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ISSN / EISSN : 0271-5333 / 1527-1323
Total articles ≅ 5,805
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The pancreaticoduodenal groove (PDG) is a small space between the pancreatic head and duodenum where vital interactions between multiple organs and physiologic processes take place. Muscles, nerves, and hormones perform a coordinated dance, allowing bile and pancreatic enzymes to aid in digestion and absorption of critical nutrition. Given the multitude of organs and cells working together, a variety of benign and malignant entities can arise in or adjacent to this space. Management of lesions in this region is also complex and can involve observation, endoscopic resection, or challenging surgeries such as the Whipple procedure. The radiologist plays an important role in evaluation of abnormalities involving the PDG. While CT is usually the first-line examination for evaluation of this complex region, MRI offers complementary information. Although features of abnormalities involving the PDG can often overlap, understanding the characteristic imaging and pathologic features generally allows categorization of disease entities based on the suspected organ of origin and the presence of ancillary features. The goal of the authors is to provide radiologists with a conceptual approach to entities implicating the PDG to increase the accuracy of diagnosis and assist in appropriate management or presurgical planning. They briefly discuss the anatomy of the PDG, followed by a more in-depth presentation of the features of disease categories. A table summarizing the entities that occur in this region by underlying cause and anatomic location is provided. ©RSNA, 2022 Download as PowerPoint
, , Jennifer Pogoriler, Andressa Guariento, Chamith S. Rajapakse, Alexandre Arkader
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone sarcoma in children. Imaging plays a pivotal role in diagnostic workup, surgical planning, and follow-up monitoring for possible disease relapse. Survival depends on multiple factors, including presence or absence of metastatic disease, chemotherapy response, and surgical margins. At diagnosis, radiography and anatomic MRI are used to characterize the primary site of disease, whereas chest CT and whole-body bone scintigraphy and/or PET are used to identify additional sites of disease. Treatment starts with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, followed by en bloc tumor resection and limb reconstruction, and finally, adjuvant chemotherapy. Preoperative planning requires precise tumor delineation, which traditionally has been based on high–spatial-resolution anatomic MRI to identify tumor margins (medullary and extraosseous), skip lesions, neurovascular involvement, and joint invasion. These findings direct the surgical approach and affect the options for reconstruction. For skeletally immature children, the risk of cumulative limb-length discrepancy and need for superior longevity of the reconstruction have led to the advent and preferential use of several pediatric-specific surgical techniques, including rotationplasty, joint preservation surgery, autograft or allograft reconstruction, and extendible endoprostheses. A better understanding of the clinically impactful imaging features can directly and positively influence patient care. Online supplemental material is available for this article.©RSNA, 2022 Download as PowerPoint
MR angiography (MRA) is a powerful tool for imaging of the extremities, allowing a thorough assessment of the arteries and veins in both the upper and lower limbs. Both contrast-enhanced and noncontrast MRA techniques are described in the online presentation, including practical tips and tricks to obtain all necessary information at every examination. This module is the sixth and final segment in a series created on behalf of the Society for Magnetic Resonance Angiography (SMRA), a group of researchers and clinicians who are passionate about the benefits of MRA but understand its challenges. The full digital presentation is available online.©RSNA, 2022
, Nicole Segaran, Mohamed Badawy, , , Douglas S. Katz, Mariam Moshiri,
Sickle cell disorder (SCD) refers to a spectrum of hematologic disorders that cause a characteristic clinical syndrome affecting the entire body. It is the most prevalent monogenetic hemoglobinopathy worldwide, with a wide range of focal and systemic expressions. Hemoglobin gene mutation leads to the formation of abnormal sickle-shaped red blood cells, which cause vascular occlusion and result in tissue and organ ischemia and infarction. Recurrent episodes of acute illness lead to progressive multisystem organ damage and dysfunction. Vaso-occlusion, hemolysis, and infection as a result of functional asplenia are at the core of the disease manifestations. Imaging plays an essential role in the diagnosis and management of SCD-related complications in the abdomen and