International Journal of Geo-Engineering

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ISSN / EISSN : 2092-9196 / 2198-2783
Total articles ≅ 145
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International Journal of Geo-Engineering, Volume 12, pp 1-13; doi:10.1186/s40703-021-00148-1

The determination of the earth pressure coefficients (K) in geotechnical engineering is one of the most critical procedures in designing earth retaining walls. However, most earth pressure theories are made for either clay or sands, where the c-ϕ soils are the least analysed. In this paper, an analysis of the earth pressure for drained mixed soils based in Mazindrani and Ganjali (J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 123:110–112, 1997) theory was carried out. Earth pressure coefficients are generally used in a deterministic way and can represent designs under an inadmissible risk. Therefore, Reliability-based design arises as an essential tool to deal with soil variability as one of the main aspects of the geotechnical uncertainties. The influence of the soil variability in the active earth pressure for a c-ϕ soil was performed through probabilistic analysis concerning the Ka coefficient of variation (Cv) of both shear strength parameters. The sensitivity analysis shows a Cv in which the cohesion begins to have a more significant correlation with Ka than the friction angle. The results show an increase of the statistical Ka concerning the deterministic value as the soil variability and the soil slope (β) increase. Although the statistical value does not increase significantly, a statistical analysis on gravity walls and sheet pile walls in c-ϕ soils shows a significant probability of failure (pf) increase. The pf obtained through the c-ϕ variability can be considered inadmissible even if the required FS are met.
International Journal of Geo-Engineering, Volume 12, pp 1-27; doi:10.1186/s40703-021-00149-0

In this study, variable returns to scale (VRS) data envelopment analysis was integrated into the Taguchi approach to optimize ternary additives for expansive soil enhancement. The ternary additives selected were sawdust ash (SDA), quarry dust (QD) and ordinary Portland cement (OPC). The additives were set as the input variables while multiple responses obtained from the experiments performed with the Taguchi orthogonal array were set as the output variables. Each row in the orthogonal array were defined as a decision making unit (DMU) in the optimization process and output-oriented VRS model was used to obtain the efficiency score for each DMU. Next, benevolent formulation was utilized to obtain the multipliers for the inputs and outputs which were subsequently used to determine the cross efficiency scores for each DMU. The cross-efficiency scores were used to construct the cross-efficiency matrix. Thereafter, the mean cross-efficiency score (MCES) was determined for each DMU. Parameter level that maximizes the MCES was chosen as the optimal level for that parameter. Optimum combination of additives was found at A6 B2 C3. Lastly, confirmatory experiments performed by blending the soil with the optimum combination of additives showed the effectiveness of this method in the enhancement of expansive soil properties.
International Journal of Geo-Engineering, Volume 12, pp 1-21; doi:10.1186/s40703-021-00147-2

In the sense of challenging economic situation, it is difficult to perform laboratory tests in a whole intended area to define the soil characteristics for whatever task or situation within an entire city. Hence, this study has used the spatial analysis through applying the inverse distance weighted (IDW) technique to integrate with the available data for 56 different soil samples collected from various depths of Kirkuk city. The studied characteristics were mainly classified to physical soil properties included gravel, sand, silt, and clay contents with chemical soil properties included organic and gypsum contents, pH content, sulfur trioxide, and total dissolved solids (TDS) content. Moreover, statistical investigations such as physico-chemical correlation, linear single and linear multi regression models have been applied. The results of this study have focused on constructing thematic digital maps for visualizing different physical and chemical characteristics of Kirkuk soil. In statistical analysis, negative linear correlations are obtained from the relation between the values of the pH, gypsum, organic, and SO3 contents with the increase of the gravel content, whereas a positive linear correlation is attained for the values of TDS content with the increase of the gravel content. Furthermore, the proposed linear multi regression model predicts the pH values reasonably where most of the values were close to the equality line. The obtained digital maps accompanied with the statistical models will provide comprehensive spatial, agricultural, chemical and mechanical visualizations of the nature and morphology of the soils in Kirkuk city.
Ba Huu Dinh, Anh-Dan Nguyen, Seo-Yong Jang,
International Journal of Geo-Engineering, Volume 12, pp 1-14; doi:10.1186/s40703-021-00145-4

This paper investigates the erosion characteristics of soils using the pinhole test. The tests were conducted with two undisturbed clay samples and five disturbed sandy soil samples. Based on the pinhole test results, a process to analyze the critical shear stress and erosion rate was proposed. The result indicates that the particle size distribution and coefficient of uniformity of soils are significant factors that affect the erosion characteristics of the soil. Samples with a grain size ranging from 0.2 to 0.6 mm is most susceptible to soil erosion. The erosion coefficients can be used to distinguish between the low erodible soils (ND3 and ND4) and high erodible ones (D1 and D2). Furthermore, it is interesting to note that the critical shear stress might be used as an identification parameter for erosion characteristics of the soil: τ c > 3.5 Pa (ND3), 3.0 Pa < τ c < 3.5 Pa (D2), and τ c < 3.0 Pa (D1).
International Journal of Geo-Engineering, Volume 12, pp 1-19; doi:10.1186/s40703-021-00146-3

