Advances in Nanoparticles
ISSN / EISSN : 2169-0510 / 2169-0529
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 151
Latest articles in this journal
Advances in Nanoparticles, Volume 10, pp 1-25; doi:10.4236/anp.2021.101001
This article briefly reviews how to construct an enzyme based hydrogen peroxide sensor involving nanomaterials, which has the advantages of high efficiency, good sensitivity and selectivity, fast response time and an extended range of linearity with lower detection limit. Glucose biosensor is constructed by immobilizing glucose oxidase enzyme on the polycarbonate membrane and the protective cover is then filled with a physiological phosphate buffer, pH 7.4. The novel blocking hydrophobic membrane which is only permeable to hydrogen peroxide is used to eliminate electrochemical interferences. This constructed enzyme based H2O2 biosensor is miniaturized by the involvement of nanomaterials like carbon nanotubes, platinum nanoparticles and silver nanoparticles and it can achieve the effective microscopic detection of glucose. The introduction of nanomaterials including some pure metals (Ag, Au, Pd, Ni, Pt, and Cu), metal oxide (ZnO and TiO2), bimetallic (Au/Ag and Au/Pt) and carbon (nanotubes and graphene) nanomaterials in the construction of the enzyme based H2O2 biosensor improves its sensitivity and performance by enhancing the enzymatic activity, and allows the introduction of many new signal transduction technologies in biosensors. This review article summarizes the working principles of glucose oxidase based hydrogen peroxide sensor, importance of involving nanomaterials in biosensor manufacturing, basic characteristics and components of a biosensor, generations glucose biosensors, procedure of making hydrogen peroxide based biosensor, synthesis of nanomaterials involved in hydrogen peroxide biosensor, and finally some examples of nanomaterials which intervene in hydrogen peroxide biosensor.
Advances in Nanoparticles, Volume 9, pp 81-116; doi:10.4236/anp.2020.94006
Fiber reinforced composite (FRC) requires a process of grinding, mixing and compounding natural fibers from cellulosic waste streams into a polymer matrix that creates a high-strength fiber composite. In this situation, the specified waste or base raw materials used are the waste thermoplastics and different types of cellulosic waste including rice husk and saw dust. FRC is a high-performance fiber composite achieved and made possible through a proprietary molecular re-engineering process by interlinking cellulosic fiber molecules with resins in the FRC material matrix, resulting in a product of exceptional structural properties. In this feat of molecular re-engineering, selected physical and structural properties of wood are effectively cloned and obtained in the FRC component, in addition to other essential qualities in order to produce superior performance properties to conventional wood. The dynamic characteristics of composite structures are largely extracted from the reinforcing of fibres. The fiber, held in place by the matrix resin, contributes to tensile strength in a composite, enhancing the performance properties in the final part, such as strength and rigidity, while minimizing weight. The advantages of composite materials always beat down their disadvantages. In this analysis, we tried to find out FRC advance manufacturing, recycling technology and future perspective for mankind and next generation development. This research will bring a new horizon for future science with FRC technology and every aspect of modern science which will bring a stable dimensional stability by recycling process with minimizing waste for environment and next generation science.
Advances in Nanoparticles, Volume 9, pp 23-39; doi:10.4236/anp.2020.91002
The results of this article can be useful in science and technology advancement, such as nanofluidics, micro mixing and energy conversion. The purpose of this article is to examine the impacts of nanoparticle shape on Al2O3-water nanofluid and heat transfer over a non-linear radically stretching sheet in the existence of magnetic field and thermal radiation. The different shapes of Al2O3 nanoparticles that have under contemplation are column, sphere, hexahedron, tetrahedron, and lamina. The governing partial differential equations (PDEs) of the problem are regenerated into set of non-linear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) by using appropriate similarity transformation. The bvp4c program has used to solve the obtained non-linear ordinary differential equation (ODEs). The Nusselt number for all shapes of Al2O3 nanoparticle shapes in pure water with is presented in graphical form. It has reported that the heat transfer augmentation in lamina shapes nanoparticles is more than other shapes of nanoparticle. The relation of thermal boundary layer with shapes of nanoparticles, solid volume fraction, magnetic field and thermal radiation has also presented with the help of graphical representation. It is also demonstrated that lamina shape nanoparticles have showed large temperature distribution than other shapes of nanoparticles.
