Journal of Cell Biology
ISSN / EISSN : 0021-9525 / 1540-8140
Published by: Rockefeller University Press (10.1083)
Total articles ≅ 27,494
Latest articles in this journal
Journal of Cell Biology, Volume 220; https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.202108120
The ATG8 family of proteins regulates autophagy in a variety of ways. Recently, ATG8s were demonstrated to conjugate directly to cellular proteins in a process termed “ATG8ylation,” which is amplified by mitochondrial damage and antagonized by ATG4 proteases. ATG8s may have an emerging role as small protein modifiers.
Journal of Cell Biology, Volume 220; https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.202108105
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) carries out essential and conserved cellular functions, which depend on the maintenance of its structure and subcellular distribution. Here, we report developmentally regulated changes in ER morphology and composition during budding yeast meiosis, a conserved differentiation program that gives rise to gametes. A subset of the cortical ER collapses away from the plasma membrane at anaphase II, thus separating into a spatially distinct compartment. This programmed collapse depends on the transcription factor Ndt80, conserved ER membrane structuring proteins Lnp1 and reticulons, and the actin cytoskeleton. A subset of ER is retained at the mother cell plasma membrane and excluded from gamete cells via the action of ER–plasma membrane tethering proteins. ER remodeling is coupled to ER degradation by selective autophagy, which relies on ER collapse and is regulated by timed expression of the autophagy receptor Atg40. Thus, developmentally programmed changes in ER morphology determine the selective degradation or inheritance of ER subdomains by gametes.
Journal of Cell Biology, Volume 220; https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.202109019
Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) use specialized adhesive structures referred to as magnupodium to stay in hematopoietic niches. Bessey et al. (2021. J. Cell Biol.https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.202005085) define new characteristics of the magnupodium, including centriole polarization and the necessary and sufficient role of CXCR4 signaling.
Journal of Cell Biology, Volume 220; https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.202006021
Cell surface G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), upon agonist binding, undergo serine–threonine phosphorylation, leading to either receptor recycling or degradation. Here, we show a new fate of GPCRs, exemplified by ER retention of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1). We show that S1P phosphorylates S1PR1 on tyrosine residue Y143, which is associated with recruitment of activated BiP from the ER into the cytosol. BiP then interacts with endocytosed Y143-S1PR1 and delivers it into the ER. In contrast to WT-S1PR1, which is recycled and stabilizes the endothelial barrier, phosphomimicking S1PR1 (Y143D-S1PR1) is retained by BiP in the ER and increases cytosolic Ca2+ and disrupts barrier function. Intriguingly, a proinflammatory, but non-GPCR agonist, TNF-α, also triggered barrier-disruptive signaling by promoting S1PR1 phosphorylation on Y143 and its import into ER via BiP. BiP depletion restored Y143D-S1PR1 expression on the endothelial cell surface and rescued canonical receptor functions. Findings identify Y143-phosphorylated S1PR1 as a potential target for prevention of endothelial barrier breakdown under inflammatory conditions.
Journal of Cell Biology, Volume 220; https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.202103080
A polarized collecting duct (CD), formed from the branching ureteric bud (UB), is a prerequisite for an intact kidney. The small Rho GTPase Rac1 is critical for actin cytoskeletal regulation. We investigated the role of Rac1 in the kidney collecting system by selectively deleting it in mice at the initiation of UB development. The mice exhibited only a mild developmental phenotype; however, with aging, the CD developed a disruption of epithelial integrity and function. Despite intact integrin signaling, Rac1-null CD cells had profound adhesion and polarity abnormalities that were independent of the major downstream Rac1 effector, Pak1. These cells did however have a defect in the WAVE2–Arp2/3 actin nucleation and polymerization apparatus, resulting in actomyosin hyperactivity. The epithelial defects were reversible with direct myosin II inhibition. Furthermore, Rac1 controlled lateral membrane height and overall epithelial morphology by maintaining lateral F-actin and restricting actomyosin. Thus, Rac1 promotes CD epithelial integrity and morphology by restricting actomyosin via Arp2/3-dependent cytoskeletal branching.
