Ageing Research Reviews
ISSN / EISSN : 1568-1637 / 1872-9649
Published by: Elsevier BV (10.1016)
Total articles ≅ 1,400
Latest articles in this journal
Ageing Research Reviews; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2021.101467
Findings on the link between dietary intakes of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and risk of mortality are conflicting. This study aimed to summarize existing literature regarding the association between MUFA intake and risk of mortality from all causes, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), and cancer.
Ageing Research Reviews; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2021.101466
Aging is a natural biological event that has some downsides such as increased frailty, decline in cognitive and physical functions leading to chronical diseases, and lower quality of life.
Ageing Research Reviews; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2021.101464
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative disease in the elderly and the most common cause of human dementia. AD is characterized by accumulation of abnormal protein aggregates including amyloid plaques (composed of beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptides) and neurofibrillary tangles (formed by hyper-phosphorylated tau protein). Synaptic plasticity, neuroinflammation, calcium signaling etc. also show dysfunction in AD patients. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved lysosome-dependent cellular event in eukaryotes. It is closely linked to modulation of protein metabolism, through which damaged organelles and mis-folded proteins are degraded and then recycled to maintain protein homeostasis. Accumulating evidence has shown that impaired autophagy also contributes to AD pathogenesis. In the present review, we highlight the role of autophagy, including bulk and selective autophagy, in regulating metabolic circuits in AD pathogenesis. We also discuss the potential and future perspectives of autophagy-inducing strategies in AD therapeutics.
Ageing Research Reviews; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2021.101465
Due to the extension of human life expectancy, the prevalence of cognitive impairment is rising in the older portion of society. Developing new strategies to delay or attenuate cognitive decline is vital. For this purpose, it is imperative to understand the cellular and molecular events at the basis of brain aging. While several organs are directly accessible to molecular analysis through biopsies, the brain constitutes a notable exception. Most of the molecular studies are performed on postmortem tissues, where cell death and tissue damage have already occurred. Hence, the study of the molecular aspects of cognitive decline largely relies on animal models and in particular on small mammals such as mice. What have we learned from these models? Do these animals recapitulate the changes observed in humans? What should we expect from future mouse studies? In this review we answer these questions by summarizing the state of the research that has addressed cognitive decline in mice from several perspectives, including genetic manipulation and omics strategies. We conclude that, while extremely valuable, mouse models have limitations that can be addressed by the optimal design of future studies and by ensuring that results are cross-validated in the human context.
Ageing Research Reviews; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2021.101462
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a complex age-related neurodegenerative disease, associated with central and peripheral metabolic anomalies, such as impaired glucose utilization and insulin resistance. These observations led to a considerable interest not only in lifestyle-related interventions, but also in repurposing insulin and other anti-diabetic drugs to prevent or treat dementia. Body temperature is the oldest known metabolic readout and mechanisms underlying its maintenance fail in the elderly, when the incidence of AD rises. This raises the possibility that an age-associated thermoregulatory deficit contributes to energy failure underlying AD pathogenesis. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a central role in thermogenesis and maintenance of body temperature. In recent years, the modulation of BAT activity has been increasingly demonstrated to regulate energy expenditure, insulin sensitivity and glucose utilization, which could also provide benefits for AD. Here, we review the evidence linking thermoregulation, BAT and insulin-related metabolic defects with AD, and we propose mechanisms through which correcting thermoregulatory impairments could slow the progression and delay the onset of AD.
Ageing Research Reviews; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2021.101460
This systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of observational studies was conducted to summarize available findings on the association between fruits and vegetables (FVs) consumption and risk of frailty.
Ageing Research Reviews; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2021.101461
While widowhood is known to be associated with poorer physical and mental health outcomes, studies examining the association of widowhood with cognition have yielded mixed results. This review aimed to elucidate the link between widowhood and cognitive decline.
Ageing Research Reviews; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2021.101463
Maintenance of skeletal muscle mass and function is an incredibly nuanced balance of anabolism and catabolism that can become distorted within different pathological conditions. In this paper we intend to discuss the distinct intracellular signaling events that regulate muscle protein atrophy for a given clinical occurrence. Aside from the common outcome of muscle deterioration, several conditions have at least one or more distinct mechanisms that creates unique intracellular environments that facilitate muscle loss. The subtle individuality to each of these given pathologies can provide both researchers and clinicians with specific targets of interest to further identify and increase the efficacy of medical treatments and interventions.
Ageing Research Reviews; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2021.101459
Alzheimer's disease (AD) includes a long asymptomatic stage, which precedes the formal diagnosis of dementia. AD biomarker models provide a framework for precision medicine approaches during this stage. However, such approaches have ignored the possible influence of sex on cognition and brain health, despite female sex noted as a major risk factor. Since AD-related changes may emerge in midlife, intervention efforts are being redirected around this period. Midlife coincides with several endocrinological changes, such as the menopausal transition experienced by women. In this narrative review, we discuss evidence for sex-differences in AD neuropathological burden and outline key endocrinological mechanisms for both sexes, focussing on hormonal events throughout the lifespan that may influence female susceptibility to AD neuropathology and dementia onset. We further consider common non-modifiable (genetic) and modifiable (lifestyle and health) risk factors, highlighting possible sex-dependent differential effects for the AD disease course. Finally, we evaluate the studies selected for this review demonstrating sex-differences in cognitive, pathological and health factors, summarising the state of sex differences in AD risk factors. We further provide recommendations for targeted research on female-specific risk factors, to inform personalised strategies for AD-prevention and the promotion of female brain health.
Ageing Research Reviews, Volume 71; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2021.101458
Cellular senescence is a stress response, which can be evoked in all type of somatic cells by different stimuli. Senescent cells accumulate in the body and participate in aging and aging-related diseases mainly by their secretory activity, commonly known as senescence-associated secretory phenotype-SASP. Senescence is typically described as cell cycle arrest. This definition stems from the original observation concerning limited cell division potential of human fibroblasts in vitro. At present, the process of cell senescence is attributed also to cancer cells and to non-proliferating post-mitotic cells. Many cellular signaling pathways and specific and unspecific markers contribute to the complex, dynamic and heterogeneous phenotype of senescent cells. Considering the diversity of cells that can undergo senescence upon different inducers and variety of mechanisms involved in the execution of this process, we ask if there is a common signature of cell senescence. It seems that cell cycle arrest in G0, G1 or G2 is indispensable for cell senescence; however, to ensure irreversibility of divisions, the exit from the cell cycle to the state, which we call a GS (Gero Stage), is necessary. The DNA damage, changes in nuclear architecture and chromatin rearrangement are involved in signaling pathways leading to altered gene transcription and secretion of SASP components. Thus, nuclear changes and SASP are vital features of cell senescence that, together with temporal arrest in the cell cycle (G1 or/and G2), which may be followed by polyploidisation/depolyploidisation or exit from the cell cycle leading to permanent proliferation arrest (GS), define the signature of cellular senescence.