Advances in Nanoparticles, Volume 9, pp 49-58; doi:10.4236/anp.2020.92004
The Zn0.5CuxMg0.5-xFe2O4 (where x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4) was prepared by sol-gel route and characterized in detail in terms of their structural, morphological, elemental and optical properties as a function of Cu concentration. X-ray diffractometer (XRD) results confirmed the formation of cubic spinel-type structure with average crystallized size in the range of 30.56 to 40.58 nm. Lattice parameter was found to decrease with Cu concentration due to the smaller ionic radius of Cu2+ ion. The HR-SEM images show morphology of the samples as prismatic shaped particles in agglomeration. The elemental dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) confirmed the elemental composition of the as-prepared spinel ferrite material with respect to the initial concentration of the synthetic composition used for the material. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed the formation of spinel ferrite and showed the characteristics absorption bands around 463, 618, 876, 1116, 1442, 1622 and 2911 cm-1. The energy band gap was calculated for the samples were found to be in the range of 4.87 to 5.30 eV.
Advances in Nanoparticles, Volume 9, pp 59-80; doi:10.4236/anp.2020.93005
The increasing demand for new packages with increased shelf life properties has stimulated the increase of research in the active packaging sector. The use of antimicrobial agents requires an in-depth study of their properties to avoid loss of efficiency of the polymer processing. In this context, the objective of this work was to evaluate the preparation of an 18% ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) nanocomposite and zinc oxide (ZnO) as microbicidal nanoparticle, prepared in a monosulfon extruder. The nanoparticle was modified with octadecylamine and EVA 18 nanocomposite films were prepared and compared to the systems containing modified nanoparticle. These new materials were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA), Time Domain Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to investigate the effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles on thermal properties, EVA crystallinity and antimicrobial effect. The TGA showed a tendency of increase of the thermal stability in different proportions of ZnO. DSC results did not show significant changes in thermal parameters. The XRD analysis showed an increase in the degree of crystallinity of the nanocomposites in relation to the EVA matrix and change in the crystallinity with the increase of ZnO percentages. DMA analysis indicates change in structural organization through the variation of storage modulus, loss, and tan delta. Time domain NMR data corroborate with XRD data through the change in molecular mobility.
Advances in Nanoparticles, Volume 9, pp 41-48; doi:10.4236/anp.2020.92003
Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using seeds of Nigella sativa as a capping agent was evaluated in this study. Different concentrations of the aqueous extract of N. sativa with silver nitrate solution were exposed to sunlight; as a force for acceleration of the formulation. Then the silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Antibacterial activity of the nanoparticles was investigated against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by the disc diffusion method. The characterization of nanoparticles was detected by the change in color to yellow-brown which indicated the formulation of silver nanoparticles. Irregular shapes within range of nanoscale were detected using SEM and XRD techniques. The finding suggests that silver nanoparticles may be effectively used as antibacterial agent.
Advances in Nanoparticles, Volume 8, pp 21-35; doi:10.4236/anp.2019.82002
Engineered nanomaterials are used in many applications, including pollution sensors, photovoltaics, medical imaging, drug delivery and environmental remediation. Due to their numerous applications, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are receiving a large amount of attention. Ag NPs may occur in drinking water sources either during manufacturing, consumption and/or disposal processes. This potentially leads to the presence of Ag NPs in finished drinking water, which could have public health impacts. The objective of this research was to investigate the removal of several types of stabilized Ag NPs by potable water treatment processes. Specifically, this research achieved these objectives through: 1) Synthesis of Citrate-reduced Ag NPs, Polyvinylpyrrolidone stabilized (PVP) Ag NPs and Branched polyethyleneimine stabilized (BPEI) Ag NPs, 2) Characterization of synthesized Ag NPs to determine their aggregation potential, Zeta potential profiles, (pHpzc) and obtain morphological data from SEM images, and 3) An evaluation of the efficacy of conventional water treatment processes (i.e., coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation and sand filtration) in removing stabilized Ag NPs from natural water. The three NPs were found to be stable at the nano size in natural water. Alum coagulation had no impact on the PVP and BPEI Ag NPs. Flocculation and settling were found to be key steps for removal of these NPs. The three Ag NPs were not permanently removed by means of conventional water treatment processes employed in this study.
