International Journal of Recirculating Aquaculture

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1547-917X / 2572-9160
Published by: Virginia Tech Libraries (10.21061)
Total articles ≅ 63
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Jack Crockett, Addison Lawrence
International Journal of Recirculating Aquaculture, Volume 14, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.21061/ijra.v14i0.1579

Abstract:
The objectives of this study were to develop and test a quantitative method for reactive carbon application to control inorganic nitrogen, and to compare the effect of carbon application using 40% and 60% microbial conversion efficiency (MCE) while leaving a residual 11.3 mg/l nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) level. The organic carbon requirement was based on the carbon to nitrogen ratio of the elemental composition of microbial cells. The source of supplemental organic carbon was shortchained fructooligosaccharide (scFOS). Correction for moisture was duplicated on the first 2 days of scFOS application, so the actual efficiency rates were 35.1% and 58.3%. The proposed carbon quantitative method was effective in predicting the amount of carbon required to control inorganic nitrogen. Both 35.1% MCE and 58.3% MCE maintained total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) and nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N) at desired levels of equal to or less than 2.3 mg/l and 3.1 mg/l, respectively. The amount of carbon applied using 35.1% MCE was higher than with 58.3% MCE. e 58.3% MCE treatment resulted in slightly higher NO3-N levels than 35.1 % MCE. The most toxic species of inorganic nitrogen, TAN and NO2-N, are assimilated by heterotrophic bacteria before NO3-N, permitting decreased reactive carbon input and water quality improvement. The benefits of 58.3% MCE vs. 35.1% MCE were lower organic loading, reduced water replacement, and decreased costs. The total water replacement associated with biofloc control was 0.24% using 35.1% MCE and 0% using 58.3% MCE. After a culture period of 14 days the mean weight was 65.5 mg and 61.9 mg for 31.5% MCE and 58.1% MCE, respectively, and a survival of 79.5% for both MCE’s.
Lan-Mei Wang, Addison Lee Lawrence, Frank Castille,
International Journal of Recirculating Aquaculture, Volume 13, pp 35-45; https://doi.org/10.21061/ijra.v13i0.1517

Abstract:
A growth trial was conducted with Litopenaeus vannamei to evaluate effects of dietary vitamin and mineralsupplementation (VMS) and water exchange on survival, growth and water quality. Four levels (0,25, 50 and 100%) of VMS were evaluated using a 20% protein base diet. Postlarvae weighing 0.22 gwere stocked for 26 days with either zero or high (5440% daily) water exchange. Growth was greater atzero than high exchange. However, growth was not affected by the level of VMS at both high and zeroexchange. Survival for 0% VMS was lower than survivals for 25 to 100% VMS at high exchange. For 0%VMS, survival at high exchange was lower than survival at zero exchange. Results suggested that at zerowater exchange, diets without VMS can replace diets with VMS without reducing survival.
, A. M. Larran, L. A. Garcia-Cortes, M. L. Rodriguez, J. Fernandez, J. Pinedo, M. Villarroel, M. A. Toro, C. Tomas Almenar, L. Gomez-Raya
International Journal of Recirculating Aquaculture, Volume 13, pp 11-18; https://doi.org/10.21061/ijra.v13i0.1515

Abstract:
Feed efficiency is a trait of high economic importance in fish production, and is highly related to feedingregimes employed and stocking density. However, feed efficiency is difficult to estimate because measurementsof individual feed intake are generally not available in fish that are usually reared in groups intanks. An alternative is to estimate feed efficiency using tank as the unit of measurement. The objectiveof this study was to investigate tank residual feed intake in rainbow trout kept at high (HD) and low (LD)stocking density during 42 days (Day 0-14 and Day 14-42) and the consequences of subsequently reducingdensity in the HD treatment between 42 and 78 days (Day 42-61 and Day 61-78). HD fish weighedless at all times than LD fish (P < 0:05). LD fish grew faster than HD fish (P < 0:05) but not betweenDay 42-61. The coefficient of variation of body weight was larger in HD fish than in LD fish (P < 0:05)at Day 14 and Day 42. LD fish ate more than HD fish between Day 14-78 (P < 0:01). HD fish were lessfood efficient than LD fish between Day 0-14 but more food efficient between Day 42-61. A higher coefficientof variation of body weight in the HD tanks suggests that growth and feed intake were inhibitedbecause of dominance relationships at a high stocking density and possibly competition for food. Afterrelocating HD fish to a low density treatment, HD fish showed compensatory growth and compensatoryfeed efficiency. Although it is not practical to estimate residual feed intake individually in fish, this researchshows that calculation of tank residual feed intake can be used as an alternative, especially whenused to compare families for family trait selection.
Anant S. Bharadwaj, Susmita Patnaik, Craig L. Browdy, Addison L. Lawrence
International Journal of Recirculating Aquaculture, Volume 13, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.21061/ijra.v13i0.1514

