Journal of Advanced Mechanical Design, Systems, and Manufacturing

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EISSN : 1881-3054
Published by: Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers (10.1299)
Total articles ≅ 1,321
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Kun Wang, Xiaoyong Wu, Shaoping Bai
Journal of Advanced Mechanical Design, Systems, and Manufacturing, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.1299/jamdsm.2021jamdsm0064

Abstract:
In this paper, a parametric model of 3-RRR planar parallel manipulators (PPMs) is presented, aiming to optimize the overall transmission performance with optimum shapes and sizes of platforms, including the base and the mobile platform. By utilizing the duality of motion and force spaces, an analytical approach is presented through the formalities of linear algebra so as to evaluate transmission performance of planar 3-RRR manipulators, upon which an optimum design is conducted. Moreover, sensitivity analysis is accomplished to reveal the influences of the design parameters on the overall performance of manipulators. With the developed fully parameterized model, optimal configurations of 3-RRR PPMs are studied. In total, six configurations with optimal transmission quality are identified, most of them having mobile platforms of either opened, or folded shape. An optimal design case is finally included to demonstrate further its transmission performance.
Shinsuke Kondoh, Yoshiyuki Furukawa, Yusuke Kishita
Journal of Advanced Mechanical Design, Systems, and Manufacturing, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.1299/jamdsm.2021jamdsm0063

Abstract:
The application of a cyber-physical system (CPS) in a production system to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of its operation is called a cyber-physical production system (CPPS). Although a considerable research and development effort has been dedicated to realizing CPPS, less progress has been made to introduce CPPS for small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This is because replacement of conventional (less-digitalized) production systems with full-scale CPPS will require substantial cost and longer time. Incremental or stepwise changes in production lines and business workflows toward CPPS seem promising rather than drastic digital transformation of a whole factory. In order to help SMEs incrementally develop CPPS in a bottom-up manner, the objective of this paper is to propose a method for redesigning business workflows to connect physical production lines and digital components appropriately. For this purpose, we first propose the framework to understand the hierarchical structure of a CPPS in three levels, i.e., physical and digital components, business workflow, and configuration levels by referring to previous research. Based on this framework, we propose a representation scheme in the form of a sequence diagram to visualize the relationship between the physical production line, business workflows, and digital components. Finally, we define the procedure to redesign a business workflow based on the representation scheme. Through an industrial case study in the die machining industry, we demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. We also discuss limitations and the future development direction of the proposed method based on the result of the case study and conclude that the proposed representation scheme and the design procedure are effective for stepwise development of business workflow toward CPPS.
Xiaohua Zhu, Rui Zhang, Tian Li, Liangliang Dong, Yuan Tang
Journal of Advanced Mechanical Design, Systems, and Manufacturing, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.1299/jamdsm.2021jamdsm0059

Abstract:
Nickel-based superalloys also have super high strength at high temperatures, which are typically difficult to be processed. As the material of hydraulic parts, aircraft engines, and downhole intelligent tools, it has the characteristics of large cutting deformation, severe work hardening, and low thermal conductivity in deep hole machining, which will lead to the problem of poor straightness of the deep hole. In order to solve the problem of poor straightness of the deep hole in machining nickel-based superalloys, a three-dimensional finite element model of BTA deep hole drilling based on thermal-mechanical coupling is established, and the influence of different blade angles, rotation speeds, and feed rates on drilling force is calculated. The prediction model of drilling force is obtained based on the response surface regression analysis method, and the multi-objective optimization of blade angle, rotation speed, and feed rate are carried out by using the random direction search method. The BTA deep hole drilling experiments are carried out by using the optimized tool and process parameters, and the effects of different process parameters on the straightness of the deep hole of nickel-based superalloys are analyzed. The results of the research show that: Different rotation speeds and feed rates will lead to different degrees of strain hardening and thermal softening. This will lead to a significant difference in the value of the drilling force on the tool. The straightness deviation of the deep hole in nickel-based superalloys can be controlled by optimizing the tool structure and process parameters. The research work in this paper can provide a basis for the structural design of the BTA tool and optimization of process parameters.
Massimiliano Rigacci, Ryuta Sato, Keiichi Shirase, Taichi Sasaki
Journal of Advanced Mechanical Design, Systems, and Manufacturing, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.1299/jamdsm.2021jamdsm0060