Advances in Nanoparticles, Volume 8, pp 36-45; doi:10.4236/anp.2019.82003
In contributing to the improvement of Ferrite Magnetic nanoparticles, the effects of Poly (Vinyl Pyrrolidone) (PVP) and annealing on the structural and magnetic properties of Zinc ferrite nanoparticles (ZFNPs) synthesis were investigated in this work. The effects were evaluated using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Vi-brating sample magnetometer (VSM). The XRD analysis confirms a good formation of the inverse spinel crystal structure with an average particle size of 1.3 nm to 15.2 nm and from 1.6 nm to 21.1 nm for the ZFNPs as-prepared and PVP mediated ZFNPs for the un-annealed and annealed samples, respectively. The SEM image reveals an increase in the particle size for both the as-prepared and PVP mediated samples after annealing at 500°C. The FTIR also reveals the inverse spinel structure for the as-prepared and annealed samples, which witnesses a vibrational red shift towards a higher wave number for the annealed samples. The VSM analysis indicates the superparamagnetic behavior of PVP mediated and annealed sample with zero remanence magnetization (Mr) and Coercivity (Hc). The saturation magnetization (Ms) increases from 1.31 emu/g, for the as-prepared samples, to 4.31 emu/g after the annealing and from 1.18 emu/g, for the PVP mediated, to 6.38 emu/g after annealing. These effects have been attributed to the cationic re-arrangement on the lattice site after the annealing. This presents a superior material for various applications in nanotechnology.
Advances in Nanoparticles, Volume 8, pp 55-70; doi:10.4236/anp.2019.84005
Background and objective Previous studies have demonstrated the anti-cancer effects of propolis. However, its use is limited because of its poor bioavailability. In the present study, the major objective was to improve propolis bioavailability using a nanosuspension formulation. The cytotoxic effect of propolis nanosuspension (PRO-NS) on the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in female Swiss albino mice was investigated in comparison to the free propolis. Materials and methods A propolis-loaded nanosuspension was formulated by applying solvent-antisolvent nano-precipitation technique. The prepared PRO-NS was characterized for average particle size, polydispersity index (PDI) and zeta potential. Also, the morphology of the nanosuspension particles was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, PRO-NS cytotoxicity was tested using EAC bearing mice. The anticancer activity of Pro-NS was assessed by studying tumor volume, life span, viable and non-viable cell count, antioxidant, biochemical estimations and proliferation of EAC cells. Results The results revealed that propolis nanoparticles were relatively spherical in shape with rough surface. The tumor bearing mice treated with PRO-NS showed increased life span and inhibited tumor growth and the proliferation of EAC cells in comparison to the free propolis (p < 0.01). Moreover, Pro-NS ameliorated the increase in serum aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) activities, IgM and the level of creatinine and urea after implantation of EAC cells. In addition, PRO-NS improved the SOD activity and glutathione content of liver and EAC cells. Furthermore, PRO-NS inhibited the formation of lipid peroxidation products (MDA) and total IgG in EAC tumor bearing mice. Conclusions Our results indicate that PRO-NS has a strong inhibitory activity against growth of tumors in comparison to free propolis. The anti-tumor mechanism may be mediated by preventing oxidative damage, immune-stimulation and induction of apoptosis.
Advances in Nanoparticles, Volume 8, pp 1-19; doi:10.4236/anp.2019.81001