#### Environmental Technology & Innovation

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ISSN / EISSN : 2352-1864 / 2352-1864
Total articles ≅ 1,821
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, , Nena Velinov, Miljana Radović Vučić, Milica Petrović, Jelena Mitrović, Aleksandar Bojić
Published: 26 January 2022
Environmental Technology & Innovation; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eti.2022.102358

Abstract:
This study had two goals: the first one was the synthesis and detailed characterization of the new layered double hydroxide based on Mg, Co, and Al; the second one was defining the optimal conditions for application of material for removal of the anthraquinone dye RB19 from water. The structure and characteristic functional groups of material were examined by the XRD and FTIR methods. BET surface area of the synthesized material, named MgCoAl-CO3-LDH, was 47.67 m2 g−1, while the BJH adsorption average pore diameter was 14.65 nm. SEM micrographs and EDX analysis showed that the morphology and structure of MgCoAl-CO3-LDH remained unchanged after removing RB19. The optimal parameters for removal of RB19 were pH 4, sorbent dose 0.3 g dm−3, stirring speed 220 rpm and temperature 10 °C. The mechanism of RB19 removal, sorption capacity and nature of sorption process were defined by kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic analysis. The surface of MgCoAl-CO3-LDH was heterogeneous; the results indicated that the main sorption mechanisms were the physisorption, electrostatic attraction and chemical bonding. The maximum sorption capacity for dye was 367.93 mg g−1 at 20 °C. $\Delta {G}^{\circ }$ values indicated that sorption was thermodynamically favorable and spontaneous. The $\Delta {H}^{\circ }$ value indicated the exothermic nature of sorption. The highly efficient and environmentally friendly sorbent MgCoAl-CO3-LDH was successfully applied for removal of RB19 from real waters, which indicated a possible wider use of this sorbent for similar anthraquinone dyes removal from contaminated waters.
Published: 24 January 2022
Environmental Technology & Innovation; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eti.2022.102356

Abstract:
Two field experiments were conducted at Farm of Cairo University’s Faculty of Agriculture in Giza to evaluate a new glass fertilizer (GF) composition on pea plants. The compound is created by melting a variety of raw materials to acquire oxides (60% ${P}_{2}$O5, 30% ${K}_{2}$O, 3.5% ZnO, 3.5% MnO and 3% Fe2O3 wt %). Control treatment was a full dose of recommended chemical fertilizers (100% RDF), Whereas other treatments were GF at a rate of 60 kg fed−1, GF at rate of 30 kg fed−1, 50% RDF, 100% RDF ＋ biofertilizers, GF at rate of 60 kg fed−1 ＋ biofertilizers, GF at rate of 30 kg fed−1 ＋ biofertilizers, 50% RDF ＋ biofertilizers, and untreated treatment (without fertilizers). The results indicate that, the treatment 60 kg fed−1 GF plus biofertilizers induced increasing pea pod yield by 55.6% and 63.23% when compared with the control treatment in the first and second seasons respectively.
Carlos Martín Pellieri, Antonela Taddia, Dana Belén Loureiro, Santiago Andrés Bortolato,
Published: 24 January 2022
Environmental Technology & Innovation; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eti.2022.102298

Abstract:
Hemicellulose is a major component of plant cell walls and xylan is the most predominant polysaccharide. Xylan degrading enzymes integrate the xylanolytic system. Xylanolytic enzymes were produced by fermentation by Aspergillus niger and Thermomyces lanuginosus grown on grass considered unsuitable for farming called Spartina argentinensis. Significant parameters: type of fermentation used (SmF or SSF), type of leaves of S. argentinensis (green or senescent) and conidia final concentration for xylanase production were screened and optimized. The main results showed that the highest levels of xylanolytic enzyme production were obtained by 1 × 105 conidia/mL of A. niger in SmF at 96 h, 30ºC, with a mixture of 20.20% of senescent and 79.80% of green leaves. The xylanase specific activity obtained was 62 U/mg, higher than the activity obtained (23 U/mg) in previous work (Taddia et al., 2019), and the concentration of xylanolytic production over that of glucanase activity was maximized five times. The optimized enzymatic extract obtained was characterized by LC-MS and HPLC of carbohydrates. Six enzymes were identified as constituents of the xylanolytic complex and seven carbohydrates. Moreover, the xylanolytic enzyme extract was stable for 30 days at 20 °C. Thus, S. argentinensis can be used within the framework of a circular economy, rendering a synergistic combination of the xylanolytic enzymes with industrial applications.
Erick Vielma Hernández, Ignacio Monje-Ramírez, Sharon B. Velásquez-Orta, Jesús Gracia-Fadrique,
Published: 22 January 2022
Environmental Technology & Innovation; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eti.2022.102354

