Gut and Liver

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ISSN / EISSN : 1976-2283 / 2005-1212
Current Publisher: The Editorial Office of Gut and Liver (10.5009)
Total articles ≅ 1,352
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Kanokwan Pinyopornpanish, Apinya Leerapun, ,
Gut and Liver; doi:10.5009/gnl20367

Abstract:
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients with diabetes constitute a subgroup of patients with a high rate of liver-related complications. Currently, there are no specific drug recommendations for these patients. Metformin, a conventional insulin sensitizer agent, has been widely prescribed in patients with diabetes. Metformin treatment has been shown to be effective at alleviating hepatic lipogenesis in animal models of NAFLD, with a variety of mechanisms being deemed responsible. To date, most studies have enrolled diabetic patients who are treated with metformin, with the drug being taken continuously throughout the study. Although evidence exists regarding the benefits of metformin for NAFLD in preclinical studies, reports on the efficacy of metformin in adult NAFLD patients have had some discrepancies regarding changes in liver biochemistry and hepatic fat content. Evidence has also suggested possible effects of metformin as regards the prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma tumorigenesis. This review was performed to comprehensively summarize the available in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies regarding the effects of metformin on liver steatosis for the treatment of adult NAFLD patients with diabetes. Consistent reports as well as controversial findings are included in this review, and the mechanistic insights are also provided. In addition, this review focuses on the efficacy of metformin as a monotherapy and as a combined therapy with other antidiabetic medications.
Chang Kyo Oh, , Panida Piyachaturawat, Zhiqin Wong, Thida Soe, Bayasgalan Luvsandagva, Quang Trung Tran, Achmad Fauzi, ,
Gut and Liver; doi:10.5009/gnl20166

Abstract:
As the number of colonoscopies and polypectomies performed continues to increase in many Asian countries, there is a great demand for surveillance colonoscopy. The aim of this study was to investigate the adherence to postpolypectomy surveillance guidelines among physicians in Asia. A survey study was performed in seven Asian countries. An email invitation with a link to the survey was sent to participants who were asked to complete the questionnaire consisting of eight clinical scenarios. Of the 137 doctors invited, 123 (89.8%) provided valid responses. Approximately 50% of the participants adhered to the guidelines regardless of the risk of adenoma, except in the case of tubulovillous adenoma ≥10 mm combined with high-grade dysplasia, in which 35% of the participants adhered to the guidelines. The participants were stratified according to the number of colonoscopies performed: ≥20 colonoscopies per month (high volume group) and <20 colonoscopies per month (low volume group). Higher adherence to the postpolypectomy surveillance guidelines was evident in the high volume group (60%) than in the low volume group (25%). The reasons for nonadherence included concern of missed polyps (59%), the low cost of colonoscopy (26%), concern of incomplete resection (25%), and concern of medical liability (15%). A discrepancy between clinical practice and surveillance guidelines among physicians in Asia was found. Physicians in the low volume group frequently did not adhere to the guidelines, suggesting a need for continuing education and appropriate control. Concerns regarding the quality of colonoscopy and complete polypectomy were the main reasons for nonadherence.
Gut and Liver; doi:10.5009/gnl20318

Abstract:
Early gastric cancers (EGCs) are defined as gastric cancers confined to the mucosa or submucosa, regardless of regional lymph node metastasis. The proportion of EGCs has been increasing due to the increase in screening endoscopy for gastric cancers; therefore, the paradigm shift from surgical resection to endoscopic resection as a treatment modality for selected EGCs is accelerating. For successful endoscopic resection of EGCs, it is important to detect EGCs at an early stage and to accurately predict the histological type, depth of invasion, and horizontal margins of the tumor. The diagnostic process of EGCs can be divided into three steps: presence diagnosis, qualitative diagnosis, and quantitative diagnosis. The presence diagnosis of EGCs is mainly based on two endoscopic findings: a well-demarcated lesion and irregularity in the color/surface pattern. Qualitative diagnosis refers to the prediction of histological type, which is mainly possible based on the macroscopic shape and color of the lesion. Quantitative diagnosis of EGCs consists of predicting the depth of invasion by detailed examination of the macroscopic morphology and determining horizontal margins using chromoendoscopy. Although advanced diagnostic modalities, such as endosonography or magnifying endoscopy, are helpful for the qualitative and quantitative diagnosis of EGCs, these modalities are not available in most hospitals. Therefore, it is still very important to evaluate EGCs systematically during conventional endoscopy for successful endoscopic treatment.
Gut and Liver; doi:10.5009/gnl20329

Abstract:
The work environment in which endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is conducted has influence on its efficacy and safety. We aimed to assess the current status of ERCP work environments and to investigate the trends associated with the basic techniques of ERCP in Korea. The work environment and information on the basic techniques of ERCP were acquired by the Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) through a national survey in 2019. The survey was performed at the KPBA conference in 2019. The contents of survey comprised of the current environment of ERCP, preparation before ERCP, and the preferred basic techniques used in ERCP. Completed questionnaires were returned from 84 KPBA members. The mean ERCP volume per year was approximately 500. About 60% (50/84) reported that they worked with a dedicated ERCP team with experienced nurses. Two-thirds (57/84, 68%) answered that they had a fluoroscopy room used solely for ERCP procedures. All respondents intravenously hydrated the patient to prevent post-ERCP pancreatitis (84/84, 100%). The preferred procedural sedations were balanced propofol sedation (50%) and midazolam-only sedation (47%). Wire-guided cannulation was most commonly used for selective cannulation (81%). Endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage was preferred over endoscopic nasobiliary drainage (60% vs 22%). The initial method of ampullary intervention was endoscopic sphincterotomy in 60%. Data from the survey involving a large number of Korean ERCP doctors revealed considerable variabilities with regard to the work environment and basic techniques of ERCP in Korea. The study provides information regarding the current trends of ERCP that can be used to establish ERCP standards in Korea.
Gut and Liver; doi:10.5009/gnl20291

