International Journal of Agriculture System

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2337-9782 / 2580-6815
Current Publisher: Hasanuddin University, Faculty of Law (10.20956)
Total articles ≅ 44
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Latest articles in this journal

Muhammad Arsyad
International Journal of Agriculture System, Volume 7, pp 148-153; doi:10.20956/ijas.v7i2.579

Abstract:
Prices of agricultural products and poverty relationship are the two types of standing issue to solve. This paper tries to argue that price of agricultural products (hereafter, agricultural price) and poverty are strongly related. We employed Correlation (intermediate step) and Path (final step) in the analysis procedure. The results show that, first, the association degree between agricultural input (note as well, that price is crucial factor to get input) with poverty approaching 70%, indicating that agricultural input is good-fit in explaining poverty. Second, the higher the frequency of getting agricultural extension, and price information for various inputs (and output) in agriculture, the higher the crop productions (agricultural sector, in broad sense) will be gained. This indicates these two variables (inputs-outputs prices) can also be expected to be important instruments in increasing smallholders’ income and in turn help them living above poverty line. Farmers household income is strongly affected by prevailing market price. Agricultural price is functioning as intermediate part of income calculation. It is clear that price of agricultural products has a strong linkage with rural poverty alleviation in the country.
Chen Chuangbin, Nie Haisong
International Journal of Agriculture System, Volume 7, pp 138-147; doi:10.20956/ijas.v7i2.2060

Abstract:
The illegal oil (coming from the waste cooking oil and animals’ fat, etc.) is being processed as daily edible oil by a series of processing programs in China. It contains enormous toxic carcinogenic substances such as aflatoxin, dioxins, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), etc. In China, 22 million tons of cooking oil is approximately consumed each year, however, 2-3 million tons (account for 10%) of the illegal oil is circulated back to the daily market finally. This research aims to analyze four parts among the illegal oil. It combines the Chinese food safety legal loophole with the treatments of other developed countries to solve China’s illegal oil problem. What’s more, carrying out a field survey is conducted to understand the source of the illegal oil and have a clear understanding of consumers’ usage. Next, the main reason for the spread of the illegal oil which is from the street stalls and restaurants is revealed. The new technique is also used to transform the illegal oil into biodiesel fuel (BDF), however, the material (the illegal oil) cannot be easily obtained due to many barriers and challenges in China. Based on the field survey results, setting up a specific feedback mechanism for restaurants/hotels and the other policy implications are proposed to China’s governments for solving the illegal oil issue in China.
Nur Alam Kasim, Megawati Megawati, Arifah Arifah, Wiwiek Hidayati
International Journal of Agriculture System, Volume 7, pp 127-137; doi:10.20956/ijas.v7i2.2090

Abstract:
Fluctuation in production on farm of seaweed Eucheuma cottonii could be affected by climate, pests and diseases, input factors, management and socio-economic conditions of farmers. The objectives of this study were (1) analyzed determinants of productivity, (2) analyzed the factors that affected the risk of production, and (3) analyzed the factors that affected productivity after considering the risk of production. The samples used in this study were 210 seaweed farmers selected by using proportional random sampling method. Multiple linear regression model with Cobb-Douglas and Just-Pope production functions were used to analyze the data. The results showed that (1) Productivity of seaweed E. cottonii positively influenced by number of seeds, bond distance of seeds and labor; (2) area of lots, seeds and bond distance of seeds negatively effected the risk of production; and (3) area of lots, seeds, bond distance of seeds, labor, and experience of farmers positively effected the productivity after considering of risks whereas age of farmers affected negatively. Values of regression coefficient had significant affected the productivity of seaweed E.cottonii (Cobb-Douglas model) tended to decline after considering the risk of production (Just-Pope model). This implies that in analyzing seaweed productivity, it needs to consider the risks in the model.
Muhammad Akhsan Akib, Andi Nuddin, Retno Prayudyaningsih, Syatrawati Syatrawati, Henny Setiawaty
International Journal of Agriculture System, Volume 7, pp 116-126; doi:10.20956/ijas.v7i2.1918