Abstract:
This paper evaluates the relation between the efficiency of harvesting microalgae biomass or biomolecules (proteins, lipids and carbohydrates) and the surface activity of the amphiphiles released during the harvesting process. Microalgae cultivated in wastewater was evaluated using a laboratory scale ozone-flotation reactor. Applying the highest biomass concentration (1800 mg/L) and a flow ratio gas-liquid of 3, recovered 79% biomass with a maximum yield of 7.6 mg biomass/mg O${}_{3}$ and a release of biomolecules greater than 70%. Adjusting surface pressures of the harvested samples to integrated Gibbs model indicated that longer ozone than 19 min exposure times caused a decrease in the hydrophobic region of the molecules. This affected the efficiency of the amphiphiles present in the sample, requiring a higher concentration (from 534.72 ± 9.63 mg/L to 1542.45 ± 5.66 mg/L) to reduce the surface tension to the minimum values obtained (45.26 ± 0.73 mN/m). In conclusion, ozone exposure needs be closely monitored to ensure effective biomass and biomolecules separation.
Waseem Hayat, , Yi-Ping Wan,
Published: 22 January 2022
Environmental Technology & Innovation; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eti.2022.102352

Abstract:
This study concentrated on degradation of fenuron (FEN) from aqueous solutions by manganese dioxide (MnO 2)-peroxymonosulfate (PMS) system. The performance of commercial (c)MnO 2, beta (b)MnO 2 and alpha (a)MnO 2 in combination with PMS was investigated. The degradation efficiency of applied systems followed the order: aMnO 2-PMS system > bMnO 2-PMS system > cMnO 2-PMS system. The 38.0% degradation of 20.0 mg/L was achieved by aMnO 2-PMS system after 180 min at initial pH 7.0 using 0.6 g/L aMnO 2 and 2.0 mmol/L PMS. The degradation by aMnO 2-PMS system was affected by initial PMS and FEN concentrations, aMnO 2 dosage, pH and temperature. The degradation decreased with increasing pH from 3.0 to 11.0 and increased with increasing temperature from 25.0$±0.{5}^{\mathrm{\circ }}$C to 40.0$±0.{5}^{\mathrm{\circ }}$C. The radical quenching analysis showed that sulfate radical (SO${}_{4}^{\mathrm{\cdot -}}$) was primarily responsible for degradation. The comparison of degradation efficiency of aMnO 2-PMS system with degradation efficiencies of pyrite (PyR)-PMS system as well as zero-valent iron (ZVI)-PMS system revealed that activated PMS is not favorable for efficient degradation of fenuron from aqueous solutions.
, Umar F. Alqsair,
Published: 21 January 2022
Environmental Technology & Innovation; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eti.2022.102350

Abstract:
Providing more numerical analysis from process engineering can build up big data set for one master machine learning method that can cover many process engineering with different operational conditions. This master computing structure can store huge data set in the form of mathematical equations, and the researchers can avoid occupying computer memory with massive data set about process engineering. In this study, a single sparger at a different level of the 3D (3-dimensional) bubble column reactor (BCR) was simulated with the Eulerian method, representing the bubbly flow process. Then, the computed flow characteristics were trained in the training part of the ANFIS method, and then this method estimates artificial flow characteristics with the prediction ability of itself. The results showed that there was a good agreement between Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) methods. The ANFIS method with a high number of membership functions can accurately predict the gas fraction when the single sparger location changes. This modeling framework can also optimize the amount of gas fraction by changing the sparger locations. Furthermore, Artificial Intelligence (AI) methods could be beneficial in saving time and money, which can be used in a wide range of research studies to perform different tasks.
Published: 20 January 2022
Environmental Technology & Innovation; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eti.2022.102344