Abstract:
Coupling characteristics that depend on the applied torque and the influence of this torque dependency on the system response are investigated in this study. A dedicated apparatus, consisting of two servomotors connected by a coupling, was specifically designed for this purpose. To measure the frequency response of the apparatus, a sweep signal with a frequency between 100 Hz and 2000 Hz was imposed as a torque command of the motor through a servo analyzer. To evaluate the coupling characteristics, such as torsional stiffness and damping, from the frequency response, the apparatus was modeled as a two-degrees-of-freedom system. The characteristics were identified, based on the resonance frequency and the vibration amplitude at the frequency. The relationship between the coupling characteristics and the coupling working time was investigated by conducting dedicated experiments after every 30 min of working time for 3.5 h. The relation between the torque magnitude and the coupling frequency response was also investigated by imposing several torque settings on the sweep signal. It was found that both the working time and the sweep magnitude significantly affected the coupling characteristics. Finally, the velocity step-response test was simulated, based on the identified coupling stiffness and damping, and the results were compared with the experimental acquisitions with various feedback-gain settings. The response oscillated under a higher gain setting. The torque dependency of the coupling characteristics was implemented in the model, based on the evaluated results. It was confirmed that the velocity step response can be accurately simulated by the model, when the torque dependency of the coupling characteristics is considered. In other words, the torque dependency of the coupling characteristics plays an important role in the vibration characteristics of the system.
Satoshi Kitayama, Kazuho Shimizu, Kiichiro Kawamoto
Journal of Advanced Mechanical Design, Systems, and Manufacturing, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.1299/jamdsm.2021jamdsm0027

Abstract:
Sheet metal forming is one of the important manufacturing technologies to produce metal parts. Tearing and wrinkling are major defects in sheet metal forming, and they should strongly be prevented for the high product quality. A constant blank holder force (BHF) is conventionally used for successful forming, but the variable blank holder force (VBHF) that the BHF varies during the forming process has attracted attention and has been recognized as one of the advanced manufacturing technologies. However, it is difficult to determine the VBHF trajectory for successful sheet forming without defects. In other words, a trial-and-error method is so widely used to determine the VBHF trajectory. In addition, blank shape also affects the product quality. In this paper, the blank shape and the sloped VBHF trajectory are optimized simultaneously. To determine them, a multi-objective optimization is performed. Numerical simulation in sheet metal forming is so intensive that sequential approximate optimization is adopted to determine them, and the Pareto-frontier is then identified. An automotive part provided from NUMISHEET2011 (BM3) is selected for the application of the proposed approach. The optimal blank shape and the optimal sloped VBHF trajectory is determined through the numerical simulation. It is found from the numerical result that the optimal blank shape minimizing earing without tearing and wrinkling can be obtained.
Wangqiang Xiao, Wenyu Shao, Jinsong Shi, Yuanyi Luo, Sheng Wang
Journal of Advanced Mechanical Design, Systems, and Manufacturing, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.1299/jamdsm.2021jamdsm0033

Abstract:
High-power gears are widely used in various engineering fields. A gear transmission system is an extremely complex elastic system that produces complex vibrations under internal and external excitation. In this study, the excitation value in the gear was obtained based on the dynamic characteristics, stiffness, and error excitation, which were used as the input signals of the discrete element analysis. The dynamic model of the gear transmission system was established using the discrete element method. Meanwhile, the gear transmission energy was dissipated through the configuration of a particle damper in the gear. The continuous-discontinuous dynamic coupling method, which is the equivalent displacement mapping of gear contact loads from the discontinuous domain to the continuous element node, was realised, and the transformation of the local coordinates to the global coordinates was conducted. Finally, the effect of the particle restitution coefficient on the vibration reduction of gearboxes at various speeds was explored and verified through an experiment. At low rotating speeds, the best vibration reduction effect was achieved when the particle restitution coefficient was 0.2. At high rotating speeds, the best restitution coefficient was 0.7.
Mitsugu Yamaguchi, Tatsuaki Furumoto, Yuuya Tanabe, Shinnosuke Yamada, Mototsugu Osaki, Yohei Hashimoto, Tomohiro Koyano, Akira Hosokawa
Journal of Advanced Mechanical Design, Systems, and Manufacturing, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.1299/jamdsm.2021jamdsm0035

Abstract:
This study focuses on the formation of a single-line track in selective laser melting (SLM), based on the powder morphology, size distribution, and characteristics. A chromium-molybdenum-vanadium steel, AISI H13, was used as a metal powder. The relationship between the powder morphology, size distribution, and the powder-bed layer characteristics, such as the thermal conductivity and laser absorption under a N2 or Ar atmosphere, was determined. Subsequently, its effect on the built width, height, and contact angle was investigated by observing the cross-sectional profile of the structure. Finally, the powder morphology, size distribution, and characteristics were linked to the processability in SLM and were found to be closely related to the powder-bed layer characteristics, which affects the first deposition layer of the SLM H13 steel. The effect of the atmosphere on the contact angle is notable. The use of the Ar atmosphere to fabricate the continuous and stable structure at the minimum volume specific energy density (VSED) is reasonable because of its thermal property. The powder morphology, which depends on the atomization method, yields a variation in the bulk density and thermal property of the powder bed layer. The powder bed layer with the irregular powder can be influenced by the atmospheric characteristics because of its low bulk density. The effect of the powder-size distribution on the contact angle depends on the powder morphology. The spherical powder can perform the low-contact angle for a lower VSED.
Qingdi Ke, Songbai Shang, Feng Jiang, Haihong Huang, Bangfu Wei
Journal of Advanced Mechanical Design, Systems, and Manufacturing, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.1299/jamdsm.2021jamdsm0034

