Journal of Physics: Conference Series
ISSN / EISSN : 17426588 / 17426596
Current Publisher: SPIE-Intl Soc Optical Eng (10.1117)
Total articles ≅ 89,145
Latest articles in this journal
Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Volume 1343; doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1343/1/012199
Abstract:Novel mobile communication technology such as 5G will provide a more efficient and reliable platform for the development of the Internet of Things. However, microwaves in the range of 5G frequencies are strongly attenuated by modern energy-efficient glazing found in most recent buildings. This paper presents major steps towards microwave transparent glazing which allows a flawless transmission of 5G frequencies while maintaining the thermal energy efficiency of the window. Several double glazing windows with different properties were fabricated with a laser treatment and their effect on the signal attenuation in the frequency range between 0.7 and 3.5 GHz was measured. The results showed that the laser treated windows produced a transmission of the microwave as good as a non-coated window. In comparison, an energy-efficient window without laser treatment reduces the signal strength up to 300 times.
Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Volume 1343; doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1343/1/012166
Abstract:The intensity of daylight varies due to periodical changes in the sun's position, changing cloud-cover over the region, and other weather-related phenomena. Thus, artificial lighting remains a major component of the overall energy consumed in smart buildings. This necessitates corrections for maintaining optimum lighting levels in these buildings, by enhancing the positioning of artificial lighting sources with respect to outdoor lighting conditions. In this paper, a methodological framework is proposed for developing a daylight responsive model to minimize energy consumption for artificial lighting. This could be achieved by optimizing the usage of natural lighting in the built-environment, with the aid of Geo-location and sun-path tracking in a simulated model using Unity software. This smart daylight responsive model integrated with Virtual Reality (VR) would aid in designing an efficient lighting system utilizing Building Information Modelling (BIM). Further, this framework would help architects, engineers, and other stakeholders to collaborate, and virtually visualize the lighting conditions in smart buildings. In conclusion, an energy-efficient model for lighting can optimize the energy usage pattern in smart buildings, effectively increasing the usage of natural lighting.
Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Volume 1343; doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1343/1/012107
Abstract:Growth in the adoption of distributed energy resources is shaping a new energy ecosystem posing a perceptible threat to the grid by relying on it as a virtually inexpensive storage mechanism. This growth is compounded by new policy objectives that require pursuing net zero energy (NZE) goals for new buildings. One emerging framework that attempts to remediate this problem is energy sharing in a community microgrid. In this framework, through complementary demand profiles and shared energy storage, buildings use energy resources more efficiently with the objective of reducing grid interactions. In this paper, we create a year-long discrete-time simulation model of 40 residential and non-residential buildings to measure the reduction in grid interactions through energy sharing and shared storage for the case of a NZE community. Our results show that, when sharing is enabled, a 9.5% reduction in grid interactions can be obtained with buildings that have energy storage. Additionally, a month-by-month exploration revealed that annual patterns in generation drastically impact the benefits from sharing energy. The reduction in grid utilization ranged from 20% during periods of high energy surplus (i.e. summer) to 5% during low energy generation (i.e. winter).
Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Volume 1343; doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1343/1/012013
Abstract:A reduction by 80% of the greenhouse gas emissions as well as a similar decrease for the final energy consumption is needed to respect the energy strategies and climate objectives at the European scale. To address this issue, we analysed the energy demand of 17 European cities using the coupled CIM-CitySim model. Simulations taking into account the urban microclimate were performed for one typical year to obtain the cooling and the heating demand. When comparing the results with and without the urban microclimate, although on a yearly basis there does not seem to be much difference on the overall energy demand (60%). In the future, strategies to design more sustainable urban areas at the European scale will be evaluated. The objective is to be able to define mitigation strategies that will decrease the footprint of urban areas while at the same time increasing its liveability.
Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Volume 1343; doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1343/1/011001
Abstract:Prof. Dr Jean-Louis Scartezzini1, Barbara Smith2 1Conference Chair, Editor-in-Chief, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Solar Energy and Building Physics Laboratory, Station 18, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland 2Conference Manager, Co-editor, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Solar Energy and Building Physics Laboratory, Station 18, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland [email protected] Preface to the CISBAT 2019 Journal of Physics: Conference Series special issue CISBAT 2019 took place from 4 to 6 September 2019 at the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) in Switzerland under the heading "Climate Resilient Buildings - Energy Efficiency & Renewables in the Digital Era". Focused on energy efficiency and the use of renewables in buildings and cities, CISBAT bi-annually offers a dynamic platform for scientific exchange in fields ranging from nanostructured materials for renewable energy applications in buildings to urban energy systems.
Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Volume 1343; doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1343/1/012083
Abstract:For achieving the 2°C goal of the Paris climate protocol, decarbonization of the building sector, which accounts for about 50% of the primary energy consumption , is planned for 2050. With a current annual building refurbishment rate between 0,4 and 1,2% in the EU it will be impossible to reach this objective. For getting on track, efficient and particularly affordable solutions fulfilling future-proof requirements are needed. This paper introduces the concept of HVACC 4.0, which stands for Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning and Chilling. The system architecture differs from state of the art HVACR, where the R stands for Refrigeration, in at least three points: (1) The innovative thermal storage and collector concept allows to harvest and store "low temperature heat and cold" on a daily basis, (2) in heating applications, the disruptive refrigerant cycle allows to more than double the Coefficient of Performance (COP) compared to air-water heat pumps and (3) in cooling applications, the night-time harvesting of cold via unglazed PVT-collectors allows to boost the Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) by a factor of >10 compared to split devices or cold water aggregates. HVACC 4.0 aims to provide a solution in form of an easy-to-install refurbishment kit. The design criteria for addressing the "4.0" in HVACC 4.0 have been (1) to exemplify the principle of "efficiency 1st", (2) to maximize the share of Renewable Energies (RE) on total energy consumption, (3) to allow serving next generation low temperature District Grids (DG) and (4) to allow "more sector coupling". As new and innovative RE sources with high collector yield, unglazed PVT-collectors (Photo Voltaic & Thermal) and thermally activated Sheet Pile Systems are discussed.
Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Volume 1343; doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1343/1/011002
Abstract:The conference logo is available in this pdf.
Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Volume 1343; doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1343/1/012009
Abstract:Climate change is having and will have drastic consequences for high density populated areas such as cities. There is thus a need to develop more tools to evaluate new strategies for adaptation to and mitigation of changing temperatures. Additional functionalities were integrated in the urban energy modelling tool CitySim to include an evapotranspiration process and to integrate low rise vegetation as well as trees. In the process, the Canopy Interface Model (CIM) – previously coupled with CitySim – was further developed to integrate the evapotranspiration process and to analyse its impact on the local microclimate. Tvapotranspiration as well as the surface temperature are computed in CitySim and the values are then used as boundary conditions in CIM to calculate the vertical profiles of wind speed, temperature and humidity. Using the campus of the EPFL in Lausanne, Switzerland as a case study, it was demonstrated that the ground evaporative cooling can be an effective mitigation measure for decreasing locally the urban heat island intensity. In future studies, other strategies such as reflective asphalt, will be combined with the evaporative cooling strategies, to determine the most effective action measures that could be easily implemented.
Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Volume 1343; doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1343/1/012191
Abstract:We investigated the specifications of a modified retro-reflective film for the window surfaces of buildings that reflects the near-infrared component of incident solar radiation upward toward the sky in order to reduce the indoor cooling load in the building and improve the thermal environment of the surrounding urban area. With the previous specifications, there were concerns that the near-infrared component, reflected upward away from one building, would strike the upper portions of neighboring buildings. To minimize this effect by reflecting as much radiation as possible back along the incident direction, we evaluated the modified film structure, replacing a saw-tooth section model with a pyramid-type microstructure model. In order to investigate its merits and quantitatively assess the impact of this technology on surrounding urban areas, annual simulations with this modified film were performed, using simple block model, actual city model and the results of an experimental study.
Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Volume 1343; doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1343/1/012101
Abstract:A novel approach for cooling an office building is numerically evaluated. PVT collectors are used for nocturnal radiative and convective cooling. A TABS ceiling serves as thermal storage. If the free cooling power of the PVT collectors is too low, it is boosted by a chiller raising the collector temperature. While the energy efficiency improves compared to a conventional daytime chiller cooling system, the room temperature cannot always be kept in the desired band. Furthermore, the PVT collectors stay cooler than comparable PV modules during the day, increasing the electricity generation.