Abstract:
Mycorrhizal fungi that are capable of adapting and resistant to heavy metal contaminated environments have received special attention for phytorhizoremediation researchers. The aim of the study was to explore native mycorrhizal fungi from areas contaminated with heavy metals to be used as starter biological agents in the phytorhizoremediation program. This research was carried out in two phases, i.e. rhizosphere sampling of Polypodium glycyrrhiza, Sumasang sp (local name) and Spathoglottis plicata at coordinates 2O31'57,6"S and 121O22'50,7"E. Rhizosphere of Chromolaena odorata, Melastama affine and Nephrolepis exaltata at coordinates 2O31'53,5"S and 121O22'35,4"E, Sorowako, Indonesia; While the other phase is isolating and identifying mycorrhizal spores in the Microbiology Laboratory, Research and Development Center for Environment and Forestry in Makassar, Indonesia. The results showed that be discovered three genus of mycorrhizal fungi were able to adapt and resistant in areas contaminated with Cr, Co, and Cu, i.e. 44.44% to 75.86% Acaulospora sp; 9.52% to 44.44% Gigaspora sp, and 3.38% to 19.05% Glomus sp. which could be used as source of inoculum in Phyto-rhizoremediation program. We recommend using native mycorrhizal fungi combined with endemic plant of location to rehabilitation heavy metal contaminated soils.
Anak Agung Keswari Krisnandika, I Made Anom Sutrisna Wijaya, I Gusti Agung Ayu Ambarawati, Anak Agung Ayu Mirah Adi, Eisaku Tamura, Chiharu Hongo
International Journal of Agriculture System, Volume 7, pp 106-115; doi:10.20956/ijas.v7i2.1808

Abstract:
The trend of rice productivity and its stability in Badung Regency are presented in this study. The area is a tourism-based economy without leaving the role of rice production to feed the people. Time series data were collected from five sub districts covering 53 villages during 2008-2016 due to the completeness of the data. Variability of the data was observed from the coefficient of variance (C.V.) to decide rice productivity stability. This study also observed correlation between rainfall and rice productivity in the area. Result of the study shows that rice productivity trend in Badung Regency tend to decline during nine years of observation especially in 2014-2016. Three sub-districts had stable condition, while two sub-districts in tourism area contributed to the decline of this matter. Analysis using bi-plot revealed that there is no significant correlation between rainfall in sub-district and rice productivity, implying that water is available throughout the year. In terms of stability, majority of villages (69.81%) had stable condition of rice productivity ranging from middle and high category. Other 30.19% villages were categorized as unstable ranging from low to high productivity. This condition showed that Badung Regency were able to maintain stability of rice productivity during nine years of observation. Implication of this study is to pay more attention to two sub districts in tourism area to improve their rice productivity such as implementation of good agricultural practices.
Syamsia Syamsia, Abubakar Idhan, Amanda Patappari, Noerfitryani Noerfitryani, Rahmi Rahmi, Iradhatullah Rahim
International Journal of Agriculture System, Volume 7, pp 89-99; doi:10.20956/ijas.v7i2.2031

Abstract:
Local rice is rice that has been cultivated for generations by the community and commonly cultivated without using chemical inputs. Endophytic fungi are fungi that live in the plant tissue and does not cause disease symptoms in the host plants. This study aimed to molecular identifying isolates of MDTA and MDTB endophytic fungi which have been isolated from the local Pulu Mandoti rice plant tissue and growth test on the four types of culture media those were synthetic PDA, natural PDA, MPA, and MEA. The fungi DNA isolation using DNesay Kit. DNA sequencing analysis using the mega BLAST program showed that the MDTB fungus has similarities to Podoscypha bolleana strain 32034 no accession JQ675334 and Podoscypha bolleana strain 32032 no accession JQ675332, whereas the MDTA fungus has similarities to Coprinopsis cinerea A2S3-5 isolate and Coprinopsis cinerea strain CNRMA / F 07-32. The best culture media and sporulation of endophytic fungi is MPA media. This research is the first study to molecular identifying with endophytic fungi from local rice and viability test on the four types of culture media. The results of this study contribute to the diversity of local rice endophytic fungi in Sulawesi.
Idris Summase, M. Saleh S. Ali, Darmawan Salman, Didi Rukmana
International Journal of Agriculture System, Volume 7, pp 100-105; doi:10.20956/ijas.v7i2.1916