pelvis. A thorough understanding of the key imaging findings of SCD complications involving hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and musculoskeletal systems is crucial to timely recognition and accurate diagnosis. The authors aim to familiarize the radiologist with the SCD spectrum, focusing on the detection and evaluation of manifestations that may appear at imaging of the abdomen and pelvis. The topics the authors address include (a) the pathophysiology of the disease, (b) the placement of SCD among hemoglobinopathies, (c) the clinical presentation of SCD, (d) the role of imaging in the evaluation and diagnosis of patients with SCD who present with abdominal and pelvic manifestations in addition to extraperitoneal manifestations detectable at abdominal or pelvic imaging, (e) imaging features associated with common and uncommon sequelae of SCD in abdominal and pelvic imaging studies, and (f) a brief overview of management and treatment of patients with SCD. Online supplemental material is available for this article.©RSNA, 2022 Download as PowerPoint
Muhammad Naeem, Maria Zulfiqar, Mohammed Azfar Siddiqui, Anup S. Shetty, Adeel Haq, Cristian Varela, Cary Siegel, Christine O. Menias
, Maria Paulina Sanín-Ramírez, , Ana Beatriz Luengas, Vicente Martínez de Vega, , Cristina Saldarriaga-Uribe
Breast augmentation is one of the most common aesthetic procedures performed in the United States. Several techniques of breast augmentation have been developed, including the implantation of breast prostheses and the injection of autologous fat and other materials. The most common method of breast augmentation is to implant a prosthesis. There are different types of breast implants that vary in shape, composition, and the number of lumina. The rupture of breast implants is the leading cause of implant removal. The rupture rate increases substantially with the increasing age of the implant. Most implant ruptures are asymptomatic. Implant complications can be grouped into two categories: local complications in the breast and adjacent soft tissue, and systemic complications associated with rheumatologic or neurologic symptoms. The onset of local complications may be early (infection and periprosthetic collections including seromas, hematomas, or abscesses) or late (capsular contraction, implant rupture, gel bleed, or breast implant–associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma). Although mammography is the imaging modality for breast cancer screening, noncontrast breast MRI is the imaging modality of choice for evaluation of the integrity of breast implants and the complications of breast augmentation, for equivocal findings at conventional imaging, and as a supplement to mammography in patients with free injectable materials. The fifth edition of the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) provides a systematic outline for MRI evaluation of patients with breast implants. Silicone- and water-selective sequences provide useful supplemental information to confirm intracapsular and extracapsular rupture. Breast MRI for evaluation of implant integrity does not require intravenous contrast material. The use of MRI contrast material in patients with breast augmentation is indicated when infection or malignancy is suspected. Radiologists should have a thorough understanding of the different techniques for breast augmentation, normal imaging features, and complications specific to breast augmentation. An invited commentary by Ojeda-Fournier is available online.©RSNA, 2022 Download as PowerPoint
Taisuke Harada, , Noriyuki Fujima, Masato Yoshikawa, Yohei Ikebe, , Toru Shirai, , , Mari Miyata
Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM), one of the advanced MRI techniques for evaluating magnetic susceptibility, offers precise quantitative measurements of spatial distributions of magnetic susceptibility. Magnetic susceptibility describes the magnetizability of a material to an applied magnetic field and is a substance-specific value. Recently, QSM has been widely used to estimate various levels of substances in the brain, including iron, hemosiderin, and deoxyhemoglobin (paramagnetism), as well as calcification (diamagnetism). By visualizing iron distribution in the brain, it is possible to identify anatomic structures that are not evident on conventional images and to evaluate various neurodegenerative diseases. It has been challenging to apply QSM in areas outside the brain because of motion artifacts from respiration and heartbeats, as well as the presence of fat, which has a different frequency to the proton. In this review, the authors provide a brief overview of the theoretical background and analyze methods of converting MRI phase images to QSM. Moreover, we provide an overview of the current clinical applications of QSM. Online supplemental material is available for this article.©RSNA, 2022 Download as PowerPoint
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