Abstract:
Using promoters is an efficient way to improve catalytic activity in many chemical and industrial applications. In this paper, the effects of the impregnation method and alkali metals in a series of 1%wt Pt-M/SiO 2 (M=Na, K, and Cs) catalysts were comprehensively examined on the decomposition of ${N}_{2}$O. To reveal the physical and chemical properties of samples for analyzing obtained results of catalytic activity, catalysts were characterized by BET, XRD, ICP, ${H}_{2}$-TPR, CO2-TPD, TGA, XPS and HRTEM. Catalysts were also synthesized by wet impregnation as a simple and efficient method. In order to find the effects of the synthesis method, different treatments of both sequential and co-impregnation were applied. The optimum results are acquired when Pt precursor was loaded on alkali metal oxide modified SiO 2. According to achieved results, Na and Cs prompters drop the conversion from 65% to 25% and 35%, respectively. Among the alkali metals, only K element has shown promotional characteristics despite 50% reduction of surface area and 75% growth of Pt particles. Also, the impact of alkali metal loading indicates that 5%wt KNO3 yielded an 18% promotion in conversion. Donating electron, facilitating oxygen surface diffusion and uniform distribution of KO${}_{\mathrm{x}}$ clusters are significant factors for the improvement of the PtK reactivity.
Published: 19 January 2022
Environmental Technology & Innovation; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eti.2022.102308

Abstract:
The quenching process has the characteristics of complex pollutant composition, high purification difficulty, and serious environmental pollution. In order to meet the national emission standards, the coke quenching tail gas containing SO2 must be treated. In this paper, halloysite is selected as carrier, modified by low-temperature molten salt etching, manganese oxide is supported by hydrothermal method, halloysite is formed by chitosan gel microspheres, and then SO2 treatment experiments are carried out. The results show that: The manganese is loaded by hydrothermal reaction, and its oxides are mainly MnO 2, Mn2O3, MnO. When the hydrothermal temperature is 180 °C, the metal loading ratio is 5%, and the hydrothermal reaction is 24 h, the SO${}_{2}$ removal efficiency is maintained at 79.47%, and the total desulfurization amount is 73.22 mg. The halloysite modified by molten salt etching undergoes hydrothermal metal loading. Its removal efficiency is 95.49%, and the total desulfurization amount is 87.98 mg.
, Lin Shi
Published: 19 January 2022
Environmental Technology & Innovation; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eti.2022.102346

Abstract:
Ferrallisols are severely deficiency of alkaline earth elements, silicon and 2:1 clay mineral and its retention of nutrients such as NH${}_{4}^{+}$ and heavy metals adsorption capacity fell sharply, which results in poor soil fertility and decline in crop safety. In this study, a low-cost synthetic mineral (LCSM), synthesized by mechanochemical treatment of several primary minerals and contains large amounts of available K${}^{+}$, Ca2＋, Mg${}^{2+}$, Si${}^{4+}$ and activated mineralogical compositions, was applied to improve the ferrallisols quality. By application of LCSM, the acidity of the ferrallisols was neutralized, the base cations and available Si lacking in ferrallisols were replenished. In addition, kaolinite as the predominant clay mineral in ferrallisols, is vulnerable in the hypersaline with substantial quantities of available K${}^{+}$, Na${}^{+}$, Ca2＋, Mg${}^{2+}$ and Si${}^{4+}$ provided by LCSM and reducing environment with high amounts of colloidal Fe contributed by ferrallisols and it alters to smectite layers and then reacts to form Fe-rich illite layers. Application of LCSM can not only markedly enhance the pakchoi yield, total N and Vitamin C content but also reduce the accumulation of Cd and Pb in pakchoi. The main mechanism of LCSM on the increase of N utilization efficiency and heavy metal immobilization can be due to the reactive mineral compositions of LCSM, which can immobilize Cd and Pb by precipitation, adsorption, and ion exchange, followed by the newly formed 2:1 type clay mineral in LCSM-amended ferrallisols which can fix the dissolved heavy metal and NH${}_{4}^{+}$-N into the interlayers.
Zahra Sobhani, , Christopher T. Gibson, , Ravi Naidu,
Published: 18 January 2022
Environmental Technology & Innovation; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eti.2022.102322

Abstract:
The characterisation of microplastics is still a challenge. To avoid the “false” characterisation and to increase the signal-noise ratio, we employ Raman imaging to scan the sample surface and generate a Raman spectrum matrix. We then simultaneously map several characteristic peaks to generate several images in parallel, akin to image at multi-channels, to cross-check and visualise the microplastics, via a logic-based algorithm. For comparison, we also employ a principal component analysis (PCA)-based algorithm to automatically decode the Raman spectrum matrix to map an image, not from the individual peaks, but from whole set of the PCA spectrum, meaning a much higher signal-noise ratio and image certainty. Due to the increased signal-noise ratio, we are able to apply this characterisation protocol to directly capture and identify microplastics in our gardens, such as from the plastic ropes used to hang a swing or a ladder for children to play, without any sample preparation. We estimate that at least 6,280 microplastics have been released from a nylon rope in 10 years, due to ageing and weathering. We recommend to use polypropylene (PP) rope, rather than nylon rope, and to change the plastic ropes within 10 years.