Studies in recent decades demonstrate the significant effect of stress configuration (e.g., vertical stress and lateral confinement) on the shear strength or, in this study, the cone penetration test (CPT) results. Addition of a surcharge over the ground changes the stress condition, and consequently, the CPT tip resistance. In this study, the results of different CPTs conducted before and after backfilling with various thicknesses in a land development project were reviewed while focusing on the trend of an increase in CPT penetration resistance due to the additional surcharge. Both pre- to post-fill stress ratios and soil type affect the rise in corrected $${q}_{c}$$ q c values after backfilling. Moreover, there has always been a sudden increase in $${q}_{c}$$ q c values around the pre-fill surface in all studied cases. In this study, another approach was derived from the reanalysis of CPT data from a specific site for predicting the post-fill corrected $${q}_{c}$$ q c from pre-fill results by considering the above-mentioned factor. Likewise, post-fill results were predicted by depth-normalized pre-fill CPT results using Robertson’s normalization method. The proposed approach in this study showed a better match with the site data compared to the normalization method, especially at and around the pre-fill surface.
International Journal of Geo-Engineering, Volume 12, pp 1-18; doi:10.1186/s40703-021-00144-5

This paper presents a set of new required programmes written in format data using the built-in programming FISH language available in three-dimensional Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua software (FLAC3D). These script data files were developed, to overcome difficulties noted during the nailed slope stability prediction. They established to analyse stability of general embankment slope cases under various soil nailing parameters design. To deal with 3D finite difference analysis results in terms of the factor of safety (FOS) and critical slip surface, both 2D finite difference and limit equilibrium (LEM) methods are also conducted. A comparison of the 3D and 2D results indicates that 2D analyses underestimate seriously stability predictions, notably in terms of the FOS. Therefore, it was concluded that, 3D analysis should be used as an alternative to the 2D analyses, even though it requires more time. Some useful conclusions are obtained from this work, which provides a good practice guidance for real life scenarios.
International Journal of Geo-Engineering, Volume 12, pp 1-23; doi:10.1186/s40703-020-00136-x

In this research, the failure mechanism and anomalous behavior of intact and jointed rock block having a circular tunnel under compression are studied. This was done by monitoring the progressive failure of a rock tunnel subjected to uniaxial loading. The tests were conducted in sandstone blocks and “Acoustic Emission” (AE) technique was used to identify the crack damage and other failure attributes. Three cases have been considered in the research, i.e. tunnel in the intact rock, with horizontal joints, and with vertical joint sets. Images of progressive failure, acoustic signals, and applied loads were simultaneously recorded during the test. The intact block demonstrates continuous crack generation while the block with horizontal joint set shows a stepwise cracking pattern. In the third case where the vertical joints were employed, the deformation was largely roof failure and joint perpendicular extension was dominant. The AE events show that a sudden drop and then a quiet period of seismic “Ib value” could be considered as the precursors to forecast the rockburst hazard. The paper also compares the results of the physical model test with a 2D finite element model. The compared results show good agreement between the physical and numerical models.
International Journal of Geo-Engineering, Volume 12, pp 1-11; doi:10.1186/s40703-021-00141-8

In this study, a small scale experiment of an earth retaining wall was conducted to develop a real-time and full-field noncontact measurement system for earth retaining walls in urban areas. The collapse behavior of the structure was reproduced using a model of an earth retaining wall, and the deformation and displacement of the entire surface of the small scale structure were measured using a 3D image-based digital-image correlation method employing a stereo camera system. The measured displacement was compared with the actual displacement by using high-precision hexapod equipment in the experiment, and the results confirmed a high level of precision.
Suk -Min Kong, Dong-Wook Oh, So-Yeon Lee, Hyuk-Sang Jung,
International Journal of Geo-Engineering, Volume 12, pp 1-14; doi:10.1186/s40703-021-00143-6

Reinforced retaining walls are structures constructed horizontally to resist earth pressure by leveraging the frictional force imparted by the backfill. Reinforcements are employed because they exhibit excellent safety and economic efficiency. However, insufficient reinforcement can lead to collapse, and excessive reinforcement reduces economic efficiency. Therefore, it is important to select the appropriate type, length, and spacing of reinforcements. However, in actual sites, although the stress and fracture mechanisms in the straight and curved sections of reinforced soil retaining walls differ, the same amount of reinforcements are typically installed. Such an approach can lead to wall collapse or reduce economic feasibility. Therefore, in this study, the behaviours of straight and curved sections fortified with reinforcements of various lengths (1, 3, 5, and 7 m) are predicted through a three-dimensional numerical analysis. The retaining walls are of the same height, but the reinforcement variations in the aforementioned sections influence the wall behaviour differently. Based on the results, the optimum reinforcement lengths for the straight and curved parts were selected. By installing reinforcements of different lengths in these sections, the maximum reinforcing effect with minimum reinforcement was derived. This study further found that the curved section of the wall required more reinforcements, and the reinforcement lengths for the curved and straight sections should be separately optimized.
International Journal of Geo-Engineering, Volume 12, pp 1-15; doi:10.1186/s40703-021-00140-9

Large diameter rock socketed piles were preferred for the purpose of transmission of a huge volume of both vertical and lateral load from superstructure to a deeper depth safely without any structural defects. A series of experimental program was conducted on model pile for studying the behaviour of the rock socketed pile under static lateral load in a soil-rock layered profile system. The model piles were instrumented with displacement and force transducers for measuring the magnitude of the pile movement and load transferred by the pile. The experimental results showed that the rock socketed pile lateral capacity has significantly affected by the depth of embedment of the pile in soil and depth of rock socket. There was a considerable increase in the lateral capacity of the pile when the depth of socketing is three times the diameter of the pile into rock with a minimum embedment. In the 3D socketed piles, the lateral capacity of the pile is almost 18 times higher than the non-socketed piles. From the experimental study, it is also observed that when the piles socketed more in to the hard strata (rock), the depth of fixity increases and the lateral displacement reduces substantially.
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