Journal of Cell Biology, Volume 220; https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.202106130
Dividing cells detect and correct erroneous kinetochore–microtubule attachments during mitosis, thereby avoiding chromosome missegregation. The Aurora B kinase phosphorylates microtubule-binding elements specifically at incorrectly attached kinetochores, promoting their release and providing another chance for proper attachments to form. However, growing evidence suggests that the Mps1 kinase is also required for error correction. Here we directly examine how Mps1 activity affects kinetochore–microtubule attachments using a reconstitution-based approach that allows us to separate its effects from Aurora B activity. When endogenous Mps1 that copurifies with kinetochores is activated in vitro, it weakens their attachments to microtubules via phosphorylation of Ndc80, a major microtubule-binding protein. This phosphorylation contributes to error correction because phospho-deficient Ndc80 mutants exhibit genetic interactions and segregation defects when combined with mutants in other error correction pathways. In addition, Mps1 phosphorylation of Ndc80 is stimulated on kinetochores lacking tension. These data suggest that Mps1 provides an additional mechanism for correcting erroneous kinetochore–microtubule attachments, complementing the well-known activity of Aurora B.
Journal of Cell Biology, Volume 220; https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.202109118
Nan Yan studies the physiological function of innate immune signaling in the absence of pathogen infection.
Journal of Cell Biology, Volume 220; https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.202109018
Cell death involves numerous mechanisms that can be cross-regulated through a complex signaling network. In this issue, Bozkurt et al. (2021. J. Cell Biol.https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.202010030) identify a new connection in the network: signaling from TRAIL, a canonical inducer of apoptosis, can also induce a form of cell death called entosis, which has implications for cancer progression.
Journal of Cell Biology, Volume 220; https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201905065
The cavin proteins are essential for caveola biogenesis and function. Here, we identify a role for the muscle-specific component, Cavin4, in skeletal muscle T-tubule development by analyzing two vertebrate systems, mouse and zebrafish. In both models, Cavin4 localized to T-tubules, and loss of Cavin4 resulted in aberrant T-tubule maturation. In zebrafish, which possess duplicated cavin4 paralogs, Cavin4b was shown to directly interact with the T-tubule–associated BAR domain protein Bin1. Loss of both Cavin4a and Cavin4b caused aberrant accumulation of interconnected caveolae within the T-tubules, a fragmented T-tubule network enriched in Caveolin-3, and an impaired Ca2+ response upon mechanical stimulation. We propose a role for Cavin4 in remodeling the T-tubule membrane early in development by recycling caveolar components from the T-tubule to the sarcolemma. This generates a stable T-tubule domain lacking caveolae that is essential for T-tubule function.
Journal of Cell Biology, Volume 220; https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.202102122
In eukaryote cells, lipid droplets (LDs) are key intracellular organelles that dynamically regulate cellular energy homeostasis. LDs originate from the ER and continuously contact the ER during their growth. How the ER affects LD growth is largely unknown. Here, we show that RNAi knockdown of acs-1, encoding an acyl-CoA synthetase required for the biosynthesis of monomethyl branched-chain fatty acids C15iso and C17iso, remarkably prevented LD growth in Caenorhabditis elegans. Dietary C17iso, or complex lipids with C17iso including phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and triacylglycerol, could fully restore the LD growth in the acs-1RNAi worms. Mechanistically, C17iso may incorporate into phospholipids to ensure the membrane integrity of the ER so as to maintain the function of ER-resident enzymes such as SCD/stearoyl-CoA desaturase and DGAT2/diacylglycerol acyltransferase for appropriate lipid synthesis and LD growth. Collectively, our work uncovers a unique fatty acid, C17iso, as the side chain of phospholipids for determining the ER homeostasis for LD growth in an intact organism, C. elegans.