Abstract:
A study was conducted to evaluate the response of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei to inorganicor chelated sources of dietary zinc. Two sets of diets, one supplemented with zinc from zinc sulfate(55, 80, 116, 168, 243 and 363 ppm zinc) and the other with zinc from a chelated source (methioninehydroxy analog chelate; 39, 52, 65, 78 and 104 ppm zinc) were fed to replicate groups of juvenile shrimp(N = 8; 0.4 g initial weight) for 6 wk. All experimental diets contained 1.38% phytic acid reflectinglevels in typical commercial feeds. Final weight, growth rate and biomass of shrimp fed zinc sulfate supplementeddiets (243 and 363 ppm total zinc) were significantly higher (p < 0:05) than that in shrimpfed the base diet. In contrast, performance of shrimp fed the chelated source of zinc was significantlyhigher than shrimp in the control group at much lower levels of supplementation (65 and 78 ppm totalzinc). Results indicate that shrimp required 3-4 times more dietary zinc from zinc sulfate than zinc from achelated source to promote comparable growth when fed diets containing phytic acid. The chelate testedproved to be a safe, effective and available source of zinc for the Pacific white shrimp.
Lan-Mei Wang, Addison Lee Lawrence, Frank Castille,
International Journal of Recirculating Aquaculture, Volume 13, pp 19-34; https://doi.org/10.21061/ijra.v13i0.1516

Abstract:
Two growth trials were conducted with Litopenaeus vannamei to evaluate effects of dietary protein andwater exchange on survival, growth and water quality. In both trials, protein levels were 12, 15, 20, 26and 35%. In the first trial, 6.21 g juvenile shrimp were stocked for 23 days at either zero or high (2750%daily) water exchange. At high exchange, survival was greater than 93% for all protein levels. Final bodyweight (FBW) and weight gain (WG) increased with protein level from 12% to 20% (P < 0:05). FBWand WG at 20 and 26% protein were lower than that at 35% protein. At zero exchange, survival decreasedwith protein above 20%. At zero exchange, water quality decreased (high ammonia, nitrite, nitrate andlow pH, alkalinity) with protein greater than 15%. WG with 12% protein was greater at zero exchangethan at high exchange.In the second trial, 0.22 g postlarvae were stocked for 26 days at either zero or high (5440% daily) waterexchange. At high exchange, survival was 90% or greater for all protein levels. FBW and WG increasedwith protein level from 12% to 20% (P < 0:05). At zero exchange, FBW and WG were maximum with20% protein. Survival was lowest at 35% protein. For 35% protein, survival was lower at zero than athigh exchange. For all protein levels except 35%, WG was higher at zero than at high exchange.The results suggest that lower protein diets can replace high protein (35%) commercial diets and obtainhigh growth rate for both juvenile and postlarvae L. vannamei at zero exchange. Further, a 20% proteindiet, which contained 25.3% marine animal meals, was adequate for shrimp growth, survival and waterquality at zero exchange.
H. Khoda Bakhsh, T. Chopin
International Journal of Recirculating Aquaculture, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.21061/ijra.v12i1.1352

Abstract:
Water Quality and Nutrient Aspects in Recirculating Aquaponic Production of the Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and the Lettuce, Lactuca sativa
C.A.P. Gaona, L.H. Poersch, D. Krummenauer, G.K. Foes, W.J. Wasielesky
International Journal of Recirculating Aquaculture, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.21061/ijra.v12i1.1354

Abstract:
The Effect of Solids Removal on Water Quality, Growth and Survival of Litopenaeus vannamei in a Biofloc Technology Culture System
Jason J. Danaher, Charlie R. Shultz, James E. Rakocy, Donald S. Bailey, Lasiba Knight
International Journal of Recirculating Aquaculture, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.21061/ijra.v12i1.1353

Abstract:
Effect of a Parabolic Screen Filter on Water Quality and Production of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Water Spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) in a Recirculating Raft Aquaponic System
Steven G. Hall
International Journal of Recirculating Aquaculture, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.21061/ijra.v12i1.1355

Abstract:
Book Review: Recirculating Aquaculture, 2nd Ed. by M.B. Timmons and J.M. Ebeling
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