Abstract:
This study examined the long-term outcomes of undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer (UD EGC) with positive horizontal margins (HMs) after endoscopic resection (ER) and compared them between additional surgery and nonsurgical management. From 2005 to 2015, a total of 1,124 patients with UD EGC underwent ER at 18 tertiary hospitals in Korea. Of them, 92 patients with positive HMs as the only noncurative factor (n=25) or with both positive HMs and tumor size >2 cm (n=67) were included. These patients underwent additional surgery (n=40), underwent additional endoscopic treatment (n=6), or were followed up without further treatment (n=46). No lymph node (LN) metastasis was found in patients who underwent additional surgery. During a median follow-up of 57.7 months (interquartile range, 27.6 to 68.8 months), no LN or distant metastases or gastric cancer-related deaths occurred in the overall cohort. At baseline, the residual cancer rate was 57.8% (26/45) after additional surgery or ER. The 5-year local recurrence rate was 33.6% among patients who were followed up without additional treatment. The 5-year overall survival rates were 95.0% and 87.8% after additional surgery and nonsurgical management (endoscopic treatment or close follow-up), respectively (log-rank p=0.224). In the multivariate Cox regression analysis, nonsurgical management was not associated with an increased risk of mortality. UD EGC with positive HMs after ER may have favorable long-term outcomes and a very low risk of LN metastasis. Nonsurgical management may be suggested as an alternative, particularly for patients with old age or chronic illness.
Jeong Eun Song, , , Chang Hyeong Lee, , Young Oh Kweon, , , , Jae Seok Hwang, et al.
Gut and Liver; doi:10.5009/gnl20267

Abstract:
Recent data indicate the presence of liver enzyme abnormalities in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to evaluate the clinical features and treatment outcomes of COVID-19 patients with abnormal liver enzymes. We performed a retrospective, multicenter study of 874 COVID-19 patients admitted to five tertiary hospitals from February 20 to April 14, 2020. Data on clinical features, laboratory parameters, medications, and treatment outcomes were collected until April 30, 2020, and compared between patients with normal and abnormal aminotransferases. Abnormal aminotransferase levels were observed in 362 patients (41.1%), of which 94 out of 130 (72.3%) and 268 out of 744 (36.0%) belonged to the severe and non-severe COVID- 19 categories, respectively. The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for male patients, patients with a higher body mass index, patients with severe COVID-19 status, and patients with lower platelet counts were 1.500 (1.029 to 2.184, p=0.035), 1.097 (1.012 to 1.189, p=0.024), 2.377 (1.458 to 3.875, p=0.001), and 0.995 (0.993 to 0.998, p>0.001), respectively, indicating an independent association of these variables with elevated aminotransferase levels. Lopinavir/ ritonavir and antibiotic use increased the odds ratio of abnormal aminotransferase levels after admission (1.832 and 2.646, respectively, both p<0.05). The median time to release from quarantine was longer (22 days vs 26 days, p=0.001) and the mortality rate was higher (13.0% vs 2.9%, p<0.001) in patients with abnormal aminotransferase levels. Abnormal aminotransferase levels are common in COVID-19 patients and are associated with poor clinical outcomes. Multivariate analysis of patients with normal aminotransferase levels on admission showed that the use of lopinavir/ritonavir and antibiotics was associated with abnormal aminotransferase levels; thus, careful monitoring is needed.
, Hye-Min Park, Min-Young Lee, Ja-Young Jeon, Hyun-Jeong Yoo,
Gut and Liver; doi:10.5009/gnl20353

Abstract:
Although anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents have been widely used to treat ulcerative colitis (UC), the real-world incidence of suboptimal response to anti-TNF agents has not been thoroughly investigated, especially among Asians. Using the Korean National Health Insurance database, we collected data on UC patients who initiated anti-TNF agents between July 1, 2014, and June 30, 2017. We assessed suboptimal responses, including anti-TNF discontinuation or dose escalation, switching to other biologics, augmentation with a non-biologic therapy, and the requirement for colectomy. A total of 1,268 patients were included as new anti-TNF users (infliximab 713, adalimumab 433, golimumab 122). The proportion of patients who experienced at least one suboptimal response within 1 year among all patients was 63.5%, including 59.1%, 69.5%, and 68.0% of patients treated with infliximab, adalimumab, and golimumab, respectively. The cumulative incidences of at least one suboptimal response over time were 41.5%, 63.7%, 80.5%, and 87.1% at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months, respectively. Cox proportional hazards modeling revealed that adalimumab was associated with a higher risk of at least one suboptimal response (hazard ratio [HR], 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13 to 1.48), dose escalation (HR, 4.35; 95% CI, 2.97 to 6.38) and discontinuation (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.52) than infliximab. Golimumab was associated with a higher risk of switching to other biologics than infliximab (HR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.21 to 2.60). More than half of Korean UC patients had suboptimal responses to anti-TNF agents within 1 year. UC patients treated with infliximab might be less prone to suboptimal responses than those treated with adalimumab or golimumab.
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