by understanding patients’ language games, and by achieving contextual aims of agreement about meaning.