Abstract:
Upland agriculture faces threats in the ecological crisis that will affect the sustainability of highland communities. The process lasts quite long because of external and internal influences, leading to ecological exploitation. Agricultural development, is closely related to the influence of government policy. Research focuses on discussing aspects of policy influence on the development of upland agriculture. The research is a qualitative study, using an inductive approach, the case of ethnic thorn communities in Enrekang Regency. The results of the study indicate that the three main policies that influence the development of upland agriculture are: 1). Political policy and government system, 2). Rural development policies and infrastructure, 3). Decentralization or regional autonomy, 4). Economic policies, especially investment and markets. The conclusion is that the development of agriculture is economically progressing in the shadow of the ecological crisis, drought, flooding and impact on humanitarian crisis, because it needs arrangements in land management and the application of technology for agricultural development.
Catootjie L. Nalle, Marlin Rambu Kuba Yowi
International Journal of Agriculture System, Volume 6, pp 138-145; doi:10.20956/ijas.v6i2.1668

Abstract:
High energy diet is related to high feed cost. Thus, it is essential to reduce energy diet but still support the good performance of birds. The utilization of low cost- feed ingredients combined with enzymes are the alternative way to do. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of multy-enzyme supplementation on growth performance of broilers fed low energy basal diets containing rice bran. Experiment 1. The apparent metabolizable energy (AME) assay of yellow corn and rice bran. A total of 48 broilers were randomly distributed to 12 cages (4 birds/cage). A maize-soybean meal basal diet (mash form) was formulated and two assay diets were then developed by substituting rice bran (raw 250 g kg-1, w/w) and maize (500 g kg-1, w/w) of the basal diet. Total excreta collection method was used. The results showed that the AME value of rice bran was significantly lower (2032 kcal/kg DM) and 3112 Kcal/kg DM. Experiment II. The experiment was designed using a completely randomized design with four treatments and six replications. A total of 160 DOC (unsex) were randomly distributed to 16 pens (10 birds/pen). The experimental diets were iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetics. The results show that dietary treatments significantly affected (P0.05) FCR and mortality of broilers. Broilers fed P2, P3 and P4 diets had higher (P0.05). In conclusion, 1) the supplementation of enzymes in low energy diets containing rice bran improved BWG and FI but not FCR and mortality. 2) Birds fed rice bran-containing-diets supplemented with enzymes produced similar growth performance.
Reyna Virginia Nona, I Gusti Agung Ayu Ambarawati, Dwi Putra Darmawan, I Wayan Budiasa
International Journal of Agriculture System, Volume 6, pp 146-155; doi:10.20956/ijas.v6i2.1593

Abstract:
This study aims to formulate a regional food security model based on the relationship between characteristics of the area of production, consumption and entrepreneurship with the performance of community food business development (PUPM) in the Province of East Nusa Tenggara (NTT). The research sample consisted of 93 rice farmers, 96 rice consumers and 30 business people representing the Association of Farmers' Groups (Gapoktan) and the Indonesian Farmers Shop (TTI) owners, accounting for the total respondents to 219 people. Data analysis was using Smart-PLS. The results of the analysis show that the performance of the PUPM in NTT which is influenced by the characteristics of the production, consumption and entrepreneurship areas has only been achieved at a sufficient level. The analysis also shows that the new PUPM activities in NTT are able to fulfill aspects of access and stability, while the availability aspect is still very small. Nevertheless, this study has proven that the regional food security model in NTT can be realized through community food business development activities.
Andi Nuddin, Reskiana Reskiana, Arman Arman, Syarifuddin Yusuf, Nuringsih Nuringsih, Muhammad Arsyad, Andi Bustan, Alimuddin Laapo
International Journal of Agriculture System, Volume 6, pp 156-163; doi:10.20956/ijas.v6i2.1690

Abstract:
One of the causal factors affect coffee production declining in Indonesia is the decline in harvest area of coffee plants. The decline in the area of coffee farming is caused by the shift of farmers from coffee to other commodities, such as corn, vegetables and fruit. The research was conducted to determine new strategic steps in order to enhance robusta coffee production. To achieve the research objectives, Interpretative Structural Modeling (ISM) analysis and modeling techniques are carried out. This modeling technique does not require a large sample, so the sample used in this study is limited to 22 people from several related agencies. Data processing in research is carried out according to the needs of Interpretative Structural Modeling (ISM) analysis. The results show that the new strategy in developing Robusta coffee production is (1) rehabilitation of coffee plants, (2) rejuvenation of coffee plants, (3) selection of superior coffee varieties, (4) provision of farming roads, (5) coffee price stabilization, (6) intensification of coffee plants, (7) pest control, and (8) increased knowledge of farmers. These new combinations strategy can be strongly expected to enhance robusta coffee production in the country.
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