Abstract:
Since the evaporator system has been wildly applied in industry, its operating performance needs to be optimized to reduce energy consumption. Considering the evaporator, duct and fan as basic module, the matching relationship of these components must be analyzed and discussed. In this paper, to improve the design efficiency in module structure, the method to identify the design parameters and establish their mapping relationship is presented, and the structural design model of rectangular duct with finned evaporator is given. After analyzing the structural parameters of evaporator and fan in air cooling duct, the structural design of the evaporator and duct fan is identified in three geometrical parameters, which are the basic design variables in this evaporation structure. First, the simulation model of duct fan and evaporator is established, and air flow and heat distribution under variable structural parameters is simulated and compared with the experimental data gathered from the refrigeration module platform. Then, the relationship between three structural parameters and operating performance (the heat transfer and fan power) are discussed, and this quantitative mapping model is established as the design reference for evaporation structure. Finally, the optimized design is given with the energy performance evaluation in the evaporation and duct module, and this optimized design results are proposed as the structural parameter references in the case study.
Krishan Chanaka Wickramasinghe, Hiroyuki Sasahara, Masatoshi Usui
Journal of Advanced Mechanical Design, Systems, and Manufacturing, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.1299/jamdsm.2021jamdsm0046

Abstract:
Machining is a prominent manufacturing method used in automobile, aerospace, and marine industries. Most of the materials that are frequently consumed in such industries are difficult to machine via conventional techniques. Difficult-to-cut materials require advanced processing approaches, and better cooling and lubrication conditions. Thus, manufacturing industries tend to use petroleum-oil-based metal working fluids (POMWF) because of their desirable characteristics of cooling and lubrication when applied to machine difficult-to-cut materials. However, POMWFs adversely affect human health and environment throughout their life cycle. Recently, several scientists have demonstrated that the vegetable oils have tribological properties which make better cooling and lubrication media for machining operations. Hence, the authors have formulated a white-coconut-oil-based water-soluble MWF (COMWF) for use as an alternative to toxic and hazardous POMWFs. The performance of novel MWF was evaluated by applying the minimum quantity lubrication approach to machine Inconel 718 and AISI 304. Machining experiments were conducted under controlled cutting conditions to investigate the work-tool interface (WTI) temperature, cutting forces and to benchmark the proposed MWF to a commercially available synthetic ester based MWF (SEMWF). The newly developed green MWF enabled WTI temperatures and cutting forces that were more desirable than those obtained using the SEMWF. A thermophysical model was also created using commercially available software to simulate the WTI temperature and to visualize the chip formation of difficult-to-cut materials. The novel COMWF was effectively used to machine the selected difficult to cut materials (i.e., Inconel 718 and AISI 304); furthermore, its potential as a replacement for the hazardous POMWFs to ensure industrial sustainability was demonstrated.
Xiaoqi Song, Yukio Takahashi, Weiming He, Tohru Ihara
Journal of Advanced Mechanical Design, Systems, and Manufacturing, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.1299/jamdsm.2021jamdsm0050

Abstract:
Built-up layer (BUL) formed on the tool rake face during cutting has the tool protective effect. As BUL can change the shape of tool resulting in variation of rake angle and edge radius, it may have significant influences on the cutting phenomena such as tool wear, cutting forces, and surface integrity. SUS304 stainless steel is very difficult to cut, leading to the rapid tool wear and poor surface quality. It also has a high tendency to form BUL during cutting due to its high work hardening rate and high chemical affinity. To actively and purposefully utilize BUL, the effects of the size of BUL on the wear of uncoated cemented carbide tools in dry cutting of SUS304 were investigated using the experimental and analytical methods in this study. The model for cutting processes included the effect of the size of BUL/BUE was presented. The cutting parameters were chosen to induce the stable BUL formation. After cutting, the worn cutting tools were analyzed using the laser confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. It was confirmed that BUL can reduce the tool flank wear rate in the steady-state wear when its height is equal to or less than the uncut chip thickness. The results also showed that BUL formed at cutting speed 40 m/min not only can reduce the tool flank wear rate but also has few influences on the amplitude variation of cutting forces and surface roughness. Meanwhile, using the obtained experimental results and proposed model, simulation was conducted to evaluate the effects of the size of BUL on the tool flank wear formation. It was confirmed that BUL, especially when its height is close to the uncut chip thickness, which reduces the real rake angle to negative, can reduce the normal stress on the tool flank face and lead to a decrease in the tool flank wear rate.
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